A remarkable phenomenon in our present-day culture has been the broad interest shown in the history of Russian thought, which is continually, and sometimes even from unexpected quarters, showing itself to be of topical interest. Recently, and particularly in connection with the publication of the works of N. F. Fedorov, there has been an exchange of opinions in the pages of various journals with regard to the essence of his philosophical views, revealing not merely conflicting, but in a number of (...) cases mutually exclusive assessments of those views. (shrink)
The so-called epistemological turn of the Descartes-Locke-Kant tradition is a hallmark of modern philosophy. The broad family of normativism constitutes one major response to the Cartesian heritage building upon some version of the idea that human knowledge, action and sociality build fundamentally upon some form of social agreement and standards. Representationalism and the Cartesian picture more generally have been challenged by normativists but this paper argues that, even where these challenges by normativism have been taken to heart, our intellectual culture (...) remains fundamentally epistemic in certain problematic senses. Two problems are highlighted: first, normativism remains functionally Cartesian, for human action and sociality appear as processes driven by the shared understandings by competent contributors, and second, normativism is unable to account for forms of human action and sociality other than those occurring in the relatively small worlds of normatively regulated conceptual spaces of mutual access and listening. These points are illustrated by an applied discussion of the blind spots of normativist accounts of the emerging environmental and the on-going economic crises. (shrink)
1977 was a notable year in our country's history. The Soviet people and all progressive mankind celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of the Great October. The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU "On the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution" [O 60-i godovshchine Velikoi Oktiabr'skoi sotsialisticheskoi revoliutsii] emphasized that "The October Revolution was a sociopolitical event whose grandeur is revealed more deeply and in sharper relief with each new step taken by humanity along the road of social (...) progress.". (shrink)
We describe how the choice of an appropriate (“physical”) gauge leads to the solution of a nonperturbative problem in quantum electrodynamics: dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QED in a constant magnetic field.
The history of "evidence of the existence of God" is closely intertwined with the history of classical philosophy. Most philosophers, beginning with Plato and ending with Hegel, were very careful about these ancient creatures of religious thought, and even if they destroyed them, like Kant, then immediately, in another form, they restored. The proposed article is intended to emphasize this content of "philosophical" philosophy, expressed in a theological form, and to show that "proof of the existence of God" in the (...) language of philosophy means certain logical arguments that, if properly processed, could constitute a philosophical speculative method. (shrink)
A range of multidisciplinarily arguments and observations can and have been employed to challenge the view that the human relationship to nature is fundamentally a cognitive matter of collectively held cultural ideas and values about nature. At the same time, the very similar cognitivist idea of collective sharing of conceptual schemes, normative orientations, and the like as the engine of collective action remains the chief analytic tool offered by many influential philosophical and sociological theories of collective action and human sociality (...) generally. Critically discussing in empirical as well as theoretical contexts the prospects of cognitivism to account for the human collective causing of environmental problems, the paper illustrates the deficiencies of cognitivism about collective action and discusses the challenges facing a different way forward. (shrink)
In this article, cognitivism is understood as the view that the engine of human action is the intentional, dispositional, or other mental capacities of the brain or the mind. Cognitivism has been criticized for considering the essence of human action to reside in its alleged source in mental processes at the expense of the social surroundings of the action, criticism that has often been inspired by Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy. This article explores the logical extent of the critique of cognitivism, (...) arguing that by positing collectively shared knowledge of criteria as the engine of human action many such critiques themselves display latent cognitivism. (shrink)
The emergence of the two great late modern crises—economic and environmental—has prompted calls for a return to Marx. This article describes a Marxian account of the 2008 economic crisis relating it to the phenomena of job polarization, de-industrialization, the decline of the middle class, and political populism in Europe and elsewhere. These are argued to spring from political mobilization due to certain kinds of capability deprivations as understood in Amartya Sen’s capability approach. The article demonstrates the continued relevance of Marx (...) for philosophy of the social sciences as well as for a better understanding of the future challenge of maintaining societal stability in the West. (shrink)
In a range of human sciences, the human relationship to nature has often been viewed as driven fundamentally by religious, philosophical, political, and scientific ideas as well as values and norms about nature. As others have argued before, the emphasis on ideas and values faces serious problems in heeding the structural, socioeconomic quality of the human relationship to nature and thereby the deeply problematic structural character of the human environmental burden. At the same time, alleviating the structural environmental burden generated (...) by global industrial market society represents arguably the single most challenging task in addressing environmental problems. Critically explicating the tendency of our intellectual culture to produce ideological and psychologistic explanations of human ecologically consequential action, and human action more generally, can clarify the notion of the cultural causes of environmental problems and the character of the human collective causing them. Only a structuralist point of view can accommodate the diversity of our positions and perspectives toward nature in the global context in which environmental problems are caused. (shrink)
The complexity is interpreted by the author as one of the properties of postnonclassical science. The idea of ‘complexity‘ is studied in the context of contemporary science; the main stages of its genesis are also identified. The author believes that the concept of A. I. Uyemov is a good tool for the theoretical interpretation of the phenomenon of complexity that is so typical for contemporary culture . Base forming factor is the concept of the system, which, on the one hand, (...) expresses the sense of the system , and on the other hand, expresses the intention of human activity. This is not nothing but a systematic representation of modern innovative technologies that realize the unity of values and intentions of human. Systemness acts as a property of reality generated by the creative activity of a human in the implementation of its plans. Hence, the complexity of the systems as a characteristic does not apply to nature or to society per se, but to the human action, activity. Activities can be subdivided into theoretical research and practical technological process. In the first case, we are dealing with postnonclassical science of nature, and the second - with a specific occupation - the science and art of management. In the article, the questions of genesis of a sense and idea of the complexity are studied and an attempt to determine what is the complexity as well as the result of this attempt in modern conditions are given. (shrink)
Lenin's work "On the Significance of Militant Materialism," written in the spring of 1922, is justly regarded as the philosophical testament of our leader. In it, the tasks of the day were merged with the tasks of the entire epoch on the basis of a profound analysis of reality.
We present a modernized proof, with a modification by M.A. Shtan’ko, of the Markov theorem on the unsolvability of the homeomorphy problem for manifolds. We then discuss a proof of the S.P. Novikov theorem on the unrecognizability of spheres for n≥5, from which we obtain a corollary about unrecognizability of all manifolds of dimension at least five. An analogous argument then proves the unrecognizability of stabilizations of all four-dimensional manifolds. We also give a brief overview of known results concerning algorithmic (...) recognizability of three-dimensional manifolds. (shrink)
We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The “collapsed state-vector” after the “objectification” is simply treated as a random vector of the a posterioristate given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a prioriinduced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of “continuous spontaneous localization” has been derived (...) from the Schrödinger equation as a case of the quantum filtering equation for the diffusive nondemolition measurement. The quantum theory of measurement and filtering suggests also another type of the stochastic equation for the dynamical theory of continuous reduction, corresponding to the counting nondemolition measurement, which is more relevant for the quantum experiments. (shrink)
In this paper we focus on what is referred to as the ‘mineness’ of experience, that is, the intimate familiarity we have with our own thoughts, perceptions, and emotions. Most accounts characterize mineness in terms of an experiential dimension, the first-person givenness of experience, that is subsumed under the notion of minimal self-consciousness or a ‘minimal self’. We argue that this account faces problems and develop an alternative account of mineness in terms of the coherence of experiences with what we (...) label an ‘embodied biography’. Building on a near consensus among consciousness researchers over the function of consciousness as integrating infor- mation, we argue that the phenomenology of mineness consists in the absence of any further thought on top of the experience itself. Finally we argue that this non-phenomenological account of mineness fits well with existing data on pathologies of mineness such as delusions of thought insertion. (shrink)
This problem is not a new one, but it is hardly likely that anyone will contend that it is not timely. It is all the more important because entirely too little attention has hitherto been given, in our schools and higher educational institutions, to visual and aesthetic education. Yet for the man of today visual culture is not the least bit less important than the culture of verbal communication, including that in written form, to which considerable attention is given throughout (...) one's school years. (shrink)
Nikolai Alekseevich Umov , a professor at Moscow and New Russian universities, Russia's first theoretical physicist and a mathematical philosopher, according to N. E. Zhukovskii's definition, developed a genuinely ecological philosophy, which is usually included in the philosophy of Russian cosmism. He made the first global forecast1 that took into account the finiteness of resources on earth, population growth, and food reserves.