The question of how we should engage with a philosopher’s racial thought is of particular importance when considering Kant, who can be viewed as particularly representative of Enlightenment philosophy. In this article I argue that we should take a stance of deep acknowledgment when considering Kant’s work both inside and outside the classroom. Taking a stance of deep acknowledgment should be understood as 1) taking Kant’s racial thought to be reflective of his moral character, 2) Kant being accountable for his (...) racial thought and 3) being willing to consider the possibility that Kant’s racial thought is consistent with and inextricable from his moral philosophy. Alternative forms of engaging with Kant’s racial work have either moral or pedagogical failings, which range from simply teaching the history of philosophy uncritically to outright deception. A stance of deep acknowledgement will allow philosophers to understand how Kant’s racial thought interacts with his moral philosophy and allow instructors to teach philosophy in a historically contextualized approach so as to not alienate students whose demographic was disparaged by Kant. (shrink)
Many historically-influential philosophers had profoundly wrong moral views or behaved very badly. Aristotle thought women were “deformed men” and that some people were slaves “by nature.” Descartes had disturbing views about non-human animals. Hume and Kant were racists. Hegel disparaged Africans. Nietzsche despised sick people. Mill condoned colonialism. Fanon was homophobic. Frege was anti-Semitic; Heidegger was a Nazi. Schopenhauer was sexist. Rousseau abandoned his children. Wittgenstein beat his young students. Unfortunately, these examples are just a start. -/- These philosophers are (...) famous for their intellectual accomplishments, yet they display serious moral or intellectual flaws in their beliefs or actions. At least, some of their views were false, ultimately unjustified and, perhaps, harmful. -/- How should we respond to brilliant-but-flawed philosophers from the past? Here we explore the issues, asking questions and offering few answers. Any insights gained here might be applicable to contemporary imperfect philosophers, scholars in other fields, and people in general. (shrink)
BackgroundPreprint usage is growing rapidly in the life sciences; however, questions remain on the relative quality of preprints when compared to published articles. An objective dimension of quality that is readily measurable is completeness of reporting, as transparency can improve the reader’s ability to independently interpret data and reproduce findings.MethodsIn this observational study, we initially compared independent samples of articles published in bioRxiv and in PubMed-indexed journals in 2016 using a quality of reporting questionnaire. After that, we performed paired comparisons (...) between preprints from bioRxiv to their own peer-reviewed versions in journals.ResultsPeer-reviewed articles had, on average, higher quality of reporting than preprints, although the difference was small, with absolute differences of 5.0% [95% CI 1.4, 8.6] and 4.7% [95% CI 2.4, 7.0] of reported items in the independent samples and paired sample comparison, respectively. There were larger differences favoring peer-reviewed articles in subjective ratings of how clearly titles and abstracts presented the main findings and how easy it was to locate relevant reporting information. Changes in reporting from preprints to peer-reviewed versions did not correlate with the impact factor of the publication venue or with the time lag from bioRxiv to journal publication.ConclusionsOur results suggest that, on average, publication in a peer-reviewed journal is associated with improvement in quality of reporting. They also show that quality of reporting in preprints in the life sciences is within a similar range as that of peer-reviewed articles, albeit slightly lower on average, supporting the idea that preprints should be considered valid scientific contributions. (shrink)
Este artículo tiene por objetivo realizar una crítica inmanente a la obra de Freud. Su principal hipótesis es que el concepto antropológico hobbesiano del estado de naturaleza, como la guerra de todos contra todos, infl uencia Freud y produce algunos impasses mayores en su obra: la imposibilidad de fundar una clínica que no dependa de la sugestión y la imposibilidad de pensar un lazo social ateo, es decir, no regulado por la culpa. Para llevar adelante este encuentro entre Freud (...) y Hobbes, este artículo recurre al concepto de “paradigma inmunitario” de Roberto Esposito. En este sentido el artículo muestra, junto a la lectura que René Girard hace de Totem y Tabú, que el concepto freudiano de sacrifi cio, lejos de apaciguar la ley totémica, la produce retroactivamente. La consecuencia de esta relación invertida entre ley y sacrifi cio ha sido caracterizada como la inevitable deriva tanatopolítica del liberalismo moderno: para conservar la vida, hay que sacrifi carla; para conservar la ley, hay que fundarla y refundarla con violência ilegítima. Es decir, una vez que la obra de Freud asume los presupuestos antropológicos hobbesianos, queda atrapada entre el fantasma del retorno destructivo del salvaje pre-social y la ley superyoica que, si bien parece ser la única capaz de controlar al salvaje, no hace sino que perpetuar su violencia y la necesidad de repetir el sacrificio. (shrink)
A pandemia do novo coronavírus oferece um desafio ao pensamento: pensar a disrupção nos assuntos humanos causado por um agente inumano. Nossa capacidade coletiva de lidar com o problema dependerá dos enquadramentos conceituais que seremos capazes de mobilizar. Esse breve ensaio, busca analisar a metáfora da guerra e sua pertinência epistêmica, abordando tanto os discursos a mobilizam quanto as críticas que a rejeitam. Concluímos que a metáfora carrega um momento de verdade em sua forma, apesar do sinal trocado quanto (...) ao conteúdo. Se a guerra é uma suspensão temporária da lógica de acumulação pela lógica da destruição, sugerimos uma substituição da lógica da acumulação pela lógica do cuidado. (shrink)
La presente contribución intenta una ontología de la decisión política sobre la guerra y la paz a partir del pensar rememorante. Se toma como motivo narrativo el Ballet de la Paz de Descartes (1649); modelo nostálgico de una modernidad alternativa, adviene del olvido contra los presupuestos conceptuales individualistas y violentistas de la filosofía política moderna. Una hermenéutica política del Discurso del Método busca un Descartes teólogo político, contramoderno, partidario de una política destinal. Una silenciosa Reina, Belicosa y Pacífica, es (...) su vocera. (shrink)
A Theory of Justice elaborates and, in important respects, qualifies the views Rawls had been developing for two decades in a series of influential articles. It has been widely acclaimed as the most comprehensive and searching study of justice in a very long time, and it certainly is one of the rare works dealing seriously with a fundamental problem of general interest to be accorded the immediate and respectful attention it deserves. A considerable literature about many aspects of the theory (...) is already at hand and, for some time to come, its impact is certain to continue to be felt in discussions of the theoretical issues it raises as well as in debates of public policies. For it sets out a remarkably detailed frame within which to order the many aspects of the problem of justice, and it brings abstruse theoretical inquiries to bear on such pressing practical questions as the equitable distribution of income, the meaning of equal opportunity in education, the bases of political obligation, and the bounds of legitimate civil disobedience. The position Rawls takes on these and similar issues has led some commentators to speak of his work as a tract for the times, an attempt at providing a theoretical basis for Fabian Socialism or the Great Society or mainstream liberal democratic sentiment generally. Such assessments, even when they are not intended to denigrate, do less than justice to his stated aim: to contribute to an understanding of the just society sub specie aeternitatis. (shrink)
El artículo es una presentación de una de las obras más emblemáticas del pensamiento político peruano de inicios del siglo XX: Carácter de la literatura del Perú independiente, la primera obra de José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma. La historiografía ha considerado este texto como una obra de historia de la literatura; también como un trabajo “liberal”. Carácter de la literatura sería en realidad una obra de filosofía social positivista. Pero sería además una versión peruana del positivismo monarquista royaliste. Riva-Agüero (...) habría tenido un referente oculto: el libro de filosofía social positivista de Javier Prado, Estado social del Perú durante la dominación española, que habría puesto de cabeza. Tres temas básicos eran el eje de una oculta polémica político-conceptual: la religión, la monarquía y la tradición. Una oculta teoría de psicología colectiva le serviría de sustento: los peruanos tendrían un carácter pragmatista y un sentimiento social empático con el pasado, más apropiado para reivindicar la tradición que para condenarla. La Guerra del Pacífico y un baile social de la aristocracia de la Lima de 1904 serán el escenario de la controversia. (shrink)
Diversas teorías contemporáneas de la democracia han puesto el acento en las tensiones que produce al ciudadano vivir en una comunidad política democrática y, sin embargo, pasar la mayor parte de su vida en espacios no democráticos. En este trabajo se analiza el persistente déficit democrático que en España arrastra una institución pública especial, la universidad. Según Thomas Hobbes la competencia, la desconfianza y el deseo de gloria originan las guerras entre ciudadanos; hoy se asume de manera natural su presencia (...) dominante en la universidad. Se procederá así al estudio de diversas patologías políticas producto del desgobierno originado, precisamente, al confundir de esta manera el sentido último de la institución. Se trataría de la envidia, la calumnia, la ambición destructiva y el narcisismo. Por último se estudiará la conformación de grupos como hermandades. (shrink)
Nosso estudo explora a força crítica do grotesco, que teve na obra de Wolfgang Kayser abordagem pioneira, entre a literatura e a pintura. O fenômeno é anterior ao séc. XV, quando se tornou o estilo dominante de ornamentação, mas sob influência de elementos oníricos e da commedia dell’arte seria elevado à categoria estética. As observações pré-críticas de Kant sobre o belo e o sublime não equacionam grotesco e mau gosto. Victor Hugo, no prefácio de sua peça sobre Cromwel, defende (...) o grotesco, através de motivos modernos, ou seja, românticos e cristãos, ao passo que, para Jennings, “o grotesco é o demoníaco trivializado”. No Brasil colonial, Gregório de Matos Guerra inocou com suas sátiras, que bem representam o rebaixamento, traço fundamental do gênero que, de certa forma, sobrevive na atual comunicação de massas, misturado ao Kitsch. (shrink)
Victor Dudman's revolutionary English Grammar brings grammar and logic together by conceiving grammar as 'the necessary preliminary to logic'. The focus, for logicians, is the discussion of 'conditionals'; for grammarians it is the concise and accurate explanation of the infamous English modals.
This paper presents a synthesis of the methodology used when doing historical research from a positivist standpoint. It points out that the efforts of the historian to strictly imitate the scientific method is a fruitless effort which stems from the mechanistic worldview of the 17th century. In the ..
Rapid advances have recently been made in understanding how value-based decision-making processes are implemented in the brain. We integrate neuroeconomic and computational approaches with evidence on the neural correlates of value and experienced pleasure to describe how systems for valuation and decision-making are organized in the prefrontal cortex of humans and other primates. We show that the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal (VMPFC) cortices compute expected value, reward outcome and experienced pleasure for different stimuli on a common value scale. Attractor networks (...) in VMPFC area 10 then implement categorical decision processes that transform value signals into a choice between the values, thereby guiding action. This synthesis of findings across fields provides a unifying perspective for the study of decision-making processes in the brain. (shrink)
In this paper, I describe and discuss two mental phenomena which are somewhat neglected in the philosophy of mind: focused daydreaming and mind-wandering. My aim is to show that their natures are rather distinct, despite the fact that we tend to classify both as instances of daydreaming. The first difference between the two, I argue, is that, while focused daydreaming is an instance of imaginative mental agency, mind-wandering is not—though this does not mean that mind-wandering cannot involve mental agency at (...) all. This personal-level difference in agency and purposiveness has, furthermore, the consequence that instances of mind-wandering do not constitute unified and self-contained segments of the stream of consciousness—in stark contrast to focused daydreams. Besides, the two kinds of mental phenomena differ in whether they possess a narrative structure, and in how we may make sense of the succession of mental episodes involved. (shrink)
Even thought the emancipating feat of Cuba obteined always the support of people this continent, los lack of governmental recognition on the Latin American countries during tl~ew ar of 1895, joined to the virtual English acceptance of North American hegemony in the region, it maked easy the idea of the U.S.A to take part in the conflict Hispanic- Cuban in 1898.
Please send me an email (fabian[email protected]) if you wish to receive a copy of the book. — 'In this highly ambitious, wide ranging, immensely impressive and ground-breaking work Fabian Dorsch surveys just about every account of the imagination that has ever been proposed. He identifies five central types of imagining that any unifying theory must accommodate and sets himself the task of determining whether any theory of what imagining consists in covers these five paradigms. Focussing on what he (...) takes to be the three main theories, and giving them each equal consideration, he faults the first two and embraces the third, which argues that imagining is a special form of mental agency. The scholarship is immaculate, the writing crystal clear and the argumentation always powerful.' (Malcolm Budd). (shrink)
This book explores the morality of compromising. The author argues that peace and public justification are values that provide moral reasons to make compromises in politics, including compromises that establish unjust laws or institutions. He explains how it is possible to have moral reasons to agree to moral compromises and he debates our moral duties and obligations in making such compromises. The book also contains discussions of the sources of the value of public justification, the relation between peace and justice, (...) the nature of modus vivendi arrangements and the connections between compromise, liberal institutions and legitimacy. In exploring the morality of compromising, the book thus provides some outlines for a map of political morality beyond justice. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungDie Geschichte der genetischen Pränataldiagnostik ist bislang als Teil der Geschichte der Humangenetik und deren Neuorientierung als klinisch-laborwissenschaftliche Disziplin in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts betrachtet worden. Anhand neuen Quellenmaterials soll in diesem Beitrag gezeigt werden, dass das Interesse an der Pränataldiagnostik in Westdeutschland auch im Kontext von Forschungen entstand, die sich mit Gefahren für den Menschen in der Umwelt befassten. Anhand der Debatten um die Einrichtung des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms „Pränatale Diagnostik genetischer Defekte“ 1970 untersuchen wir, wie die Technik der (...) Amniozentese in Westdeutschland von einer interdisziplinären Forschungsgruppe eingeführt wurde, die sich mit Schädigungen des Organismus durch Strahlen, Arzneimittel und andere Gebrauchsstoffe und Konsumgüter befasste. In einer als ökologische Wende bezeichneten Zeit wachsenden Umweltbewusstseins, so unsere These, sollte durch die Förderung der Pränataldiagnostik eine wahrgenommene Lücke in der Prävention umweltbedingt auftretender genetischer Anomalien geschlossen werden. Für die Pränataldiagnostik als „Schutzmaßnahme“ sprach unter anderem ihre erwartete Finanzierung als Krankenkassenleistung im Zuge der Reform des Abtreibungsrechts. Erst in einem zweiten Schritt führten Veränderungen von Strukturen der Forschung, vor allem aber Erfahrungen in der gynäkologischen Praxis zu einer Neuausrichtung auf die Diagnostik und Prävention mehrheitlich erblicher oder spontan auftretender Anomalien. Die Pränataldiagnostik, so wie sie schließlich in Westdeutschland ab den frühen 1980er Jahren routinemäßig Einsatz fand, hatte mit Fragen der „Umwelt“ kaum noch zu tun. Diese Fallstudie zur Frühgeschichte der genetischen Pränataldiagnostik handelt von dem noch wenig untersuchten Verhältnis von humangenetischer Forschung, klinischer Praxis und Umweltforschung und hat zum weiteren Ziel, den bisher in anderen Kontexten beschriebenen Wandel von Perspektiven in der Vorsorge um 1970 zu beleuchten. (shrink)
The imagination poses fascinating philosophical questions across a range of subjects including philosophy of mind, aesthetics and epistemology. However, until now it has been a relatively neglected topic. How do acts of imagining differ from other mental episodes, such as perceptions or judgements? What kind of awareness is involved in imagining? Can imagining ground knowledge and if so, how reliable is it? Is there some unity to the various forms of imagining? In this book Fabian Dorsch considers these questions, (...) introducing and assessing all the main issues and arguments concerning imagination, including: episodic imagining imagining objects propositional imagining imagination and epistemology imagination and aesthetics imagination and cognitive science the unity of imagining. Including chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary, _Imagination_ is an ideal starting point for anyone studying the philosophy of imagination for the first time as well as more advanced students and researchers in philosophy, psychology and related disciplines. (shrink)
The denial of voting rights to certain types of persons continues to be a moral problem of practical significance. The disenfranchisement of persons with mental impairments, minors, noncitizen residents, nonresident citizens, and criminal offenders is a matter of controversy. This book makes a contribution to this largely neglected yet key topic.
Sufficientarian libertarianism is a theory of justice that combines libertarianism’s focus on property rights and non-interference with sufficientarianism’s concern for the poor and needy. Persons are conceived as having stringent rights to direct their lives as they see fit, provided that everyone has enough to live a self-guided life. Yet there are different ways to combine libertarianism and sufficientarianism and hence different types of sufficientarian libertarianism. In the article I present and discuss three types, and I argue that the last (...) one overcomes the problems of the other two. The first type combines libertarianism with a sufficiency principle in what is sometimes called the ‘ethics of distribution’. The second incorporates modest welfare rights into a libertarian theory of justice. The third endorses a sufficientarian Lockean proviso for practices of private property within a libertarian theory of justice. I argue that it is superior to the others. (shrink)
In the last ten or fifteen years, realism has emerged as a distinct approach in political theory. Realists are skeptical about the merits of abstract theories of justice. They regard peace, order, and stability as the primary goals of politics. One of the more concrete aims of realists is to develop a realist perspective on legitimacy. I argue that realist accounts of legitimacy are unconvincing, because they do not solve what I call the “puzzle of legitimacy”: the puzzle of how (...) some persons can have the right to rule over others, given that all persons are equals. I focus on the realist accounts of legitimacy developed by Bernard Williams and John Horton. (shrink)
This chapter overviews Hume’s thoughts on the nature and role of imagining and focusses primarily on three important distinctions that Hume draws among our conscious mental episodes: (i) between impressions and ideas; (ii) between ideas of the memory and ideas of the imagination; and (iii), among the ideas of the imagination, between ideas of the judgement and ideas of the fancy. In addition, the chapter considers Hume’s views on the imagination as a faculty of producing ideas, as well as on (...) the part that imagining plays in the acquisition of modal knowledge and in the comprehension of, and resistance to, false or fictional opinions. (shrink)
Philip Pettit’s republican conception of freedom is presented as an alternative both to negative and positive conceptions of freedom. The basic idea is to conceptualize freedom as non-domination, not as non-interference or self-mastery. When compared to negative freedom, Pettit’s republican conception comprises two controversial claims: the claim that we are unfree if we are dominated without actual interference, and the claim that we are free if we face interference without domination. Because the slave is a widely accepted paradigm of the (...) unfree person, the case of a slave with a non-interfering master is often cited as providing a good argument for the first republican claim and against a negative conception of freedom. One aim of this article is to raise doubts about whether this is true. The other aim of the article is to show that the prisoner—also a paradigm of the unfree person—presents a good argument against the second republican claim and in favour of a negative conception of freedom. This is called the ‘prisoner-argument’. It will be argued that neither Pettit’s distinction between free persons and free choices nor his distinction between compromising and conditioning factors of freedom can help to rebut the charge of the prisoner-argument. (shrink)
A libertarian theory of justice holds that persons are self-owners and have the Hohfeldian moral power to justly acquire property rights in initially unowned external resources. Different variants of libertarianism can be distinguished according to their stance on the famous Lockean proviso. The proviso requires, in Locke’s words, to leave ‘enough and as good’ for others, and thus specifies limits on the acquisition of property. Left-libertarians accept an egalitarian interpretation of the proviso, ‘right-libertarians’ either reject any kind of proviso or (...) accept rather weak versions of it. In be-tween there is room for moderate interpretations of the proviso, and in particular for a sufficientarian interpretation: a ‘sufficiency proviso.’ The resulting theory of justice can be called ‘moderate libertarianism.’ In this article I make a case for moderate libertarianism, so understood. I argue that moderate libertarianism has advantages over both left- and right-libertarianism because it better coheres with the most plausible rationale for endorsing a libertarian theory of justice in the first place. (shrink)