Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to reflect mechanisms involved in word identification, was also examined. The ERP data showed a clear frequency effect as early as 350 ms from word onset on the (...) P350, followed by a later effect at word offset on the late N400. A neighborhood density effect was also found at an early stage of spoken-word processing on the PMN, and at word offset on the late N400. Overall, our ERP differences for word frequency suggest that frequency affects the core processes of word identification starting from the initial phase of lexical activation and including target word selection. They thus rule out any interpretation of the word frequency effect that is limited to a purely decisional locus after word identification has been completed. (shrink)
Das Phänomen des Ethischen ist dem Konflikt der Interpretationen ausgesetzt. Er äußert sich nicht nur in ethischen Kontroversen, sondern auch als Konflikt ethischer Grundkonzeptionen und Menschenbilder. Verstärkt wird in jüngster Zeit über das spezifische Profil evangelischer Ethik und Urteilsbildung nachgedacht. Die Beiträge dieses Buches konfrontieren entsprechende Bemühungen mit der provokanten These R. Bultmanns, es gebe gar keine christliche Ethik, sofern darunter einer Theorie über das verstanden werde, was Christen zu tun und zu lassen haben.
When applied to a dipole source subjected to acceleration which is violent and long lasting (“extreme acceleration”), Maxwell's equations predict radiative power which augments Larmor's classical radiation formula by a nontrivial amount. The physical assumptions behind this result are made possible by the kinematics of a system of geometrical clocks whose tickings are controlled by cavities which are expanding inertially. For the purpose of measuring the radiation from such a source we take advantage of the physical validity of a spacetime (...) coordinate framework (“inertially expanding frame”) based on such clocks. They are compatible and commensurable with the accelerated clocks of the accelerated source. By contrast, a common Lorentz frame with its mutually static clocks won't do: It lacks that commensurability. Inertially expanding clocks give a physicist a window into the frame of a source with extreme acceleration, and thus can locate that source and measure radiation from it without being subjected to such acceleration himself. The conclusion is that inertially expanding reference frames reveal qualitatively distinct aspects of nature which would not be accessible if inertial frames were the only admissible frames. (shrink)
A linear wave field in its Minkowski ground state is analyzed heuristically by two observers, one inertial, the other accelerating in a linear and uniform way. Relative to the accelerated observer, the zero-point oscillations of each Minkowski plane wave mode have an unusual Fourier spectrum. Its intensity is (i) the same for all plane wave modes, (ii) isotropic, and (iii) that of a thermal ambience (relative to the accelerated frame). The temperature of this ambience is given by the Davies-Unruh formula (...) kT=(ħ/2π)(g/c). The existence of this ambience is incompatible with the requirement that the laws of nature be formulated in terms of tensors. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung„Frailty“ ist ein noch junges Konzept in der Geriatrie. Hilfsbedürftigkeit und Verletzbarkeit verweisen letztlich auf anthropologische Grundtatbestände. „Gebrechlichkeit“ ist freilich keine Krankheit und keine unausweichliche Begleiterscheinung des Alters, sondern das Resultat unterschiedlicher Faktoren, die letztlich in einem sozialen Kontext begriffen werden müssen. Das führt zu einer Reihe von individual-, personalund sozialethischen Fragen. Trotz definitorischer Schwierigkeiten ist Frailty ein sinnvolles geriatrisches Konzept, weil es eine ganzheitliche Sichtweise von Multimorbidität und ihren Auswirkungen auf die individuellen Lebensumstände sowie die subjektiv empfundene Lebensqualität alter (...) Menschen fördert. Die Diskussion über Phänomen und Ursachen von Gebrechlichkeit im Alter kann außerdem zu einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit modischen Spielarten von Anti- Ageing-Medizin und der latenten Diskriminierung alter Menschen beitragen. (shrink)
The article provides an overview of important topics in contemporary medical ethics. Methodologically, it is a literature review. The article addresses only a limited selection of the problematic areas, which are, however, related to each other: digitisation of medicine, genome editing, personalised medicine as well as ethical problems and dilemmas of allocation in healthcare. The global COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a focus and trigger. Reflections on human rights and justice in medicine are fundamental not only on the individual and (...) social level but also on a global scale. The fundamental question is how society as a whole can be involved in the complex biopolitical and bioethical debate. The social and cultural consequences of life increasingly being understood as a technical product rather than a gift are serious.Contribution: The article also reflects on the specific contribution that Christian theology, and in particular the reformed heritage, can make to bioethical debates in modern society. The distinction between instrumental knowledge [Verfügungswissen] and orientational knowledge [Orientierungswissen] is helpful for its better understanding. A crucial result of this article is that medical treatment is repeatedly faced with ethical dilemmas. Moreover, medical progress not only creates new and better solutions to medical problems, it also raises new ethical questions that did not exist before. The purpose of medical ethics lies in identifying such dilemmas and developing ethical decision-making processes that help us to deal with such dilemmas to some extent. (shrink)
In the ecumenical discussion, the lingering differences between the concessions are realised more generally again. Not only does this apply for dogmatics, but also for ethics. Eberhard Schockenhoff’s critical inquiries are recognised as a helpful impulse for the self-control of protestant ethics in the sense of an »ecumenism of objection«. However, Schockenhoff’s allegation of breaking with traditions in this respect calls for closer examination. Besides that, unsolved questions have to be put to Catholic moral theology. Some of these include the (...) role of the Christian teaching authority, and the exposure to plurality. (shrink)
For the political, the theological and church discussion about reproductive medicine and genetics in Germany it might be helpful to take a Iook on the situation in other European countries. The above article informs about the discussion in Austria, which has a law of reproductive medicine since 1992. The focus of analysis lies on the legal and moral status of the embryo. It is questionable to argue that an embryo is a person. Concerning the protection of the embryo there are (...) general philosophical reasons but also reasons of theological anthropology which lead to a position of tutiorism. In general a strict protection of the embryo must be granted, but under certain circumstances there are valid reasons for a balance of ethical goods. Detailed questions which are discussed are new indications for in-vitro-fertilization and the ethical issues of preimplantation diagnosis, of research on embryonie stem cells and of therapeutic cloning. (shrink)
In the wake of massive structural changes within the world trade the WTO faces important challenges. Like an invisible world govemment the WTO uses its agreement as a sort of basic law. This basic law demands equal chances for every human being in the world. Therefore it is important to strengthen the WTO in order to pave the way for fair conditions within the world trade. This essay asks which circumstances are necessary to achieve this goal.
This article deals with theological criterions of medical ethics which depends on biblical anthropology and Christian doctrine for the Creation. It criticizes the assertion that life is not disposible as an example of wrong deduction from is to ought. The article also deals with the concept of person and the moral status of embryos and discusses the consequences for medical genetics and prenatal diagnostics.