The association of Berdiaev's name with the phenomenon of perestroika seems strange at first glance and even illogical. But perestroika, which is proceeding—or, more precisely, is trying to proceed—under the sign of an intellectual renaissance, has naturally aroused interest in the names of Russian philosophers who have undeservedly been forgotten. One of these is N.A. Berdiaev . He was a Russian patriot and was profoundly concerned with Russia's fate. Living in a critical period, Berdiaev reflected a great deal over the (...) past, present, and future of his Motherland, advanced the idea of its transformation, and even used the term "perestroika" in doing so. His thoughts concerning Russia's political renewal are profound, and some of them are applicable to the present life of our society. (shrink)
Quelles sont les origines et quelles sont les frontières de la philosophie? Jusqu'à quel point et dans quelle mesure la pensée philosophique a-t-elle un développement suffisamment autonome pour faire l'objet d'une histoire distincte de celle des autres disciplines intellectuelles? Peut-on parler d'une évolution régulière ou d'un progrès de la philosophie? L'histoire de la philosophie, des Présocratiques aux années 1940, présentée ici est l'oeuvre d'un seul auteur. Elle constitue aujourd'hui un guide précieux et irremplaçable pour comprendre l'histoire des philosophes et des (...) systèmes philosophiques occidentaux. (shrink)
The current status of explanation worked out by Physics for the Periodic Law is considered from philosophical and methodological points of view. The principle gnosiological role of approximations and models in providing interpretation for complicated systems is emphasized. The achievements, deficiencies and perspectives of the existing quantum mechanical interpretation of the Periodic Table are discussed. The mainstream ab initio theory is based on analysis of selfconsistent one-electron effective potential. Alternative approaches employing symmetry considerations and applying group theory usually require some (...) empirical information. The approximate dynamic symmetry of one-electron potential casts light on the secondary periodicity phenomenon. The periodicity patterns found in various multiparticle systems (atoms in special situations, atomic nuclei, clusters, particles in the traps, etc) comprise a field for comparative study of the Periodic Laws found in nature. (shrink)
Although research into the biosemiotic mechanisms underlying the purposeful behavior of brainless living systems is extensive, researchers have not adequately described biosemiosis among neurons. As the conscious use of signs is well-covered by the various fields of semiotics, we focus on subconscious sign action. Subconscious semiotic habits, both functional and dysfunctional, may be created and reinforced in the brain not necessarily in a logical manner and not necessarily through repeated reinforcement. We review literature that suggests hypnosis may be effective in (...) changing subconscious dysfunctional habits, and we offer a biosemiotic framework for understanding these results. If it has been difficult to evaluate any psychological approach, including hypnosis, this may be because contemporary neuroscience lacks a theory of the sign. We argue that understanding the fluid nature of representation in biological organisms is prerequisite to understanding the nature of the subconscious and may lead to more effective of treatments for dysfunctional habits developed through personal experience or culture. (shrink)
В форме увлекательных бесед показаны не только высоты и бездны европейской философии, но и значительные достижения русской философской школы, уходящей своими корнями в православное мировосприятие. Для всех, кто хочет научиться серьезно мыслить.
Introduction. Anthropotechnical turn in culture is based on educational practices that characterize a person as a subject and at the same time as an object of educational and corrective influence. Theoretical basis. We use the method of categorical analysis, which allows revealing the main outlook potentials of anthropotechnical turn as an essential transformation of modern socio-culture. Originality. For the first time, we conducted a categorical analysis of the glossary of anthropotechnical turn as dialectic of active and passive in the personal (...) and social modes such as education. Conclusions. The anthropotechnical turn of modern socio-culture means the actualization of the dialectic of active and passive in the process of socialization and formation of a person in a modern society. The world-view potential of the anthropotechnical turn is producing a new maxim and stratagem of person's behaviour through the formation of a new way of self-identification and self-esteem. The modern educational system, given the theory of anthropotechnical rotation, should change the content of timological energies from obedience to self-actualization and self-improvement. A prerequisite for this task is the change in the motivation of the education sector and the improvement of the social status of the teacher as an intellectual and leader of opinion. The analysis of the specificity of the information society and its determinatory impact on the individual provides grounds for identifying modern culture as a culture of lost opportunities. Thus, the main cause of disorientation and ignorance of a person is not the lack of information, but the lack of motivation. Therefore, the fundamental principles of anthropotechnical turn are productive in solving pressing problems of our time. (shrink)
The recent exchange on the quantum justification of the Periodic System of the Elements in this Journal between Scerri [Foundations of Chemistry 6: 93–116, 2004] and Friedrich [Foundations of Chemistry 6: 117–132, 2004] is supplemented by some methodological comments.
1. Perestroika, the revolutionary renewal of Soviet society, has posed quite a few difficult tasks for the social sciences, one of which is a reexamination of dogmas and stereotypes of thought considered absolutely correct for decades, and hence never discussed, especially publicly. But today, on the pages of newspapers and magazines, on radio and television, a broad and open discussion has been unfolding of practically all the basic questions of history and of the theory and practice of socialism—a discussion such (...) as our country has never known since perhaps the 1920s. The main purpose of these discussions, as M. S. Gorbachev has pointed out, is to obtain results reflecting the contemporary dialectics of life. But this can be done only in an atmosphere of creativity, of a free, impartial, yet serious and responsible quest for truth. (shrink)
Our present cheerless existence compels us involuntarily to doubt the correctness of many of the propositions of the Soviet "social philosophy" that for many years, under the title "historical materialism," was officially proclaimed to be the "only correct" and "truly scientific" theory of social development, a theory that demonstrated the inevitability of the replacement of capitalism by socialism.
A little more than half a year remains before the Twenty-seventh Congress of the CPSU. As was stressed at the April Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, the coming congress will be a landmark stage in the development of the country. Its significance is determined by the character of the period being experienced and the scale of the tasks before us, which give special significance to the pre-Congress work of the Party. All this demands a profound scientific study of the (...) realities of the present day and a thorough comprehension of the prospects of socialist and communist construction, in particular of the profound qualitative shifts in the development and functioning of the economy and the social relations of developed socialism. (shrink)
The name of Pavel Ivanovich Novgorodtsev is not very widely known to the reader at large. It has only been in the last ten or twelve years that isolated studies of particular problems in his creative works have begun to appear.
Biological mimicry is regarded by many as a textbook illustration of Darwin’s idea of evolution by random mutation followed by differential selection of reproductively fit specimens, resulting in gradual phenotypic change in a population. In this paper, I argue that some cases of so-called mimicry are probably merely look-a-likes and do not gain an advantage due to their similarity in appearance to something else. In cases where a similar appearance does provide a benefit, I argue that it is possible that (...) these forms of mimicry were created in a single generation. An interpretive response to an appearance as a sign can make a new structure perform drastically differently in an environment. In such cases, Darwin’s natural selection mechanism only helps to explain gradual the spread of these new forms, not the creation of them. I argue that biosemiosis should be regarded as a much more powerful mechanism for affecting evolutionary trajectories than the gradualist view allows. I focus on two cases of butterfly mimicry: the Viceroy and Monarch butterflies, supposed Müllerian mimics, and deadleaf mimic butterflies. (shrink)
Specific character of globalization can be understood only in connection with deep crisis of the nation-state and thus with sovereignty. The sovereignty organically includes territory. During globalization territory factor is not anymore the key principle of social and cultural life. Such phenomenon as Islamic fundamentalism (Islamism) fits quite well the structure of the theory of globalization in postmodernist interpretation. For Islamism as a subject of the world order the determining identity (as sets of the ontological aims determining its outlook and (...) purposes of political activity), i.e. determining, basic, fundamental to self-determination and activities is a creation of the Islamic world order, the world of Caliphate. Thus the Islamic fundamentalism focuses on universal nature of its identity. This activity ignores norms of international law and denies its key positions, such as state sovereignty, territorial integrity, firmness of borders, etc. Tolerance is an integral feature of the sovereignty. Weakening of sovereignty in conditions of globalization causes danger of strengthening of intolerance. Recognition of uniqueness, peculiarity and other civilization identity is a key to peaceful settlement of problems in conditions of the new global order as well as to establishment of philosophy of tolerance. (shrink)
When the Nineteenth All-Union Party Conference was taking place, tens of millions of people followed its course. Literally the entire country was drawn into those heated debates in the congress hall. One can say without exaggeration that the conference was a revelation. It showed that it is possible to live differently from the way we have been accustomed, or the way we have learned over many decades, i.e., to say what we think and what we want to say, not somewhere (...) in a back corridor but in public, even at a top Party forum. All this is the result of that mighty revolution in consciousness that began in people's minds that memorable April of 1985. And the press is today playing a special role in that revolution. (shrink)
Compression of compound records and images can be more cumbersome than the original information since they can be a mix of text, picture and graphics. The principle requirement of the compound record or images is the nature of the compressed data. In this paper, diverse procedures are used under block-based classification to distinguish the compound image segments. The segmentation process starts with separation of the entire image into blocks by spare decomposition technique in smooth blocks and non smooth blocks. Gray (...) wolf-optimization based FCM algorithm is employed to segment background, text, graphics, images and overlap, which are then individually compressed using adaptive Huffman coding, embedded zero wavelet and H.264 coding techniques. Exploratory outcomes demonstrate that the proposed conspire expands compression ratio, enhances image quality and additionally limits computational complexity. The proposed method is implemented on the working platform of MATLAB. (shrink)
The Party's strategic orientation toward an acceleration of socioeconomic development has posed a number of extremely important problems for Soviet society, of which the problem of activating the human factor has priority. When current tasks become more complex and new, more complicated tasks arise, it is inevitable that attention should turn to man.
The philosophy of religion as presented by Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, the founders and main representatives of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, is an important and at the same time controversial part of their philosophical systems. The discussion around the problems of religion began within the Marburg School and still continues among those who study that School. The reason for this is that “fitting” philosophical thinking about the phenomenon of religion into the classical triad of any system of philosophy, (...) i. e. effectively formulating that phenomenon in logical concepts, ethical postulates and aesthetic principles touched the very foundations of that system. Drawing mainly on the rough notes and correspondence of Cohen and Natorp I argue that, in spite of internal and quite important differences over the problems of religion and its place in philosophical constructions, Cohen and Natorp, first, retained their commitment to critical idealism and remained loyal to their philosophical school to the end and, second, followed the principle of mutual respect, preserving their professional and human sympathy for each other. Besides, I substantiate my assertion that Marburg Neo-Kantians had different concepts of the special place of religion in the system of philosophy. The specific nature of this difference warrants the discussion not only of the boundary of reason and rationality but adds new dimensions to that boundary, filling it with content and thus broadening the very sphere of critical idealism. In the course of the discussion of the problems of religion, Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen stake a claim to projects for the serious transformation of philosophy which they tried to implement in their later works. (shrink)