This volume contains papers presented at the Poznań Reasoning Week multi-conference held in Poznań in September 11-15, 2018. PRW aims at bringing together experts whose research offers a broad range of perspectives on systematic analyses of reasoning processes and their formal modelling. The 2018 edition consisted of three conferences, which addressed the following topics: (i) games in reasoning research, (ii) the interplay of logic and cognition, and (iii) refutation systems. The papers collected in this volume address all these topics.
Książka zawiera wybrane teksty najważniejszych myślicieli zaliczanych do dwóch najbardziej znaczących kierunków neokantowskich, a mianowicie do szkoły badeńskiej i szkoły marburskiej. Szkoły te wyłoniły się w konsekwencji podziałów, jakie dokonywały się w ramach neokantyzmu, niezwykle złożonego kierunku filozoficznego drugiej połowy XIX wieku i początków wieku XX. Mówienie o neokantyzmie jest złożone, gdyż nie można podać ani daty jego powstania, ani też daty zakończenia, co przysparza wielu kłopotów z jego historycznym określeniem. Pomijając wszelkie trudności klasyfikacyjne, antologia ogranicza się do zaprezentowania poglądów (...) dwóch najważniejszych szkół. Poglądy szkoły badeńskiej ukazują teksty Wilhelma Windelbanda i Heinricha Rickerta, Emila Laska i Brunona Baucha. Natomiast poglądy szkoły marburskiej prezentują teksty Hermanna Cohena i Paula Natorpa oraz ich najwybitniejszych uczniów, tzn. Ernsta Cassirera i Nicolaia Hartmanna. Autorzy żywią przekonanie, że zamieszczone teksty są najbardziej reprezentatywne dla neokantyzmu prezentowanych szkół. (shrink)
Contents: PART I. PHILOSOPHICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CREATIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS. Krystyna ZAMIARA: The psychological approach to creativity. A critical appraisal. Rick L. FRANKLIN: Creativity and depth in understanding. Zdzis??l??awa PIATEK: Creativity of life and F.W. Nietzsche's idea of Superman. Jaromír JANOUSEK: Dialogue and joint activity: A psychological approach. Krystyna ZAMIARA: Some remarks on Piaget's notion of "consciousness" and its importance for the studies of culture. Anna GA??L??DOWA, and Aleksander NELICKI: Attitudes towards values as a factor determining creativity. PART II. THE ROLE (...) OF CREATIVITY IN THE THEORY-BUILDING. Leszek NOWAK: On creativity in theory-building. Izabella NOWAK: Discovery and correspondence. A contribution to the idealizational approach to science. Jerzy BRZEZI??N??SKI: Research process in psychology in the context of the researcher's methodological consciousness. Andrzej FALKOWSKI: Cognitive similarity in scientific discovery: An ecological approach. PART III: CONSCIOUSNESS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Kathleen V. WILKES: Inside insight. Franco DI MARIA, and Gioacchino LAVANCO: History and epistemology of the unconscious. Franco DI MARIA, and Gioacchino LAVANCO: Conscious/unconscious and group-analysis. Banjamin WALLACE, Andrzej KOKOSZKA, and Deanna D. TUROSKY: Historical and contemporary thoughts on consciousness and its altered states. PART IV. BETWEEN EXPRESSION AND PROJECTION. Micha??l?? STASIAKIEWICZ: Creativity and projection: Paradigm opposition and implicit correspondence. Anna BRZEZI??N??SKA: Creative expression versus projection. PART V. THE ROLE OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS IN EXPLANATION OF PHENOMENA OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND CREATIVITY. Mario BUNGE: Explaining creativity. Piotr WOLSKI: Hemispheric asymmetry and consciousness. Is there any relationship? Andrzej KOKOSZKA: A rationale for psychology of consciousness. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF CREATIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS. Santo DI NUOVO: Consciousness and attention. Tomasz MARUSZEWSKI: Two looks on consciousness. Is there any interface between philosophy of science and psychology? Marek KOWALCZYK: On the question of the functions of consciousness. Dean Keith SIMONTON: From childhood giftedness to creative genius. Magdalena FAFROWICZ, Tadeusz MAREK, and Czes??l??aw NOWOROL: Effectiveness of innovation as a function of creative style of behavior and type of leadership. Mark A. RUNCO, and Joni RADIO GAYNOR: Creativity and optimal development. (shrink)
Poetry comes as close as language can to capturing that out-of-body lightness of swishing through the trees, of jumping off a cornice, of floating through the bottomless powder. This book is about joy and loss. It is about danger and consciousness. It is provocative, full of wit and insight, and helps us meet the challenges of self-discovery. Peak experiences give us a glimpse of a world beyond what our senses report. It is a world we can feel but not articulate; (...) know but not describe. In the poet's words, the sight is within us-speak and it is gone. The bliss of memory persuades us it is real. (shrink)
The paper offers a theoretical investigation into the sources of normativity in practical argumentation. The chief question is: Do we need objectively-minded, unbiased arguers or can we count on “good” argumentative processes in which individual biases cancel each other out? I address this question by analysing a detailed structure of practical argument and its varieties, and by discussing the tenets of a comparative approach to practical reason. I argue that given the comparative structure proposed, reasoned advocacy in argumentative activity upholds (...) reasonableness whenever that activity is adequately designed. I propose some basic rules for such a design of practical argumentation. (shrink)
In the late 2010s, various international committees, expert groups, and national strategy boards have voiced the demand to ‘open’ the algorithmic black box, to audit, expound, and demystify artificial intelligence. The opening of the algorithmic black box, however, cannot be seen only as an engineering challenge. In this article, I argue that only the sort of transparency that arises from critique—a method of theoretical examination that, by revealing pre-existing power structures, aims to challenge them—can help us produce technological systems that (...) are less deceptive and more just. I relate the question of AI transparency to the broader challenge of responsible making, contending that future action must aim to systematically reconcile design—as a way of concealing—with critique—as a manner of revealing. (shrink)
Introduction. French traditions -- Reception of phenomenology at the turn of the thirties -- Note on metaphysics -- The metaphysics of perpetual presence: Louis Lavelle -- Negative metaphysics: Ferdinand Alquié -- Ineffable metaphysics: Jean Wahl -- Metaphysics of inter-corporality: Maurice Merleau-Ponty -- Metaphysics beyond ontology: Emmanuel Lévinas -- Conclusions, continuations.
One can often hear that intuitions are standardly “appealed to”, “relied on”, “accounted for”, or “used as evidence” in ethics. How should we interpret these claims? I argue that the typical understanding is what Bernard Molyneux calls “descriptive evidentialism”: the idea that intuition-states are treated as evidence of their propositional contents in the context of justification. I then argue that descriptive evidentialism is false- on any account of what intuitions are. That said, I admit that ethicists frequently rely on intuitions (...) to clarify, persuade, discover, or to support things other than the intuitions’ contents. The contents of intuitions are also commonly used as starting premises of philosophical arguments. However claims about these practices need to be sharply distinguished from the prevalent dogma. (shrink)
This article addresses the question whether skiing as a nature sport enables practitioners to develop a rapport with nature, or rather estranges and insulates them from their mountainous ambiance. To address this question, I analyse a recent skiing movie from a psychoanalytical perspective and from a neuro-scientific perspective. I conclude that Jean-Paul Sartre’s classical but egocentric account of his skiing experiences disavows the technicity involved in contemporary skiing as a sportive practice for the affluent masses, which actually represents an urbanisation (...) of the sublime, symptomatic for the current era. (shrink)
This book analyses and defends the deflationist claim that there is nothing deep about our notion of truth. According to this view, truth is a 'light' and innocent concept, devoid of any essence which could be revealed by scientific inquiry. Cezary Cieśliński considers this claim in light of recent formal results on axiomatic truth theories, which are crucial for understanding and evaluating the philosophical thesis of the innocence of truth. Providing an up-to-date discussion and original perspectives on this central and (...) controversial issue, his book will be important for those with a background in logic who are interested in formal truth theories and in current philosophical debates about the deflationary conception of truth. (shrink)
Consider how we evaluate how normal an object is. On the dual-nature hypothesis, a normality evaluation depends on the object’s goodness and frequency. On the single-nature hypothesis, the evaluation depends solely on either frequency or goodness. To assess these hypotheses, I ran four experiments. Study 1 shows that normality evaluations vary with both the goodness and the frequency assessment of the object. Study 2 shows that manipulating the goodness and the frequency dimension changes the normality evaluation. Yet, neither experiment rules (...) out that some people evaluate normality solely based on frequency, and the rest evaluate normality solely based on goodness. Whence two more experiments. Study 3 reveals that when scenarios are contrasted—presented one after another—only frequency matters. But, as study 4 shows, when scenarios are evaluated alone, both frequency and goodness influence normality evaluations in a single person, although the more a person is sensitive to one dimension, the less she’s sensitive to the other. The dual-nature hypothesis seems thus true of uncontrasted applications of the concept of normality, whereas the single-nature hypothesis seems true of contrasted applications. (shrink)
L'idea di scrivere questo libro sul diritto naturale e nata dal desiderio dell'autore di approfondire il problema della fondazione della norma morale, nella convinzione che un'autentica visione giusnaturalistica apre nuove orizzonti per comprendere meglio la questione di Dio e dell'uomo nel discorso normativo che si inserisce armonicamente nella dimensione ecclesiale. Il tema ha avuto origine dall'osservazione del dialogo interdisciplinare tra toelogia morale, filosofia del diritto e scienze giuridiche. Prende in esame la relazione tra ordine morale e giuridico individuando le questioni (...) che si pongono per la teologia morale in quanto disciplina che tratta i problemi della fondazione della norma morale. La problematica verte sul temine natura normativa la quale si esplica in veste di progetto antropologico. La rinascita del pensiero giusnaturalistico in Germania e il fulcro di questa tesi. (shrink)