16 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Tobey Scharding [9]Tobey K. Scharding [7]
  1.  71
    Imprudence and Immorality: A Kantian Approach to the Ethics of Financial Risk.Tobey K. Scharding - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (2):243-265.
    This paper takes up recent challenges to consequentialist forms of ethically evaluating risks and explores how a non-consequentialist form of deliberation, Kantian ethics, can address questions about risk. I examine two cases concerning ethically- questionable financial risks: investing in abstruse financial instruments and investing while relying on a bailout. After challenging consequentialist evaluations of these cases, I use Kant’s distinction between morals and prudence to evaluate when the investments are immoral and when they are merely imprudent. I argue that the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  2.  89
    National currency, world currency, cryptocurrency: A Fichtean approach to the Ethics of Bitcoin.Tobey Scharding - 2019 - Business and Society Review 124 (2):219-238.
    I investigate ethical questions concerning a novel cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, using a Fichtean account of the ethics of currency. Fichte holds that currencies should fulfill an ethical purpose: providing access, in perpetuity, to the material welfare that underwrites citizens' basic rights. In his nineteenth‐century context, Fichte argues that currencies fulfill this purpose better when nations control them (i.e., when they are “national currencies”) than when foreigners freely trade them (as “world currencies”). After exploring conditions in which national currencies fail to secure (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  3.  63
    Don’t Just Trust Your Gut: The Importance of Normative Deliberation to Ethical Decision-Making at Work.Oyku Arkan, Mahak Nagpal, Tobey K. Scharding & Danielle E. Warren - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    While deliberation has traditionally played a central role in philosophical and behavioral accounts of ethical decision-making, several recent studies challenge the value of deliberation. These studies find that deliberative thinking, such as considering divergent views or different perspectives, leads to less ethical decisions. We observe, however, that these studies do not address normative deliberation, in which decision-makers consider or apply a normative standard. We predict that normative deliberation improves ethical decision-making. Across six experiments, we examine the effects of non-normative deliberation (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4.  24
    Contractualism and risk preferences.Tobey K. Scharding - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (2):260-283.
    I evaluate two contractualist approaches to the ethics of risk: mutual constraint and the probabilistic, ex ante approach. After explaining how these approaches address problems in earlier interpretations of contractualism, I object that they fail to respond to diverse risk preferences in populations. Some people could reasonably reject the risk thresholds associated with these approaches. A strategy for addressing this objection is considering individual risk preferences, similar to those Buchak discusses concerning expected-utility approaches to risk. I defend the risk-preferences-adjusted contractualist (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  5.  29
    Individual Actions and Corporate Moral Responsibility: A (Reconstituted) Kantian Approach.Tobey Scharding - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):929-942.
    This paper examines the resources of Kantian ethics to establish corporate moral responsibility. I defend Matthew Altman’s claim that Kantian ethics cannot hold corporations morally responsible for corporate malfeasance. Rather than following Altman in interpreting this inability as a reason not to use Kantian ethics, however, I argue that the Kantian framework is correct: business ethicists should not seek to hold corporations morally responsible. Instead, they should use Kantian resources to criticize the actions of individual businesspeople. I set forth a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  6.  30
    Structured Finance and the Social Contract: How Tranching Challenges Contractualist Approaches to Financial Risk.Tobey Scharding - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29 (1):1-24.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  7.  75
    Crafting Maxims.Tobey Scharding - 2016 - Teaching Ethics 16 (1):37-53.
    To use Kantian ethics in an applied context, decision makers typically try to determine whether the “maxim” of their possible action conforms to Kant’s supreme principle of morality: “I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (4:402). The action’s maxim is a way of expressing the decision maker’s (a) putative action and (b) conditions that prompt the action in a (c) preposition of a form that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  8.  24
    When Are Norms Prescriptive? Understanding and Clarifying the Role of Norms in Behavioral Ethics Research.Tobey K. Scharding & Danielle E. Warren - 2024 - Business Ethics Quarterly 34 (2):331-364.
    Research on ethical norms has grown in recent years, but imprecise language has made it unclear when these norms prescribe “what ought to be” and when they merely describe behaviors or perceptions (“what is”). Studies of ethical norms, moreover, tend not to investigate whether participants were influenced by the prescriptive aspect of the norm; the studies primarily demonstrate, rather, that people will mimic the behaviors or perceptions of others, which provides evidence for the already well-substantiated social proof theory. In this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  27
    Crafting Maxims.Tobey Scharding - 2016 - Teaching Ethics 16 (1):37-53.
    This article examines the role of maxims in Kantian ethics. Maxims are propositions that describe individual actions as instances of general rules. Because Kantian ethics evaluates the morality of actions by testing the actions’ maxims, it is important to formulate the maxim well. I begin by (1) investigating how maxims relate to actions. Next, I (2) review how Kantian ethics tests maxims, focusing on the Formula of Universal Law (FUL). I engage Kant’s conceptions of determining and reflecting judgment from the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  30
    When Workplace Norms Conflict: Using Intersubjective Reflection to Guide Ethical Decision-Making.Tobey K. Scharding & Danielle E. Warren - 2023 - Business Ethics Quarterly 33 (2):352-380.
    We address how to ethically evaluate workplace practices when workplace behavioral norms conflict with employees’ attitudes toward those norms, which, according to research on psychological contract violations, regularly occurs. Drawing on Scanlonian contractualism, we introduce the intersubjective reflection process (IR process). The IR process ethically evaluates workplace practices according to whether parties to a workplace practice have intersubjectively valid grounds to veto the practice. We present normative and empirical justification for this process and apply the IR process to accounts of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  21
    Must a Currency Be Centrally Regulated to Be Ethical?Tobey Scharding - 2022 - Business Ethics Journal Review 10 (4):21-26.
    Scharding argues that Bitcoin is unethical on Fichte’s view because its instability makes it unable to guarantee that users can afford what they need to live. She contrasts Bitcoin with currencies controlled by central authorities that can guarantee their stability. Allison objects that not all centrally controlled currencies are stable and not all non-centrally controlled currencies are unstable. I clarify that both stability and a means of securing stability are necessary, but not sufficient, for a currency to be ethical.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Individually Allocating Principles and Market Risks.Tobey Scharding - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 30 (3):259-279.
    This paper investigates one of Anderson’s (2007) objections to individually-allocating principles of distributive justice: that they are incompatible with the free market. I argue that Anderson’s objection applies only to the specific principle she discusses, associated with luck egalitarianism, and not to individually-allocating principles generally. I then discuss different individually-allocating principles, the precepts of justice, broached by Rawls (1971,1999) but never developed by him. The precepts determine people’s distributive entitlements based on their contributions, efforts, and needs. I offer an interpretation (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  53
    Income Inequalities in a Context of Political Equality: Guaranteed Basic Income, No Guaranteed Income, or Guaranteed Work Opportunities.Tobey Scharding - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (1):99-122.
    This paper investigates individual differences-based income entitlements in a context of political equality. Three regimes for distributing income are considered: guaranteed basic income, no guaranteed income, and guaranteed work opportunities. Whereas GBI attends to equality while remaining silent on difference and NGI attends to difference while de-emphasizing equality, GWO attends to both difference and equality. Balancing individual differences and political equality is a plausible goal for distributive justice, and the GWO regime seems well suited to accommodate these joint concerns.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  25
    Recognize Everyone’s Interests: An Algorithm for Ethical Decision-Making about Trade-Off Problems.Tobey K. Scharding - 2021 - Business Ethics Quarterly 31 (3):450-473.
    This article addresses a dilemma about autonomous vehicles: how to respond to trade-off scenarios in which all possible responses involve the loss of life but there is a choice about whose life or lives are lost. I consider four options: kill fewer people, protect passengers, equal concern for survival, and recognize everyone’s interests. I solve this dilemma via what I call the new trolley problem, which seeks a rationale for the intuition that it is unethical to kill a smaller number (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  5
    This is business ethics: an introduction.Tobey Scharding - 2018 - Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Discusses problems in business ethics, tools to solve them, contemporary case studies, and the future of business ethics.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  21
    The Moral Responsibility of Firms, edited by Eric W. Orts and N. Craig Smith. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2017. 256 pp. ISBN: 978-0198738534. [REVIEW]Tobey K. Scharding - 2018 - Business Ethics Quarterly 28 (4):506-508.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark