Nietzsche is known for his penetrating critique of Mitleid. He seems to be critical of all compassion but at times also seems to praise a different form of compassion, which he refers to as “our compassion” and contrasts it with “your compassion”. Some commentators have interpreted this to mean that Nietzsche’s criticism is not as unconditional as it may seem – that he does not condemn compassion entirely. I disagree and contend that even though Nietzsche appears to speak favorably of (...) some forms of compassion, he regards the nature of all compassion to be fundamentally bad. Furthermore, I suggest that Nietzsche’s discussion on different forms of compassion have significant implications for achieving greatness and meaning in life. More specifically, I argue that, for Nietzsche, “our compassion,” however regrettable qua compassion it is, may give occasion for a rare and peculiar insight into “co-suffering” with others, which in turn results in overcoming compassion entirely. I also argue that although Nietzsche objects to compassion, he approves of a form of what feminist theorists might now call “anticipatory empathy.” Even though a large body of literature has evolved over Nietzsche’s critical evaluation of compassion, his understanding of a non-compassionate response to suffering is, in my view, rather overlooked and should receive more attention. (shrink)
Nietzsche is not known for his theory of empathy. A quick skimming of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on empathy demonstrates this. Arthur Schopenhauer, Robert Vischer, and Theodor Lipps are among those whose views are considered representative, but Nietzsche has been simply forgotten in discussion of empathy. Nietzsche’s theory of empathy has not yet aroused sufficient interest among commentators. I believe that his views on this subject merit careful consideration. Nietzsche scholars have been interested in his naturalistic accounts of (...) other phenomena, but there seems to be relatively limited interest in his naturalistic account of a phenomenon that is so central to his disagreement with Schopenhauer, namely, empathic concern for others. This is surprising because Nietzsche makes a valuable contribution; he has views more in keeping with contemporary theories of empathy than others of his time. My goal here is to fill in this gap in the scholarship and provide the first thorough analysis of Nietzsche’s theory of empathy, which appears most clearly in Dawn. (shrink)
This paper attempts to locate modern Zen and psychoanalysis in terms of contemporary philosophy of mind, particularly in view of dominant theories of cognitivism that see the mind as informational and material, with meaning being mere information in disguise. Psychoanalysis and modern Zen hold to the contrary view that the mind is “semantic,” not “syntactic,” and that the meanings we have in our heads are not reducible to the physical informational processes from which they have emerged. Meaning, as non-reducible, is (...) infinite and uncaused. However, the structure of meaning entails a split between a knower and what is known. This split creates problems in the mind which can be confronted through more, not less, engagement with the meanings in our minds, until we are self-aware and, perhaps, self-identical, with the mechanisms of consciousness that produce the meanings in our head. Such self-awareness is seen as being self-liberating rather than self-reducing. (shrink)
No Brasil, com o envelhecimento e a morte dos primeiros imigrantes nipônicos, o Budismo étnico tem enfrentado desafios para sua perpetuação. Tendo em vista esse contexto histórico, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar a difusão do Zen Budismo no Youtube no período de 2015 a 2017, utilizando como fontes primárias os vídeos da Monja Coen, religiosa não descendente de japoneses que tem atuado no universo midiático nos últimos anos. Como metodologia, os vídeos são discriminados em diferentes categorias, sendo analisados tanto (...) a partir de seus conteúdos quanto de sua composição audiovisual. Da perspectiva teórica, são utilizados os conceitos de representação e apropriação propostos, respectivamente, por Roger Chartier e Michel de Certeau. Como resultados, percebe-se que a divulgação do Zen na Web tem permitido que a religião consiga transcender as fronteiras étnicas, seja com a divulgação das ideias e práticas em português, seja com o diálogo com questões da sociedade atual. (shrink)
The logic of soku-hi is presented as an articulation of a post-Kantian view of reality that embraces the truths of science with the assumption of the transcendental subject. As such, soku-hi represents the philosophical posture of both the secular Zen of the Kyoto School and the new materialists of contemporary continental philosophy. It describes how material reality is not all even though there is nothing else.
The work argues that the koans of Zen Buddhism have several intriguing non-accidental parallels with the short stories of Catholic author Flannery O'Connor. Both typically portray characters in a state of non-enlightenment in which they are egoistically obsessed with something which prevents them from perceiving and properly responding to the real world around them. Both present the characters with some opportunity for enlightenment, which they may or may not take up. Both come in a variety of forms, in order to (...) portray and address a rich variety of ways in which such obsessions become obstacles to human self-understanding and fulfillment. And both are ultimately presented for the sake of the listener or reader, who may recognize in the stories parallels to their own state, and perhaps take a lesson therefrom on their own journey towards what Zen calls enlightenment, or what Christians call grace. (shrink)
The joy of intimacy--with yourself, with others, and with the whole universe. The long-awaited first book from a prominent modern American Zen teacher. For Roshi Pat Enkyo O'Hara, intimacy is what Zen practice is all about: the realization of the essential lack of distinction between self and other that inevitably leads to wisdom and compassionate action. She approaches the practice of intimacy beginning at its most basic level--the intimacy with ourselves that is the essential first step. She then shows how (...) to bring intimacy into our relationships with others, starting with those dearest to us and moving on to those who don't seem dear at all. She then shows how to grow in intimacy so that we include everyone around us, all of society, the whole world and all the beings it contains. Each chapter is accompanied by practices she uses with her students at the Village Zendo for manifesting intimacy in our lives. (shrink)
When The Sound of One Hand Clapping came out in Japan in 1916 it caused a scandal. Zen was a secretive practice, its wisdom relayed from master to novice in strictest privacy. That a handbook existed recording not only the riddling koans that are central to Zen teaching but also detailing the answers to them seemed to mark Zen as rote, not revelatory. For all that, The Sound of One Hand Clapping opens the door to Zen like no other book. (...) Including koans that go back to the master who first brought the koanteaching method from Japan to China in the eighteenth century, this book offers, in the words of the translator, editor, and Zen initiate Yoel Hoffmann, "the clearest, most detailed, and most correct picture of Zen" that can be found. What we have here is an extraordinary introduction to Zen thought as lived thought, a treasury of problems, paradoxes, and performance that will appeal to artists, writers, and philosophers as well as Buddhists and students of religion. (shrink)
The comparative study of mysticism and inter-religious spirituality has gained more space in universities and research centers that radiate everywhere. They are also research involving Eastern religions, in its peculiar mystical trait. Also in the context of Buddhism one can talk on spirituality, understood as a search path of liberation. This article presents the theme of Zen Buddhist spirituality based on the reflection of Eihei Dogen Zenji (1200 – 1253), one of the most important and prominent teachers of the Soto (...) Zen Tradition. This text aims to show the richness of spirituality and its peculiarity concerning the everyday reality. To promote understanding of the central question presented, the theme of spirituality was situated within the historical context of the birth of Zen Buddhism and the insertion of the presence of Dogen in its field of action. The theme of Zen spirituality was becoming evident in the approach to the problem of search of the Dharma in Dogen and his attention to small signs of everyday life. Keywords: Spirituality. Buddhism. Zen. Daily life. Religions. Resumo Os estudos de mística comparada e de espiritualidade interreligiosa vão ganhando espaço cada vez mais singular nas universidades e núcleos de pesquisa que se irradiam por toda parte. São pesquisas que envolvem também as religiões orientais, em seu traço místico peculiar. Também no âmbito do budismo pode-se falar em espiritualidade, entendida como um caminho de busca da libertação. Esse artigo visa apresentar o tema da espiritualidade zen budista, com base na reflexão de Eihei Dôgen Zenji (1200-1253), um dos mais importantes e destacados mestres da tradição Soto Zen. O objetivo é mostrar a riqueza dessa espiritualidade e sua peculiaridade de adesão à realidade cotidiana. Para favorecer a compreensão da questão central apresentada, visou-se situar a temática no âmbito do contexto histórico do nascimento do zen budismo e da inserção da presença de Dôgen em seu campo de ação. A temática da espiritualidade zen foi se evidenciando na abordagem da problemática da busca do Dharma em Dôgen e de sua atenção aos pequenos sinais do cotidiano. Palavras-Chave : Espiritualidade. Budismo. Zen. Cotidiano. Religiões. (shrink)
La recepción durante el siglo XX se preguntó si la filosofía nietzscheana era a-, im- o anti-política, es decir, si podía ser asimilada por la democracia, o si era antimoderna, elitista y reaccionaria. El italiano Roberto Esposito ha propuesto leerla como formando e informando el paradigma de la biopolítica. Se discuten cuatro lecturas de esa biopolítica: como formadora del paradigma de la inmunidad, como tanatopolítica, como liberal y neoliberal, y como biopolítica afirmativa. Twentieth-century readers wondered if Nietzschean philosophy was apolitical, (...) impolitic, or anti-political; that is, if it could be assimilated by democracy or if it was antimodern, elitist, and reactionary. The Italian philosopher Robert Esposito has proposed reading Nietzsche's philosophy as forming and informing the biopolitical paradigm. Four readings of these biopolitics are discussed: as part of the paradigm of immunity, as thanatopolitics, as liberal and neoliberal, and as affirmative biopolitics. (shrink)
Zen/Chan, which used to be a Far Eastern philosophy-cum-religion, has evolved into a global cultural phenomenon. Despite the many views expressed by numerous thinkers in the world, the consensus on Chan and Chan enlightenment remains an agnostic Oriental mysticism. By exploring Chan and enlightenment from a combined perspective of history, philosophy, psychology, religion and linguistics, this article proposes a hitherto unexpressed view. Chan enlightenment is a prenatal physico-psychological existence, which grows out of a fetal subject’s perception of the womb. Although (...) this primordial mode of perception is unconscious, it is cosmic in nature because for the fetal subject the womb is the whole world with which it feels to be at one. This unconscious oneness may be termed the ‘cosmic unconscious’. Once born, no one can return to the prenatal mental state, but through personal cultivation and Chan practice one can experience a fleeting moment of the cosmic unconscious. In the final analysis, the essence o.. (shrink)
In 1654 Zen Master Yinyuan traveled from China to Japan. Seven years later his monastery, Manpukuji, was built and he had founded his own tradition called Obaku. The sequel to Jiang Wu's 2008 book Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China, Leaving for the Rising Sun tells the story of the tremendous obstacles Yinyuan faced, drawing parallels between his experiences and the broader political and cultural context in which he lived. Yinyuan claimed to have inherited the (...) "Authentic Transmission of the Linji Sect" and, after arriving in Japan, was able to persuade the Shogun to build a new Ming-style monastery for the establishment of his Obaku school. His arrival in Japan coincided with a series of historical developments including the Ming-Qing transition, the consolidation of early Tokugawa power, the growth of Nagasaki trade, and rising Japanese interest in Chinese learning and artistic pursuits. While Yinyuan's travel has been noted, the significance of his journey within East Asian history has not yet been fully explored. Jiang Wu's thorough study of Yinyuan provides a unique opportunity to reexamine the crisis in the continent and responses from other parts of East Asia. Using Yinyuan's story to bridge China and Japan, Wu demonstrates that the monk's significance is far greater than the temporary success of a religious sect. Rather, Yinyuan imported to Japan a new discourse of authenticity that gave rise to indigenous movements that challenged a China-centered world order. Such indigenous movements, however, although appearing independent from Chinese influence, in fact largely relied on redefining the traditional Chinese discourse of authenticity. Chinese monks such as Yinyuan, though situated at the edge of the political and social arenas, actively participated in the formation of a new discourse on authenticity, which eventually led to the breakup of a China-centered world order. (shrink)
Na filosofia de Schopenhauer, o fundamento da moral é a compaixão [Mitleid], que repousa na supressão da distinção egoísta entre minha pessoa e qualquer outro indivíduo. O filósofo contemporâneo Byung-Chul Han, em seu livro Filosofia do Zen-budismo, considera que “a compaixão não se deve à identificação ou a se pôr no lugar do outro [Einfühlung]”. Ao analisar a filosofia de Schopenhauer, tendo em vista sua influência oriental e, em contraste com as concepções do zen-budismo, o autor afirma que sua ética (...) da compaixão permanece condicionada à identificação entre o Eu e o Outro. O presente artigo pretende tratar desta crítica, considerando o problema da alteridade na Ética da Compaixão de Schopenhauer, de modo a rejeitar a ideia de que o fundamento da moral poderia ser compreendido em termos de uma identificação com a alteridade, mas compreendendo-o como uma experiência metafísica de mesmidade do ser. Por fim, pretende-se indicar qual seria propriamente o “lugar” da alteridade na obra de Schopenhauer, bem como apresentar, a partir de sua eudemonologia, os principais elementos da compreensão do autor sobre o tema. (shrink)
This fully revised new edition re-establishes Paul Griffiths's survey as the definitive study of music since the Second World War. The disruptions of the war, and the struggles of the ensuing peace, were reflected in the music of the time: in Pierre Boulez's radical reforming of compositional technique and in John Cage's move into zen music, in Milton Babbitt's settling of the serial system and in Dmitry Shostakovich's unsettling symphonies, in Karlheinz Stockhausen's development of electronic music and in Luigi Nono's (...) pursuit of the universally human, in Iannis Xenakis's view of music as sounding mathematics and in Luciano Berio's consideration of it as language. The initiatives of these composers and their contemporaries opened prospects that have continued to unfold. This constant expansion of musical thinking since 1945 has left us with no single history of music. Paul Griffiths's study accordingly follows several different paths, showing how and why they converge and diverge. In addition to the composers mentioned above, others whose music is discussed include Steve Reich, Jean Barraque, Elliott Carter, Olivier Messiaen, Gyorgy Kurtag, Harrison Birtwistle, and Gyorgy Ligeti. Publication and recording details are given for the works of all these composers and many others. (shrink)
The consummate Soto Zen master, Dogen (1200?1253), expressed himself in creative ways that reflected fundamental insights of Chan/Zen Buddhism while responding to the needs of his time and place, i.e., Kamakura era Japan. His early training in Tendai and Rinzai Zen lent rigor and force to his Soto Zen experiences and expressions. This paper explores Dogen's new light on causality and morality purity, vis-à-vis Song dynasty Chan approaches by examining (1) his comments, early (1244) and late (ca. 1252), on the (...) Fox Koan, and (2) his discussions about Dream and ?veridical? experience. By showing the inexorability of causality, Dogen revealed the need for moral purity in achieving enlightenment qua freedom. Even in the vertigo of emptiness, the purified Soto Zen Buddhist adept discerns and effects equilibrium and, by extension, fairness, in experience, practice and affairs, as ongoing endeavors, as skilful means to impact and transform, not just Buddhist adepts, but one's world. (shrink)
“Why is there something rather than nothing?” This is perhaps one of the most annoying questions posed in recent times by and to philosophers. It has troubled at least two major thinkers in the last and in this century, namely the romantic idealist Friedrich Schelling and the contemporary existentialist Martin Heidegger, since it was first formulated by Leibniz. We can easily get rid of the question as being simplistic; since although it may be true that nothing is simpler than something, (...) we have no notion of what the simplicity of nothing might consist in. Or we can say that the question is related to the theological answer of a benevolent creator, and hence is not able even to be asked within the ambient of the finite human understanding. Or we may say that the question is supremely hypothetical, in that it would presuppose what is not, in fact, the case; and philosophy can be concerned only with what is. Furthermore, to ask the question in any genuine fashion, the nonexistence of the questioner would seem to be required. The question, therefore, appears Zen-like: “What is the answer to a question posed by a nonexistent questioner?”. (shrink)
This essay interprets O. F. Bollnow′s hermeneutic of life from an intercultural point of view. It points out that Bollnow was unsatisfied with the eurocentrism involved in the classical idealistic concept of reason and developed a hermeneutical approach, which came very close to the tradition of Zen Buddhism. It has the form of a meditative philosophy based on the concept of Gelassenheit as a door to a new and productive relationship with the Being in both practical and theoretical life.
Nishida Kitaro's reformulation of the major issues of Western philosophy from a Zen standpoint of "absolute nothingness" and "absolutely contradictory self-identity" represents the boldest speculative enterprise of modern Japan, continued today by his successors in the "Kyoto School" of philosophy. This English translation of Intuition and Reflection in Self-Consciousness evokes the movement and flavor of the original, clarifies its obscurities, and eliminates the repetitions. It sheds new light on the philosopher's career, revealing a long struggle with such thinkers as Cohen, (...) Natorp, Husserl, Fichte, and Bergson, that ended with Nishida's break from the basic ontological assumptions of the West. Throughout labyrinthine arguments, Nishida never loses sight of his theme: the irreducibility and unobjectifiability of the act of self-consciousness which constitutes the self. Extensive annotation is provided for the first time in any edition of Nishida's work. Historians of Japanese philosophy and culture, and all those interested in the interaction of Eastern and Western thought-forms, now have a document which highlights many of the cultural, psychological, and intellectual dynamics that have shaped Japanese intellectual life in one of its most fascinating and ambitious manifestations. (shrink)
El maestro zen Hakuin Ekaku enseñaba a sus seguidores que para lograr la liberación del sufrimiento debían poner en tela de juicio su propia capacidad de comprensión y al mismo tiempo dotarse de una gran confianza en la posibilidad del despertar a la verdad que persigue el budismo. Su método consistía en practicar una serie de kōan, una técnica meditativa basada en la resolución de unos casos aparentemente paradójicos o ilógicos, hasta que el practicante llegara a convertirse en una «gran (...) masa de duda». Dos siglos más tarde, el filósofo japonés Nishitani Keiji, ampliamente reconocido como uno de los miembros más destacados de la llamada Escuela de Kioto, se propuso como tarea pensar el problema del nihilismo, como fenómeno filosófico pero también histórico y existencial. Este artículo examina el modo en que Nishitani aborda el problema del nihilismo y su propuesta de resolución a partir de la influencia ejercida por el maestro Hakuin en él y, más concretamente, el papel que desempeña en su argumentación la noción zen de «gran duda». Sugerimos que el pensamiento de Nishitani se puede situar en la línea de una tradición espiritual que se halla representada en el zen de Hakuin, en la medida en que ve en la duda radical una forma de hallar la certeza, o en la negación de la negación, una afirmación absoluta. (shrink)
Having translated The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra, and following with The Platform Sutra, Red Pine now turns his attention to perhaps the greatest Sutra of all. The Lankavatara Sutra is the holy grail of Zen. Zen's first patriarch, Bodhidharma, gave a copy of this text to his successor, Hui-k'o, and told him everything he needed to know was in this book. Passed down from teacher to student ever since, this is the only Zen sutra ever spoken by the (...) Buddha. Although it covers all the major teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, it contains but two teachings: that everything we perceive as being real is nothing but the perceptions of our own mind and that the knowledge of this is something that must be realized and experienced for oneself and cannot be expressed in words. In the words of Chinese Zen masters, these two teachings became known as "have a cup of tea" and "taste the tea." This is the first translation into English of the original text used by Bodhidharma, which was the Chinese translation made by Gunabhadra in 443 and upon which all Chinese Zen masters have relied ever since. In addition to presenting one of the most difficult of all Buddhist texts in clear English, Red Pine has also added summaries, explanations, and notes, including relevant Sanskrit terms on the basis of which the Chinese translation was made. This promises to become an essential text for anyone seeking to deepen their understanding or knowledge of Zen. (shrink)
Ac cord ing to the cen tral hy poth e sis of this pa per, late cap i tal ism is ac com pa nied by a pro - found re def i ni tion of the con di tion of the cit i zen. Ac cord ing to Mar shall, cit i zen ship was linked to dis trib u tive equal ity, and the ex is tence of a com - mon cul ture. It..
RESUMO Hans-Georg Gadamer retomou e elevou a atividade hermenêutica ao status de filosofia. Uma das suas idiossincrasias consiste em entrelaçar, no seu discurso, experiências de ordem ética, política, metafísica e estética. A hermenêutica filosófica pauta-se pela prática do diálogo sobre questões relativas ao pensar e à conduta humana. O presente artigo tem por meta realizar um exercício dialógico entre o projeto filosófico de Gadamer e o pensamento oriental - mais especificamente, o budismo zen da tradição da escola de Kyoto, representada (...) pelo pensamento de Nishida Kitarō. Nossa reflexão será articulada sobre quatro momentos distintos, mas que devem ser tomados dialeticamente: inicialmente, apresentaremos um quadro geral, indicando o estado da questão da hermenêutica gadameriana relativo ao pensamento oriental; a seguir, sustentaremos as semelhanças sobre o modo de proceder de ambas, sua metodologia dialética; posteriormente, aprofundaremos a noção fundamental de experiência e as proximidades que permeiam as perspectivas de ambas as tradições; enfim, como implicação das reflexões precedentes, sustentaremos a hipótese de um saber intuitivo enquanto experiência e ação intuitivas. Ao final, apontaremos algumas conclusões instauradas a partir desse exercício dialógico para a prática filosófica. ABSTRACT Hans-Georg Gadamer has taken over and raised hermeneutic activity to philosophy status. One of his idiosyncrasies is weaving, in his speech, ethical, political metaphysical and aesthetic experiences. Philosophical hermeneutics is guided by the practice of the dialogue on issues related to thinking and human behavior. This paper aims to perform a dialogic exercise between Gadamer's philosophical project and the Eastern thought-more specifically, the Zen Buddhism of Kyoto school tradition, represented by Nishida Kitarō's thought. Our reflection will be divided into four distinct moments that should be taken dialectally: first, we will present a general framework mentioning the status quaestionis of Gadamer's hermeneutics concerning Eastern thought; then, we will maintain the similarities on how the way to proceed in both, its dialectical methodology; subsequently, we will go deeper into the fundamental notion of experience and the proximities that permeate the perspective of both traditions; finally, as implication of foregoing reflections, we will maintain the hypothesis of an intuitive knowledge as intuitive experience and action. In order to conclude, we will consider some conclusions instituted from that dialogical exercise towards philosophical practice. (shrink)
Bhattacharyya, K. The Advaita concept of subjectivity.--Deutsch, E. Reflections on some aspects of the theory of rasa.--Nakamura, H. The dawn of modern thought in the East.--Organ, T. Causality, Indian and Greek.--Chatterjee, M. On types of classification.--Lacombe, O. Transcendental imagination.--Bahm, A. J. Standards for comparative philosophy.--Herring, H. Appearance, its significance and meaning in the history of philosophy.--Chang Chung-yuan. Pre-rational harmony in Heidegger's essential thinking and Chʼan thought.--Staal, J. F. Making sense of the Buddhist tetralemma.--Enomiya-Lassalle, H. M. The mysticism of Carl Albrecht (...) and Zen.--Parrinder, G. The nature of mysticism.--Cairns, G. E. Axiological contributions of East and West to the spiritual development of mankind.--Mayeda, S. Śaṇkara's view of ethics.--Mercier, A. On peace.--Barlingay, S. S. A discussion of some aspects of Gaudapāda's philosophy. (shrink)
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie nauczania Kościoła jako wykraczającego poza błędny i rozłączny podział etyki na deontologię i teleologię. Autor przypomina szerokie tło przemian kulturowych, które towarzyszyły kontrowersjom wokół encykliki bł. Pawła VI "Humanae vitae". Teologiczna kontestacja nauczania Magisterium była powodem napisania przez św. Jana Pawła II encykliki "Veritatis splendor". Papież rozwiewa doktrynalne wątpliwości zasiane przez proporcjonalistów, przedstawiając im niezwykle przemyślaną i tradycyjną koncepcję źródeł moralności. Wychodząc od priorytetu celowości ludzkiego działania Papież podkreślił wagę przedmiotu czynu. Dla moralnego dobra ludzkiego czynu (...) konieczne jest jego podwójne właściwe odniesienie: wertykalnie do celu ostatecznego, czyli Boga, oraz horyzontalnie wobec człowieka poprzez przedmiotową zgodność działania z ludzkim dobrem. Papieskie rozważania zostają uzupełnione komentarzem do "Summy Teologii" św. Tomasza, który w analogiczny sposób przedstawia źródła moralności ludzkiego czynu. Rozróżniając wewnętrzny i zewnętrzny akt woli, św. Tomasz pokazuje właściwe źródła moralności każdego z tych aktów. W pierwszym przypadku jest to właściwy przedmiot woli, który jest tożsamy z dobrem; natomiast w drugim – konieczny jest ponadto właściwy przedmiot innych władz. Właściwa antropologia przywraca fundament pod adekwatne rozumienie zarówno prawa naturalnego, jak i potrzebę etyki cnót, która okazuje się wielką praktyczną pomocą dla człowieka w drodze do właściwej mu doskonałości. Przedstawione podstawowe prawdy nauczane od lat przez Magisterium o tyle domagają się przypomnienia, że współczesna dominująca kultura wytrwale dekonstruuje racjonalny porządek tego nauczania czyniąc zeń karykaturę. Papieskie analizy pozwalają oczyścić etyczne kryteria rozeznawania dobra i zła, przypominając o zaproszeniu do piękna teologalnego życia w Chrystusie. Umożliwia ono zdrowy krytyczny osąd konkretnych sytuacji, jak również możliwość uniknięcia rozpowszechnionych współcześnie błędów i wynikającego z nich kryzysu tożsamości. (shrink)
L.P.: Earlier, Georgii Liudvigovich, we spoke at some length about your personal acquaintance with such distinguished Russian émigré scholars and thinkers as Fr. Vasilii Zen'kovskii, N.O. Losskii, and Fr. Georgii Florovskii. Today I'd like to ask you about your meetings in Moscow with the late A.F. Losev.
Text nabízí přehled disertačních prací, které předložily ženy na filozofické a přírodovědecké fakultě Masarykovy univerzity od jejího založení do roku 1939. Podrobněji se věnuje těm disertačním pracím, které tematicky spadaly do tzv. filozofických věd. V dobovém chápání se jednalo o filozofii, psychologii, pedagogiku a sociologii. Hlavním cílem je představit odborný zájem žen v daném místě a časovém období.
Echoes of No Thing seeks to understand the space between thinking which Martin Heidegger and the 13th-century Zen patriarch Eihei D ogen explore in their writing and teachings. Heidegger most clearly attempts this in Contributions to Philosophy (of the Event) and D ogen in his Sh ob ogenz o, a collection of fascicles which he compiled in his lifetime. Both thinkers draw us towards thinking, instead of merely defining systems of thought. Both Heidegger and D ogen imagine possibilities not apparent (...) in the world we currently inhabit, but notably, find possible, through a refashioning of thinking as a soteriological reimagining that clears space for the presencing of an authentic experience in the space which emerges between certainties. Jenkins elucidates this soteriological reimagining through a close reading of both authors' conceptions of time and space, and by developing a practice of listening that is attuned to the echoes that resonate between the two thinkers. While Heidegger often wrote about new beginnings (as well as about gathering oneself, preparing the site, clearings, and practicing) in preparation for the evental un-concealing of truth, nowhere is this as present as in the enigmatic, difficult, and in fact beautiful, Contributions. To call a text beautiful, especially a work of philosophy, risks committing an act of disingenuity, and yet Contributions, like Jacques Derrida's Glas or Walter Benjamin's unfinished Arcades Project, rises to this acclaim through its very resistance to a system, its refusal to be easily digested, or even understood. Contributions is unfinished, partial, even at times muttered; it is the beginning of a thinking which takes place on a path and as such cannot imagine--or refuse--its final destination. It invites us to take up towards, but not to insist on, its thinking; it is a "turn" away from the reason and logic of a technologized world and returns philosophy--as a thinking--to a place of wonder and awe. D ogen's Sh obogenz o, from another culture and time entirely, is also a beautiful text, for similar reasons. The Sh obogenz o, gathered first as a series of talks given by Eihei D ogen (and later composed as written texts) details the process of understanding which leads, for D ogen, to a position of pure seeing, or satori, and yet these talks are not simply rules for monks, nor merely imprecations and demands for a laity; rather, they open a being's thinking to the possibility of something purely other and work as a transition across worlds that also opens us to an other world. What both thinkers illustrate, as do the other thinkers drawn on in this project--most notably, those philosophers associated with the Kyoto School, who were both intimately aware of D ogen's work, and studied, or studied with, Heidegger--is that world is not a fixed, stable entity; rather it is a fugal composition of possibility, of as yet untraversed--and at times un-traversable--spaces. Echoes of No Thing seeks to examine, within the lacunal eddies of be-coming's arrival, that space between which both thinkers point towards as possible sites of new beginnings."--https://punctumbooks.com/titles/echoes-of-no-thing-thinking-between-heidegger-and-doge n/, accessed 06/05/2020. (shrink)
Studie analyzuje podmínky a specifika, která vedla k tomu, že v roce 1678 získala na Univerzitě v Padově jako první žena na světě doktorát z filozofie Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia. Autorka zpřítomňuje širší dobový kontext, který rámcoval tuto výjimečnou událost. Upozorňuje na to, že i navzdory skutečnosti, že univerzity neumožňovaly řádné studium ženám, se Eleně Cornaro získat doktorát podařilo, a to díky souběhu několika okolností, které vytvořily příznivé podmínky pro jeho udělení této ženě. Z nich autorka vyzdvihuje zejména tradici intelektuálních (...) center na renesančních dvorech na území dnešní Itálie, vedených vzdělanými aristokratkami; rozvoj Benátské republiky v 16. a 17. století, který ovlivnil i postavení žen, zejména z aristokratických rodin; tradice aristotelismu na italských univerzitách a otevřený přístup, zejména Univerzity v Padově a v Bologni, ke studiu žen. Hlavní pozornost je věnována rodinnému prostředí, životním osudům a studiu Eleny Cornaro. Na závěr je krátce pojednáno o osudu této ženy v historické paměti, zmíněny jsou další filozofky a vědkyně 17. a 18. století a je nastolena otázka, zda Elena Cornaro napomohla ke změně postoje univerzit ke vzdělání žen. (shrink)
Dla Schopenhauera miłość płciowa jest zależną od Erosa zasadą świata powiązaną z działaniem potężnej woli życia. Kwestia płciowości i wynikającej zeń płodności ma też fundamentalne znaczenie religijne, o czym świadczy symbolika grzechu pierworodnego. W chrześcijaństwie jest to znaczenie negatywne - jako że funkcje cielesne przeciwstawiają się rozwojowi ducha, ujmowane są w kategoriach zła. Najbardziej radykalna krytyka ciała i materialnego świata uwidacznia się w poglądach gnostyków, ale również myśliciele patrystyczni, ze św. Augustynem włącznie, opowiadając się za duchem, wyraźnie występują przeciw ciału. (...) Zajmujący się problematyką miłości współczesny filozof Max Scheler usiłuje aksjologicznie „wyważyć” proporcje między duchem a ciałem. Jego zdaniem przepojony miłością akt płciowy wyraża jedność wszystkich ludzi w uniwersalnie pojętym życiu w świecie, a nawet w kosmosie. Jednak i ta koncepcja miłości i płciowości musi ustąpić przed realnie samospełniającym się życiem, którego właściwości zostały bardzo dobrze scharakteryzowane przez Schopenhauera. (shrink)