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  1.  17
    Against Political Equality: The Confucian Case.Tongdong Bai - 2019 - Princeton University Press.
    How a hybrid Confucian-engendered form of governance might solve today’s political problems What might a viable political alternative to liberal democracy look like? In Against Political Equality, Tongdong Bai offers a possibility inspired by Confucian ideas. Bai argues that domestic governance influenced by Confucianism can embrace the liberal aspects of democracy along with the democratic ideas of equal opportunities and governmental accountability to the people. But Confucianism would give more political decision-making power to those with the moral, practical, and intellectual (...)
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  2. A Mencian Version of Limited Democracy.Tongdong Bai - 2008 - Res Publica 14 (1):19-34.
    The compatibility between Western democracy and other cultures, and the desirability of democracy, are two important problems in democratic theory. Following an insight from John Rawls’s later philosophy, and using some key passages in Mencius, I will show the compatibility between a ‘thin’ version of liberal democracy and Confucianism. Moreover, elaborating on Mencius’s ideas of the responsibility of government for the physical and moral well-being of the people, the respectability of the government and the ruling elite, and the competence-based limited (...)
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  3.  9
    China: The Political Philosophy of the Middle Kingdom.Tongdong Bai - 2012 - Zed Books.
    But what is the message of China's rise as an economic and political power? Tongdong Bai addresses this pressing question by examining the history of political theories and practices from China's past, and showing how it impacts upon the present. Chinese political traditions are often viewed as "authoritarian" (in contrast with "Western" democratic traditions), but the historical reality is much more complex and there is a need to understand the political values shaping China. Bai argues that the debates between China's (...)
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  4.  77
    Back to Confucius: A Comment on the Debate on the Confucian Idea of Consanguineous Affection.Tongdong Bai - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):27-33.
  5. How to Rule Without Taking Unnatural Actions (无为而治): A Comparative Study of the Political Philosophy of the Laozi.Tongdong Bai - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (4):pp. 481-502.
    In this essay, the understanding of naturalness and of ruling without taking unnatural actions in the "Laozi" will be clarified and elaborated on, and it will be argued that the "Laozi" offers a theoretically adequate and realistic proposal to address both the problems of its times and some of the problems of modernity.
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  6.  16
    Confucianism Can Be Read as Philosophy—A Response to Eske J. Møllgaard.Tongdong Bai - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (4):1046-1055.
    "Is Traditional Chinese Thought Philosophy?" has been a perennial question ever since the term zhexue 哲學, as a translation of the Western concept of philosophy, was introduced to China via Japan, and it will stay this way for years to come. Two factors make the answering of this question a Sisyphean project. First, a lot of scholars feel that they have to answer this question. The contemporary academic disciplines were defined by Westerners, and the discipline of philosophy was alien to (...)
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  7.  17
    How to Defend a Small State?—Han Fei Zi, Plato, and Mencius.Tongdong Bai - 2021 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 20 (2):231-244.
    How to defend a small state is an important issue in politics and military affairs. Three important philosophical texts, the Han Fei Zi 韓非子, Plato’s Republic, and the Mencius, discuss this issue. In this article, I will analyze the three accounts offered in these texts, and compare and contrast them. We will see that the Han Fei Zi, a text in the “realist” tradition, offers a typically realist yet rather interesting account of how to save a small state from stronger (...)
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  8. Studies in Analytic Philosophy in China.Yi Jiang & Tongdong Bai - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):3-12.
    This essay explores the history of studies in analytical philosophy in China since the beginning of the last century, by dividing into three phases. It shows that, in these phases, analytic philosophy was always at a disadvantage in confronting serious challenges coming from both Chinese traditional philosophy and modern philosophical trends. The authors argue that Chinese philosophers have both done preliminary studies and offered their own analyses of various problems as well as some new applications of analytic philosophy especially in (...)
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  9. The Price of Serving Meat—on Confucius's and Mencius's Views of Human and Animal Rights.Tongdong Bai - 2009 - Asian Philosophy 19 (1):85 – 99.
    The apparent conflict between some fundamental ideas of Confucianism and of rights seems to render Confucianism incompatible with rights. I will illustrate the general strategies, based upon an insight of the later Rawls, to solve the incompatibility problem. I will then show how these strategies can help us to develop a Confucian account of animal rights, which, by way of example, demonstrates how Confucianism can endorse and develop unique and constructive accounts of most rights that are commonly recognized today.
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  10.  56
    Book ReviewsDaniel Bell,. Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006. Pp. 408. $65.00 ; $24.95. [REVIEW]Tongdong Bai - 2007 - Ethics 117 (4):739-742.
  11. Preliminary Remarks: Han Fei Zi—First Modern Political Philosopher?Tongdong Bai - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (1):4-13.
  12. What to Do in an Unjust State?: On Confucius’s and Socrates’s Views on Political Duty. [REVIEW]Tongdong Bai - 2010 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (4):375-390.
    Confucius argued for the centrality of the superior man’s political duty to his fellow human beings and to the state, while Socrates suggested that the superior man (the philosopher) may have no such political duty. However, Confucius also suggested that one not enter or stay—let alone save—a troubled state, while Socrates stayed in an unjust state, apparently fulfilling his political duty to the state by accepting an unjust verdict. In this essay, I will try to show how Confucius could solve (...)
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  13.  87
    An Ontological Interpretation of You (Something) (有) and Wu (Nothing) (无) in the Laozi.Tongdong Bai - 2008 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (2):339-351.
  14.  10
    The Pandemic’s Challenges to Liberal Democracy.Tongdong Bai - 2020 - Philosophy Today 64 (4):827-832.
    The -19 pandemic highlights the following problems: the balance between the private and the public within a liberal framework; the merits and the limits of a liberal democracy in governance; and the inadequacy of a nation-states-led global order. In light of these problems, I will offer some Confucian alternatives.
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  15.  76
    Guest Editor’s Words.Tongdong Bai - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):1-2.
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  16. Philosophy and Physics: Action-at-a-Distance and Locality.Tongdong Bai - 2004 - Dissertation, Boston University
    This dissertation is an attempt to defend two founders of quantum theories, Niels Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli, against various anti-realist readings. These readings claim that Bohr's and Pauli's interpretations of quantum mechanics are based on a denial of the reality of the external world, and that their debates with Albert Einstein are over realism. But I argue that the differences between their views and Einstein's are neither about the reality of the external world, nor about the reality of theoretical entities (...)
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  17.  7
    Philosophy of China.Tongdong Bai - 2012 - In Gerald F. Gaus & Fred D'Agostino (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 181.
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