Results for 'Todd Petersonb'

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  1. From implicit skills to explicit knowledge: a bottom‐up model of skill learning.Edward Merrillb & Todd Petersonb - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (2):203-244.
    This paper presents a skill learning model CLARION. Different from existing models of mostly high-level skill learning that use a top-down approach (that is, turning declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge through practice), we adopt a bottom-up approach toward low-level skill learning, where procedural knowledge develops first and declarative knowledge develops later. Our model is formed by integrating connectionist, reinforcement, and symbolic learning methods to perform on-line reactive learning. It adopts a two-level dual-representation framework (Sun, 1995), with a combination of localist (...)
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  2. Imaginability, morality, and fictional truth: Dissolving the puzzle of 'imaginative resistance'.Cain Samuel Todd - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (2):187-211.
    This paper argues that there is no genuine puzzle of ‘imaginative resistance’. In part 1 of the paper I argue that the imaginability of fictional propositions is relative to a range of different factors including the ‘thickness’ of certain concepts, and certain pre-theoretical and theoretical commitments. I suggest that those holding realist moral commitments may be more susceptible to resistance and inability than those holding non-realist commitments, and that it is such realist commitments that ultimately motivate the problem. However, I (...)
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  3.  55
    Building the Theory of Ecological Rationality.Peter M. Todd & Henry Brighton - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (1-2):9-30.
    While theories of rationality and decision making typically adopt either a single-powertool perspective or a bag-of-tricks mentality, the research program of ecological rationality bridges these with a theoretically-driven account of when different heuristic decision mechanisms will work well. Here we described two ways to study how heuristics match their ecological setting: The bottom-up approach starts with psychologically plausible building blocks that are combined to create simple heuristics that fit specific environments. The top-down approach starts from the statistical problem facing the (...)
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  4. Against Limited Foreknowledge.Patrick Todd - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (2):523-538.
    Theological fatalists contend that if God knows everything, then no human action is free, and that since God does know everything, no human action is free. One reply to such arguments that has become popular recently— a way favored by William Hasker and Peter van Inwagen—agrees that if God knows everything, no human action is free. The distinctive response of these philosophers is simply to say that therefore God does not know everything. On this view, what the fatalist arguments in (...)
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  5.  63
    Between Body and Spirit: The Liminality of Pedagogical Relationships.Sharon Todd - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (2):231-245.
    This article explores the pedagogical, transformative aspects of education as a relation, viewing such transformation as occurring in the liminal space between body and spirit. In order to explore this liminal space more thoroughly, the article first outlines a case for why liminality is of educational and not only of pedagogical concern, building on James Conroy's notion of the liminal imagination and his emphasis on the importance of metaphor for calling our attention to the ontological spaces that make up educational (...)
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  6.  33
    Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in ‘Negative Capability’ in Light of Buddhism and Levinas.Sharon Todd - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 49 (2):240-254.
    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to ‘negative capability’ and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering and non-self, known as the three marks of existence, from the perspective of Theravada Buddhism. I explore in particular vipassana meditation's insistence on openness to the transient nature of experience (...)
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  7.  81
    Alexander of Aphrodisias on stoic physics: a study of the De mixtione with preliminary essays, text, translation and commentary.Robert B. Todd - 1976 - Leiden: Brill. Edited by Alexander.
    PART ONE ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS— AN INTRODUCTION A study of a work by Alexander of Aphrodisias must be prefaced by some general introduction to the author ...
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  8.  14
    Experience and grammatical agreement: Statistical learning shapes number agreement production.Maryellen C. MacDonald Todd R. Haskell, Robert Thornton - 2010 - Cognition 114 (2):151.
    A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present (...)
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  9.  19
    Education, Contact and the Vitality of Touch: Membranes, Morphologies, Movements.Sharon Todd - 2021 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 40 (3):249-260.
    This paper explores how touch is key to understanding education—not as an achievement or an instrument of acquisition, but as a process through which one becomes a subject capable of both living and leading a life that matters for ourselves and others. As a process, it is concerned with how we encounter things and others in the world and not solely with what we encounter. In particular, it argues that the dynamics of touch-as both a touching and being touched by-are (...)
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  10.  28
    Knowledge, behavior, and rationality: rationalizability in epistemic games.Todd Stambaugh & Rohit Parikh - 2021 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 60 (5):599-623.
    In strategic situations, agents base actions on knowledge and beliefs. This includes knowledge about others’ strategies and preferences over strategy profiles, but also about other external factors. Bernheim and Pearce in 1984 independently defined the game theoretic solution concept of rationalizability, which is built on the premise that rational agents will only take actions that are the best response to some situation that they consider possible. This accounts for other agents’ rationality as well, limiting the strategies to which a particular (...)
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  11.  12
    Promoting a Just Education: Dilemmas of rights, freedom and justice.Sharon Todd - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (6):592-603.
    This paper identifies and addresses some dilemmas to be faced in promoting educational projects concerned with human rights. Part of the difficulty that human rights education initiatives must cope with is the way in which value has been historically conferred upon particular notions such as freedom and justice. I argue here that a just education must grapple head‐on with the conceptual dilemmas that have been inherited and refuse to shy away from the implications of those dilemmas. To do this I (...)
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  12.  57
    Teachers judging without scripts, or thinking cosmopolitan.Sharon Todd - 2007 - Ethics and Education 2 (1):25-38.
    A cosmopolitan ethic invites both an appreciation of the rich diversity of values, traditions and ways of life and a commitment to broad, universal principles of human rights that can secure the flourishing of that diversity. Despite the tension between universalism and particularism inherent in this outlook, it has received much recent attention in education. I focus here on one of the dilemmas to be faced in taking cosmopolitanism seriously, namely, the difficulty of judging what is just in the context (...)
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  13.  13
    On the Ethics of “Non-Corporate” Insider Trading.Benjamin M. Blau, Todd G. Griffith & Ryan J. Whitby - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 177 (1):79-93.
    The ethical considerations of insider trading have been widely debated in the academic literature :171–182, 1990). In 2013, the STOCK Act, which was initially passed to mitigate insider trading by government officials, was quickly and unexpectedly amended to allow certain government employees to withhold their financial information. To identify and quantify the potential costs placed on investors by non-corporate insider traders, we use the unusual circumstances surrounding this amendment. For a sample of stocks most held by members of Congress, we (...)
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  14.  22
    When more is less: Feedback effects in perceptual category learning.J. Vincent Filoteo W. Todd Maddox, Bradley C. Love, Brian D. Glass - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):578.
  15.  35
    Fitting Feelings and Elegant Proofs: On the Psychology of Aesthetic Evaluation in Mathematics†.Cain Todd - 2018 - Philosophia Mathematica 26 (2):211-233.
  16.  54
    Shepard's mirrors or Simon 's scissors?Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):704-705.
    Shepard promotes the important view that evolution constructs cognitive mechanisms that work with internalized aspects of the structure of their environment. But what can this internalization mean? We contrast three views: Shepard's mirrors reflecting the world, Brunswik's lens inferring the world, and Simon 's scissors exploiting the world. We argue that Simon 's scissors metaphor is more appropriate for higher-order cognitive mechanisms and ask how far it can also be applied to perceptual tasks. [Barlow; Kubovy & Epstein; Shepard].
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  17.  77
    Counterfactual conditionals and the presuppositions of induction.William Todd - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (2):101-110.
    In this paper I will argue that Professor Goodman was correct in thinking that there is a problem concerning counterfactual conditionals, but that it is somewhat different from the problem he thought it to be, and is one that is even more basic. I will also try to show that this problem is distinct from Hume's "problem" of induction, and that additional assumptions have to be made for counterfactual induction beyond those required for other kinds of induction.
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  18.  79
    Ecological rationality and its contents.M. Todd, Laurence Fiddick & Stefan Krauss - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):375 – 384.
    (2000). Ecological rationality and its contents. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 375-384.
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  19. How to Russell Open the Future.Patrick Todd - manuscript
    Short abstract: this is a reply to Schoubye and Rabern's 2017 paper, in Mind, to my own 2016 paper, also in Mind, "Future Contingents are All False! On Behalf of a Russellian Open Future." -/- Long abstract: There is a familiar philosophical position – sometimes called the doctrine of the open future ­– according to which future contingents (claims about underdetermined aspects of the future) systematically fail to be true. For well over 2000 years, however, open futurists have been accused (...)
     
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  20.  13
    Holy Deviance: Christianity, Race, and Class in the Opioid Crisis.Todd Whitmore - 2020 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 40 (1):145-162.
    In recent years, public discourse has largely embraced the idea that persons with addictions have a “brain disease,” and ought to be treated medically rather than judicially. This article first argues that this social shift is mostly the result of middle- and upper-class whites being among the addicted. The medical language is deployed so that such persons avoid the stigma of “deviance” commonly linked to addiction. Second, this article argues for a Christian “holy deviance,” whereby Christians become deviant by going (...)
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  21.  17
    Introduction to INPE Special Issue: Passion, Commitment and Justice in Education.Sharon Todd - 2014 - Ethics and Education 9 (1):39-41.
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  22.  28
    Lady Chatterley's Lover and the Attic orators: the social composition of the Athenian jury.Stephen Todd - 1990 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 110:146-173.
    The starting-point of this paper is one of the most disastrous pieces of advocacy in modern legal history. In October 1960, Penguin Books were prosecuted under Section 2 of the 1959 Obscene Publications Act for publishing an unexpurgated edition ofLady Chatterley's Lover.On the first day of the trial, Mr. Mervyn Griffith-Jones, Senior Treasury Counsel, did his best to wreck his case on the strength of one remark. He had previously tried to show that he was himself a man of the (...)
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  23.  27
    Word frequency effects in sound change as a consequence of perceptual asymmetries: An exemplar-based model.Simon Todd, Janet B. Pierrehumbert & Jennifer Hay - 2019 - Cognition 185 (C):1-20.
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  24.  24
    Elements of Folk-Psychology.Arthur J. Todd - 1918 - The Monist 28:159.
  25.  65
    Culturally reimagining education: Publicity, aesthetics and socially engaged art practice.Sharon Todd - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (10):970-980.
    This paper sets out to reimagine education through a cultural perspective and explores education as a performative practice that establishes certain borders of ‘public’ belonging. Wide-spread debates about the public dimension of schools and universities have focused on how economic rationales need to be replaced with alternative visions of education. This paper seeks to contribute to this revisioning of the public in education by reclaiming education as a specifically cultural endeavour, one tied to practices that are at once both performative (...)
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  26.  28
    Abstract machine theory and direct perception.Robert Shaw & James Todd - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):400-401.
  27.  5
    From Low‐Lying Roofs to Towering Spires: Toward a Heideggerian understanding of learning environments.Tyler W. Ream Todd C. Ream - 2005 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (4):585-597.
    This article explores the significance that environments play in terms of the learning process. In the United States, the legacy of John Dewey's intellectual efforts left a theoretical understanding that views the architectural composition of learning environments as instrumental mediums which house the educational process. This understanding of learning environments is precipitated by a separation of human agents as subjects and their environments as objects. By contrast, Martin Heidegger's theory of ontology, and its reconfiguration of the subject and object relationship, (...)
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  28.  15
    A note on Francesco Patrizi's use of Cleomedes.Robert B. Todd - 1982 - Annals of Science 39 (3):311-314.
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  29.  40
    Comments on Katerina Psaroudaki’s “Defending Conciliationism from Self-Defeat”.Todd M. Stewart - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (2):11-14.
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  30.  20
    Chrysippus on infinite divisibility (diogenes laertius VII. 150).Robert B. Todd - 1973 - Apeiron 7 (1):21 - 29.
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  31.  28
    Ernest Barker and the Classical Tradition: Two Studies.Robert B. Todd - 2006 - Polis 23 (2):368-384.
    This paper first traces the general influence of Ernest Barker's undergraduate training in Oxford's School of Literae Humaniores on his later work on ancient political thought, and in particular shows how Idealism conditioned his view that the major ancient texts were perennially relevant and also applicable to practical affairs. The second part of the paper is based on a letter that Barker wrote to E.R. Dodds in 1953 critical of Dodds's negative perspective in The Greeks and the Irrational on the (...)
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  32. Insight and ideology in the visual arts.Jennifer Todd - 1981 - British Journal of Aesthetics 21 (4):305-317.
  33.  17
    Ideological Superstructure in Gramsci and Mao Tse-Tung.Nigel Todd - 1974 - Journal of the History of Ideas 35 (1):148.
  34.  15
    Ordinal structure in the visual perception and cognition of smoothly curved surfaces.James T. Todd & Francene D. Reichel - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (4):643-657.
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  35.  37
    The Social Philosophy of Jane Addams.Thurman Todd Willison - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):119-122.
  36.  21
    John Milbank's theology of the “gift” and Calvin's theology of grace: A critical comparison1.J. Todd Billings - 2005 - Modern Theology 21 (1):87-105.
  37. Direct perception.D. D. Todd - 1975 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35 (March):352-362.
  38. Imagination, Fantasy, and Sexual Desire.Cain Todd - 2012 - In Hans Maes & Jerrold Levinson (eds.), Art and Pornography: Philosophical Essays. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
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  39.  35
    Comments on Mary Gwin’s “IrRational Analysis”.Todd M. Stewart - 2014 - Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (2):85-88.
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  40.  5
    Chronic Pain and Aberrant Drug-Related Behavior in the Emergency Department.Knox H. Todd - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):761-769.
    Pain is the single most common reason patients seek care in the emergency department. Given the prevalence of pain as a presenting complaint, one might expect emergency physicians to assign its treatment a high priority; however, pain is often seemingly invisible to the emergency physician. Multiple research studies have documented that the undertreatment of pain, or oligoanalgesia, is a frequent occurrence. Pain that is not acknowledged and managed appropriately causes dissatisfaction with medical care, hostility toward the physician, unscheduled returns to (...)
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  41.  11
    Guoping Zhao’s Subjectivity and Infinity: Questions for Education in Times of Climate Emergency.Sharon Todd - 2022 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 41 (5):579-582.
  42.  3
    Listening as Attending to the “Echo of the Otherwise”: On Suffering, Justice, and Education.Sharon Todd - 2002 - Philosophy of Education 58:405-412.
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  43.  19
    Locke, Berkeley, Hume: Central Themes.D. D. Todd - 1972 - Dialogue 11 (1):115-122.
    This book will be received ill-naturedly by those who think that a book with such a title ought, mainly anyway, to consist of critical exegesis of the work of its philosophical heroes and/or villains on the “central themes” which Professor Bennett selects for his attention. Such readers are likely to feel that when Bennett attributes this or that view, error, or insight to one of the protagonists, he ought usually t o put the man's name in quotation marks. But such (...)
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  44. Levels of Being in Sufi Thought.Richard Todd - 2022 - In Christian Lange & Alexander D. Knysh (eds.), Sufi cosmology. Boston: Brill.
  45.  12
    Normative Systems.D. D. Todd - 1973 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (3):437.
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  46.  12
    The Philosophical Orations of Thomas Reid.D. D. Todd - 1977 - Philosophy Research Archives 3:916-990.
    Thomas Reid delivered philosophical orations triennially, in Latin, at graduation ceremonies in King's College, Aberdeen, 1753-1762. Each of the four orations is a summary of Reid's views on several philosophical topics, e.g. the "laws of practising philosophy"; the philosophy of science; the "theory of ideas". This translation from the Latin text is prefaced with an historical and philosophical introduction to the thought of Reid and his school. The text is footnoted with cross-references to Reid's published writings to enable the reader (...)
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  47.  22
    The theory of meaning and some related theories of the learning of language.William Todd - 1965 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 8 (1-4):355 – 374.
    There are two basically different sorts of theory of meaning and the sort of theory one adopts has a great deal to do with the view one takes of the learning of language. Corresponding to the two kinds of theory of meaning two theories of the learning of language are delineated and the issues that are disputed by them clarified. The logical question of whether each theory is intelligible in itself is first discussed, and, it being concluded that both are (...)
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  48.  3
    The title of cleomedes' treatise.Rodert Β Todd - 1985 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 129 (1-2):250-261.
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  49.  24
    Richard of Saint Victor, On the Trinity.Todd D. Vasquez - 2013 - Augustinian Studies 44 (2):293-296.
  50. Moral Dilemmas: Escaping Inescapable Wrongdoing.Todd Bernard Weber - 1998 - Dissertation, University of California, Riverside
    I examine recent work on moral dilemmas and argue that there are no moral dilemmas which issue in inescapable wrongdoing . In the first three chapters I examine some important arguments for and against tragic dilemmas---arguments from deontic logic, Martha Nussbaum's view that vulnerability is essential to human values, Bernard Williams' argument from guilt , and the argument from the fragmentation of value---and show that these arguments for and against are inconclusive. ;In Chapter 4 I attempt to provide a reason (...)
     
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