Scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals are currently developing a variety of new devices under the category of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Current and future applications are both medical/assistive (e.g., for communication) and non-medical (e.g., for gaming). This array of possibilities comes with ethical challenges for all stakeholders. As a result, BCIs have been an object of both hope and concern in various media. We argue that these conflicting sentiments can be productively understood in terms of personhood, specifically the impact of BCIs (...) on what it means to be a person and to be recognized as such by others. To understand the dynamics of personhood in the context of BCI use and investigate whether ethical guidance is required, a meeting entitled "BCIs and Personhood: A Deliberative Workshop" was held in May 2018. In this article, we describe how BCIs raise important questions about personhood and propose recommendations for BCI development and governance. (shrink)
This volume provides new sources of knowledge based on Michael Otte’s fundamental insight that understanding the problems of mathematics education – how to teach, how to learn, how to communicate, how to do, and how to represent ...
Marino et al. recently published a critique of a three-year National Science Foundation—funded investigation of the impact of zoo and aquarium visits on the public’s understanding of animals and their attitudes toward conservation. This critique of that critique will show that Marino et al. seriously misrepresent both the intent of the research and the methods used. The methods used by Falk and his colleagues were consistent with current, accepted research practice and their conclusions regarding impact were congruent with a (...) growing body of scientific research showing that visits to zoos and aquariums almost always result in enhanced scientific understanding and strengthened beliefs in the value of nature conservation. (shrink)
Der Streit zwischen Naturrecht und Rechtspositivismus im 20. Jahrhundert fördert unterschiedliche Konzeptionen des positiven Rechts und seiner Funktion zutage. Der Aufsatz geht von H.L.A. Harts Kritik am traditionellen Naturrecht aus und zeigt, dass diese an dem vorbeigeht, was dort zum Verhältnis von Recht und Moral behauptet wird. Mit Rückgriff auf Aristoteles wird dafür argumentiert, das Recht als eine institutionalisierte Praxis zu verstehen, die wesentlich auch eine erzieherische Funktion hat. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird klar, inwiefern aus naturrechtlicher Sicht gesetzliches Unrecht, zwar (...) nicht die Gültigkeit, wohl aber die Verbindlichkeit von Gesetzen unterminieren kann. Die naturrechtliche Konzeption des Rechts erweist sich zudem im Vergleich zu der Harts auch als phänomenal akkurater. (shrink)
In diesem Buch wird eine Strategie gegen zwei skeptische Tendenzen entwickelt, deren eine den Sonderstatus von Personen bestreitet und deren andere" wahr"für ein Prädikat ausgibt, das schlicht gewissen Verwendungsregeln unterworfen und instrumentalistisch zu interpretieren sei. Die antiskeptische Strategie soll dadurch zum Erfolg führen, dass die beiden von der Skepsis bedrohten Sachverhalte sich gegenseitig stützen. Gezeigt wird, dass die Aufgabe des Sonderstatus von Personen die Leugnung der Bedeutung von" wahr"impliziert und umgekehrt. Positiv gewendet: Die Bedeutung von" wahr"ist in Beziehung auf Subjektivität (...) zu explizieren, und Subjektivität erschließt sich theoretisch durch die Beziehung auf Wahrheit. Die Vorgehensweise ist im wesentlichen negativ; ihr positiver Aspekt besteht in der systematischen Zuordnung der negativen Ergebnisse. Zu Gegenständen der Kritik werden dabei der Naturalismus in der reduktiven wie der eliminationistischen Variante sowie ontologisierende Ansätze, d. h. Versuche, philosophische Probleme durch das Postulat von Entitäten sui generis zu lösen. In der Ablehnung von Ontologisierungen und im negativen Charakter der philosophischen Tätigkeit ergeben sich Berührungspunkte mit dem späten Wittgenstein. Die Differenz liegt in der erwähnten Zuordnung der Resultate der Kritik, die es erlaubt, die intendierte Position als eine transzendentalphilosophische zu charakterisieren. (shrink)
Inhalt: Klaus DÜSING: Strukturmodelle des Selbstbewußtseins. Ein systematischer Entwurf. Christian KLOTZ: Reines Selbstbewußtsein und Reflexion in Fichtes Grundlegung der Wissenschaftslehre . Hans-Peter FALK: Existenz und Licht. Zur Entwicklung des Wissensbegriffs in Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre von 1805. Akira OMINE: Das Problem der Reflexion bei Kierkegaard und Fichte. Erich HEINTEL: Zum Problem des "Ich" als "daseiende Transzendentalität". Von David Hume zu Ernst Mach und dem "Wiener Kreis". Günter ZÖLLER: Bestimmung zur Selbstbestimmung: Fichtes Theorie des Willens. VERMISCHTE BEITRÄGE. Richard SCHOTTKY†: Staatliche Souveränität und (...) individuelle Freiheit bei Rousseau, Kant und Fichte. DOKUMENTE. Erich FUCHS: Reinhold und Fichte im Briefwechsel zweier Jenenser Studenten 1793/94. Erich FUCHS: Aus dem Tagebuch von Johann Smidt. Klaus VIEWEG: Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Weimar und Rußland. Ein neu aufgefundener Brief Fichtes an den Weimarer Geheimen Rat Wilhelm Ernst Friedrich Freiherr von Wolzogen vom 19. November 1803. REZENSIONEN. (shrink)
There have been two different schools of thought on the evolution of dominance. On the one hand, followers of Wright [Wright S. 1929. Am. Nat. 63: 274–279, Evolution: Selected Papers by Sewall Wright, University of Chicago Press, Chicago; 1934. Am. Nat. 68: 25–53, Evolution: Selected Papers by Sewall Wright, University of Chicago Press, Chicago; Haldane J.B.S. 1930. Am. Nat. 64: 87–90; 1939. J. Genet. 37: 365–374; Kacser H. and Burns J.A. 1981. Genetics 97: 639–666] have defended the view that dominance (...) is a product of non-linearities in gene expression. On the other hand, followers of Fisher [Fisher R.A. 1928a. Am. Nat. 62: 15–126; 1928b. Am. Nat. 62: 571–574; Bürger R. 1983a. Math. Biosci. 67: 125–143; 1983b. J. Math. Biol. 16: 269–280; Wagner G. and Burger R. 1985. J. Theor. Biol. 113: 475–500; Mayo O. and Reinhard B. 1997. Biol. Rev. 72: 97–110] have argued that dominance evolved via selection on modifier genes. Some have called these “physiological” versus “selectionist,” or more recently [Falk R. 2001. Biol. Philos. 16: 285–323], “functional,” versus “structural” explanations of dominance. This paper argues, however, that one need not treat these explanations as exclusive. While one can disagree about the most likely evolutionary explanation of dominance, as Wright and Fisher did, offering a “physiological” or developmental explanation of dominance does not render dominance “epiphenomenal,” nor show that evolutionary considerations are irrelevant to the maintenance of dominance, as some [Kacser H. and Burns J.A. 1981. Genetics 97: 639–666] have argued. Recent work [Gilchrist M.A. and Nijhout H.F. 2001. Genetics 159: 423–432] illustrates how biological explanation is a multi-level task, requiring both a “top-down” approach to understanding how a pattern of inheritance or trait might be maintained in populations, as well as “bottom-up” modeling of the dynamics of gene expression. (shrink)
If it is true that an agent who has a moral reason for acting has a reason for acting independently of whether or not she has a desire to so act , then it cannot also be true both that moral reasons are necessarily motivating and that an agent who is motivated to act is motivated in virtue of a desire to so act . This dissertation argues that the arguments given against Motivational Internalism about Moral Reasons are stronger than (...) the arguments given against either Moral Reasons Authoritativeness or Desire Motivationalism. ;Chapter 1 outlines two types of motivational internalism: Motivational Internalism about Moral Judgments , and Motivational Internalism about Moral Reasons . It also outlines six other sub-positions on the nature of moral reasons, moral judgments and moral obligations, and on the nature of the connection between desires and motivation. Two of these sub-positions are Moral Reasons Authoritativeness and Desire Motivationalism . ;Chapter 2 argues that deontological intuitionists, such as H. A. Prichard, rejected MIMR in order to defend both MRA and DM. Here I defend Prichard's motivational externalist account of moral motivation, in terms of a desire to do one's duty, from a selection of criticisms. ;Chapter 3 argues that W. D. Falk, who coined the terms "internalism" and "externalism", rejected DM in order to defend both MIMR and MRA. Here I argue that Falk's motivational internalist account of moral motivation, in terms of an impulse to act that is not a desire and that has a sui generis sense of necessity attached to it, fails. Since Falk has not refuted DM, he cannot successfully defend MRA. ;Chapter 4 argues that moral noncognitivists, such as A. J. Ayer, rejected MRA in order to defend both MIMR and DM. Here I argue that Ayer's account of moral reasons, according to which some fact about a situation is moral reason for acting if and only if awareness of this fact evokes a moral feeling in an agent, fails. Since Ayer has not refuted MRA, he cannot successfully defend MIMR. (shrink)
The concept of the gene has been the central organizing theme of 20th century biology. Biology has become increasingly influential both for philosophers seeking a naturalized basis for epistemology, ethics, and the understanding of the mind, as well as for the human sciences generally. The central task of this work is to get the story right about genes and in so doing provide a critical and enabling resourse for use in the further pursuit of human self-understanding. ;The work begins with (...) a wide-ranging historical reconstruction and conceptual analysis of the meaning of "the gene" that results in defining and distinguishing two different "genes". Each of these can be seen as an heir to one of the two major historical trends in explaining the source of biological order---preformationism and epigenesis. The preformationist gene predicts phenotypes but only on an instrumental basis where immediate medical and/or economic benefits can be had. The gene of epigenesis , by contrast, is a developmental resource that provides templates for RNA and protein synthesis but has in itself no determinate relationship to organismal phenotypes. The seemingly prevalent idea that genes constitute information for traits is based, I argue, upon an unwarranted conflation of these two senses which is in effect held together by rhetorical glue. Beyond this historical, conceptual, and rhetorical inquiry the bulk of the dissertation then concerns itself with an empirically up-to-date analysis of the cell and molecular basis of biological order and of the pathological loss of same. In each of these chapters I structure my analysis with the idea in mind that the "conflated" view can be held empirically accountable. Major touchpoints in this work include the ideas of I. Kant, J. Blumenbach, K. E. von Baer, J. Muller, R. Virchow, W. Johannsen, R. Falk, J. Sapp, E. Schrodinger, M. Delbruick, G. Gamow, R. Doyle, L. Kay, S. Kauffman, E. Jablonka, J. Rothman, K. Yamamoto, P. Rous, H. Temin, J. M. Bishop, H. Harris, E. Stanbridge, D. L. Smithers, B. Vogelstein, E. Farber and H. Rubin. (shrink)
Es wurde in der Vergangenheit viel darüber debattiert, ob das Zentrum der Kritik der reinen Vernunft in der Erkenntnistheorie der „Transzendentalen Analytik“ oder in der Metaphysikkritik der „Transzendentalen Dialektik“ liegt. Stellt man den Begriff der Einheit des Bewusstseins in den Mittelpunkt der Auseinandersetzung, dann verliert diese Debatte an Bedeutung. Die „Einheit des Bewusstseins“ ist einerseits von zentraler Wichtigkeit für Kants Theorie der Objektivität, wie er sie in der „Deduktion der Kategorien“ entwickelt. Sie gehört andererseits in die Seelenlehre und wird daher (...) von Kant in den der Rationalen Psychologie gewidmeten Teilen der „Transzendentalen Dialektik“ thematisiert. Die vorliegenden Analysen von Henny Blomme, Bernd Dörflinger, Corey W. Dyck, Dietmar H. Heidemann, Thomas Höwing, Toni Kannisto, Heiner F. Klemme, Rudolf Mösenbacher, Giuseppe Motta, Dennis Schulting, Camilla Serck-Hanssen, Thomas Sturm, Udo Thiel, Violetta Waibel und Falk Wunderlich vertiefen das Verständnis dieses zentralen Begriffes der Kantischen Philosophie. (shrink)
This book brings together contributions from seventeen of the world's foremost legal and political philosophers to examine the lasting influence of H.L.A. Hart. The essays explore the major subjects of Hart's work: general jurisprudence, criminal responsibility, rights, justice, causation and the foundations of liberalism.
Over the past decade, many ﬁndings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
Marr's levels of analysis—computational, algorithmic, and implementation—have served cognitive science well over the last 30 years. But the recent increase in the popularity of the computational level raises a new challenge: How do we begin to relate models at different levels of analysis? We propose that it is possible to define levels of analysis that lie between the computational and the algorithmic, providing a way to build a bridge between computational- and algorithmic-level models. The key idea is to push the (...) notion of rationality, often used in defining computational-level models, deeper toward the algorithmic level. We offer a simple recipe for reverse-engineering the mind's cognitive strategies by deriving optimal algorithms for a series of increasingly more realistic abstract computational architectures, which we call “resource-rational analysis.”. (shrink)
O problema envolvendo o estatuto ontológico das entidades inobserváveis postuladas pelas teorias científicas é um dos mais centrais em filosofia da ciência. O objetivo deste pequeno artigo é o de oferecer um mapa dos posicionamentos mais recentes, sem a ambição de aprofundá-los. O enfoque será nos principais argumentos a favor e contra a capacidade de a ciência descrever corretamente a realidade natural inobservável. Mais especificamente, exporei o argumento do sucesso para o realismo e uma variação do mesmo, bem como as (...) críticas ao referido argumento, tais como a metaindução pessimista, a subdeterminação das teorias pela evidência e uma abordagem darwinista, que evita a ideia de sucesso. Concluirei apresentando como tais argumentos exigiram uma seletividade na abordagem realista, hoje concentrada em três ramos cujos nomes estão de acordo com os elementos sobre os quais cada filosofia recomenda ser realista: realismo explanacionista, realismo de entidades e realismo estrutural. Por uma questão de enfoque, darei apenas uma descrição resumida de cada ramo de realismo citado. (shrink)
RESUMO Neste artigo pretendo expor sinteticamente os problemas levantados contra uma das formas de realismo científico conhecida como realismo experimental, além de propor uma formulação mais aceitável do mesmo, resistente a tais críticas. Os problemas alegados pelos oponentes do realismo experimental variam desde a acusação de inadequação em relação à prática da comunidade científica, até a inconsistência ao admitir entidades e propriedades postuladas teoricamente recusando, entretanto, as teorias em que tais entidades e propriedades aparecem. Some-se a essas críticas a de (...) que o próprio critério do realismo de entidades seria implausível, seja porque falha na produção de crenças verdadeiras ou porque não fornece garantias melhores do que outras formas de realismo científico. Argumentarei que, adotando o realismo experimental exclusivamente como um critério epistêmico e aplicando tal critério às propriedades é possível contornar as críticas, reabilitando uma proposta realista que muitos consideravam já descartada. ABSTRACT In this paper, I will expose briefly the problems raised against one kind of scientific realism known by experimental realism and also will propose an acceptable formulation of that realism, resistant to those criticisms. The problems claimed by the experimental realism’s opponents range from the accusation of inadequacy with the scientific community’s practice to the claim that the admission of entities and proprieties without accepting the theories in which those proprieties and entities are supposed is incoherent. Besides, there is another criticism which states that the entities realism’s criterion is implausible, either because it fails to produce true beliefs or because there is no better warranty in adopting it than other kinds of scientific realism. I will argue that adopting experimental realism exclusively as an epistemic criterion and applying that criterion to proprieties it is possible to escape the criticisms, rehabilitating a realist propose that many people though already discarded. (shrink)
Liberalism is commonly believed, especially by its exponents, to be opposed to interference by way of enforcing value judgments or concerning itself with the individual's morality. My concern is to show that this is not so and that liberalism is all the better for this. Many elements have contributed to liberal thought as we know it today, the major elements being the liberalism of which Locke is the most celebrated exponent, which is based upon a belief in natural, human rights; (...) the liberalism of which Kant is the best known exponent, which is based on respect for persons as ends in themselves; and the liberalism of Bentham and the Mills, which is based upon utilitarian ethical theories and most especially with concern for pleasure and the reduction of pain. These different elements of liberalism have led to different emphases and different political and social arrangements, but all have involved a concern to safeguard values and to use force to that end. Today they constitute strands of thought which go to make up liberal thought as we now know it, hence it is not simply a historical fact about liberalism, but a fact about its philosophical basis, that liberalism is firmly involved in certain value and moral commitments. In the remainder of this paper I shall seek to bring this out. (shrink)
Considering Pragma-Dialectics honors the monumental contributions of one of the foremost international figures in current argumentation scholarship: Frans van Eemeren. The volume presents the research efforts of his colleagues and addresses how their work relates to the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation with which van Eemeren’s name is so intimately connected. This tribute serves to highlight the varied approaches to the study of argumentation and is destined to inspire researchers to advance scholarship in the field far into the future. Replete with (...) contributions from highly-esteemed academics in argumentation study, chapters in this volume address such topics as: *Pragma-dialectic versus epistemic theories of arguing and arguments; *Pragma-dialectics and self-advocacy in physician-patient interactions; *The pragma-dialectical analysis of the ad hominem family; *Rhetoric, dialectic, and the functions of argument; and *The semantics of reasonableness. As an exceptional volume and a fitting tribute, this work will be of interest to all argumentation scholars considering the astute insights and scholarly legacy of Frans van Eemeren. (shrink)
This article has a double objective that aims to situate, theoretically and empirically, children's cartography as a research methodology. In a first movement, we will situate children's cartography in its epistemological and philosophical bases, having as inspiration the cartographic conceptions of the philosophy of Deleuze & Guattari and his commentators. The introduction of cartography with children shifts our research perspectives to include dimensions that were once imperceptible or relegated to a plane of lesser value: it maps, not just what children (...) see, but what they say, and chronicles the coexistence of children and the world in ways not previously available to adult-organized research vehicles. We illustrate by chronicling two cartographic experiences carried out with children and young people from Portugal and Brazil, and finish with a reflection on how researchers might configure mapping experiences that act to open the worlds of adults and children to each other. (shrink)