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  1.  6
    Academic Discipline Integration by Contract Cheating Services and Essay Mills.Thomas Lancaster - 2020 - Journal of Academic Ethics 18 (2):115-127.
    Contract cheating services are marketing to students at discipline level, using increasingly sophisticated techniques. The discipline level reach of these services has not been widely considered in the academic integrity literature. Much of the academic understanding of contract cheating is not discipline specific, but the necessary solutions to this problem may need to vary by discipline. This paper reviews current knowledge about contract cheating services at the discipline level, including summarising four studies that rank the relative volume of contract cheating (...)
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  2.  18
    Profiling the International Academic Ghost Writers Who Are Providing Low-Cost Essays and Assignments for the Contract Cheating Industry.Thomas Lancaster - 2019 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (1):72-86.
    Purpose Students have direct access to academic ghost writers who are able to provide for their assessment needs without the student needing to do any of the work. These ghost writers are helping to fuel the international industry of contract cheating, raising ethical dilemmas, but not much is known about the writers, their business or how they operate. This paper aims to explore how the ghost writers market their services and operate, based on observable information. Design/methodology/approach This paper reviews data (...)
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  3.  3
    Commercial Contract Cheating Provision Through Micro-Outsourcing Web Sites.Thomas Lancaster - 2020 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 16 (1).
    As the contract cheating market has become more sophisticated and competition has intensified, the contract cheating industry has had to redevelop its approach to gain custom. The industry has developed new models of internal operation and providers are using more sophisticated techniques to reach potential customers. This paper discusses contract cheating industry workflows and introduces terminology to allow complexities of the industry to be more consistently discussed. Examples are provided throughout to indicate the scale and challenge of the contract cheating (...)
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  4.  1
    Contract Cheating by STEM Students Through a File Sharing Website: A Covid-19 Pandemic Perspective.Codrin Cotarlan & Thomas Lancaster - 2021 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 17 (1).
    Students are using file sharing sites to breach academic integrity in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. This paper analyses the use of one such site, Chegg, which offers “homework help” and other academic services to students. Chegg is often presented as a file sharing site in the academic literature, but that is just one of many ways in which it can be used. As this paper demonstrates, Chegg can and is used for contract cheating This is despite the apparent existence (...)
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  5. Essay Mills and Other Contract Cheating Services: To Buy or Not to Buy and the Consequences of Students Changing Their Minds.Irene Glendinning, Robin Crockett, Sandie Dann, Thomas Lancaster & Michael Draper - 2021 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 17 (1).
    Very few parts of the world have legislation that prohibits the operation or the promotion of contract cheating services. This means that commercial companies providing such services can formally register and operate in most countries. If a student enters into an agreement with a contract cheating provider, what rights do they have to change their mind and what are the risks if they choose to do so? This paper examines the question through legal, institutional and societal lenses, showing that although (...)
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  6.  2
    Academic Dishonesty or Academic Integrity? Using Natural Language Processing (NLP) Techniques to Investigate Positive Integrity in Academic Integrity Research.Thomas Lancaster - 2021 - Journal of Academic Ethics 19 (3):363-383.
    Is academic integrity research presented from a positive integrity standpoint? This paper uses Natural Language Processing techniques to explore a data set of 8,507 academic integrity papers published between 1904 and 2019.Two main techniques are used to linguistically examine paper titles: bigram analysis and sentiment analysis. The analysis sees the three main bigrams used in paper titles as being “academic integrity”, “academic dishonesty” and “plagiarism detection”. When only highly cited papers are considered, negative integrity bigrams dominate positive integrity bigrams. For (...)
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    In Memory of Tracey Bretag: A Collection of Tributes.Robert Crotty, Brian Martin, Ide Bagus Siaputra, Jean Guerrero-Dib, Zeenath Reza Khan, Dukagjin Leka, Sabiha Shala, Tomáš Foltýnek, Phil Newton, Michael Draper, Gill Rowell, Stella-Maris Orim, Erica J. Morris, Thomas Lancaster, Irene Glendinning, Teresa Fishman, Rebecca Awdry, Katherine Seaton, Guy Curtis, Felicity Prentice, Saadia Mahmud, Ann Rogerson, Helen Titchener & Sarah Elaine Eaton - 2020 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 16 (1).
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