Results for 'Theory of mind'

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  1.  27
    Theory of Mind From Observation in Cognitive Models and Humans.Thuy Ngoc Nguyen & Cleotilde Gonzalez - 2022 - Topics in Cognitive Science 14 (4):665-686.
    A major challenge for research in artificial intelligence is to develop systems that can infer the goals, beliefs, and intentions of others (i.e., systems that have theory of mind, ToM). In this research, we propose a cognitive ToM framework that uses a well-known theory of decisions from experience to construct a computational representation of ToM. Instance-based learning theory (IBLT) is used to construct a cognitive model that generates ToM from the observation of other agents' behavior. The (...)
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  2. Modularity, Theory of Mind, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.Marcus P. Adams - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):763-773.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. In a series of papers, Philip Gerrans and Valerie Stone argue that positing a ToM module does not best explain the deficits exhibited by individuals with autism (Gerrans 2002; Stone & Gerrans 2006a, 2006b; Gerrans & Stone 2008). In this paper, I first criticize Gerrans and Stone’s (2008) account. Second, I discuss various (...)
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  3. Factive theory of mind.Jonathan Phillips & Aaron Norby - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (1):3-26.
    Research on theory of mind has primarily focused on demonstrating and understanding the ability to represent others' non‐factive mental states, for example, others' beliefs in the false‐belief task. This requirement confuses the ability to represent a particular kind of non‐factive content (e.g., a false belief) with the more general capacity to represent others' understanding of the world even when it differs from one's own. We provide a way of correcting this. We first offer a simple and theoretically motivated (...)
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  4. Theory of mind and the unobservability of other minds.Vivian Bohl & Nivedita Gangopadhyay - 2014 - Philosophical Explorations 17 (2):203-222.
    The theory of mind (ToM) framework has been criticised by emerging alternative accounts. Each alternative begins with the accusation that ToM's validity as a research paradigm rests on the assumption of the ‘unobservability’ of other minds. We argue that the critics' discussion of the unobservability assumption (UA) targets a straw man. We discuss metaphysical, phenomenological, epistemological, and psychological readings of UA and demonstrate that it is not the case that ToM assumes the metaphysical, phenomenological, or epistemological claims. However, (...)
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  5.  19
    Analogical Comparison Promotes Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Christian Hoyos, William S. Horton, Nina K. Simms & Dedre Gentner - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9):e12891.
    Theory‐of‐mind (ToM) is an integral part of social cognition, but how it develops remains a critical question. There is evidence that children can gain insight into ToM through experience, including language training and explanatory interactions. But this still leaves open the question of how children gain these insights—what processes drive this learning? We propose that analogical comparison is a key mechanism in the development of ToM. In Experiment 1, children were shown true‐ and false‐belief scenarios and prompted to (...)
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  6.  15
    Affective theory of mind impairments underlying callous-unemotional traits and the role of cognitive control.Drew E. Winters & Joseph T. Sakai - 2023 - Cognition and Emotion 37 (4):696-713.
    Affective theory of mind (aToM) impairments associated with the youth antisocial phenotype callous-unemotional (CU) traits predict antisocial behaviour above CU traits alone. Importantly, CU traits associate with decrements in complex but not basic aToM. aToM is modulated by cognitive control and CU traits associate with cognitive control impairments; thus, cognitive control is a plausible mechanism underlying aToM impairments in CU traits. Because cognitive control is dependent on the availability of cognitive resources, youth with CU traits may have difficulty (...)
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  7.  86
    Impaired theory of mind in schizophrenia.Ahmad Abu-Akel - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):247-282.
    The study argues that linguistic/communication dysfunctions present in disorganized schizophrenia may stem, at least in part, from an impaired theory of mind. Using pragmatics and systemic linguistic theory, the study examined speech samples of two disorganized schizophrenic patients and attempted to determine if their communicative failures are because they lack theory of mind in the sense that they do not take into account the interlocutor's mind, i.e., the interlocutor's intentions, dispositions, and knowledge; or because (...)
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  8.  25
    Theory of Mind Profiles in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Adaptive/Social Skills and Pragmatic Competence.Belen Rosello, Carmen Berenguer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Rosa García & Ana Miranda - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Theory of Mind (ToM) is one of the most relevant concepts in the field of social cognition, particularly in the case of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Literature showing that individuals with ASD display deficits in ToM is extensive and robust. However, some related issues deserve more research: the heterogeneous profile of ToM abilities in children with ASD and the association between different levels of ToM development and social, pragmatic, and adaptive behaviors in everyday life. The first objective of (...)
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  9.  62
    Pragmatic development explains the Theory-of-Mind Scale.Evan Westra & Peter Carruthers - 2017 - Cognition 158 (C):165-176.
    Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, “mindreading”) abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are (...)
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  10.  32
    Theory of mind in young human primates: Does Heyes's task measure it?Deepthi Kamawar & David R. Olson - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):122-123.
    Three- to six-year-olds were given Heyes's proposed task and theory of mind tasks. Although they correlated, Heyes's was harder; only 50% of participants with a theory of mind reached a criterion of 75% correct. Because of the complex series of inferences involved in Heyes's task, it is possible that one could have a theory of mind and fail Heyes's version.
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  11. Theory of mind and schizophrenia☆.Rajendra D. Badgaiyan - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):320-322.
    A number of cognitive and behavioral variables influence the performance in tasks of theory of mind (ToM). Since two of the most important variables, memory and explicit expression, are impaired in schizophrenic patients, the ToM appears inconsistent in these patients. An ideal instrument of ToM should therefore account for deficient memory and impaired ability of these patients to explicitly express intentions. If such an instrument is developed, it should provide information that can be used not only to understand (...)
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  12.  12
    Theory of Mind and Its Elusive Structural Substrate.Fernando Lizcano-Cortés, Jalil Rasgado-Toledo, Averi Giudicessi & Magda Giordano - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Is brain structure related to function? Can one predict the other? These are questions that are still waiting to be answered definitively. In this paper we seek to investigate these questions, in particular, we are interested in the relation between brain structure and theory of mind. ToM is defined as the ability to attribute mental states to others. Previous studies have observed correlations between performance on ToM tasks, and gray-matter size/volume in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction and precuneus. (...)
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  13.  20
    Impaired theory of mind in schizophrenia.Ahmad Abu-Akel - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (2):247-282.
    The study argues that linguistic/communication dysfunctions present in disorganized schizophrenia may stem, at least in part, from an impaired theory of mind. Using pragmatics and systemic linguistic theory, the study examined speech samples of two disorganized schizophrenic patients and attempted to determine if their communicative failures are because they lack theory of mind in the sense that they do not take into account the interlocutor's mind, i.e., the interlocutor's intentions, dispositions, and knowledge; or because (...)
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  14.  97
    Theory of Mind’ and Tracking Speakers’ Intentions.Francesca Happé & Eva Loth - 2002 - Mind and Language 17 (1-2):24-36.
    Typical theory of mind tasks assess children’s ability to attribute a false belief in order to predict or explain an action. According to these standard tasks, young children do not represent the independent (mistaken) beliefs of others until the fourth year—yet long before this, children are able to track speakers’ intentions in order to learn new words. Might communication be a privileged domain for theory of mind? In the present study we explored pre‐schoolers’ ability to track (...)
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  15.  9
    Theory of mind deficits in language delayed deaf subjects?Endre Begby - 2023 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 4.
    Recent studies claim to show that language delayed deaf subjects typically display longlingering deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) development, despite suffering no known deficits in other cognitive domains. These claims are supported by experimental evidence indicating that such subjects fare poorly on False Belief (FB) tasks. This paper turns a critical eye on these claims. In particular, I argue that the reported results raise important questions about the status of FB tasks as evidence, and about how such (...)
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  16.  93
    Causal Theories Of Mind: Action, Knowledge, Memory, Perception, And Reference.Steven Davis (ed.) - 1961 - Ny: De Gruyter.
    INTRODUCTION SECTION I In the last 20 years or so philosophers in the analytic tradition have taken an increasing interest in causal theories of a wide ...
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  17. Stereotypes, theory of mind, and the action–prediction hierarchy.Evan Westra - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2821-2846.
    Both mindreading and stereotyping are forms of social cognition that play a pervasive role in our everyday lives, yet too little attention has been paid to the question of how these two processes are related. This paper offers a theory of the influence of stereotyping on mental-state attribution that draws on hierarchical predictive coding accounts of action prediction. It is argued that the key to understanding the relation between stereotyping and mindreading lies in the fact that stereotypes centrally involve (...)
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  18.  27
    Affective theory of mind inferences contextually influence the recognition of emotional facial expressions.Suzanne L. K. Stewart, Astrid Schepman, Matthew Haigh, Rhian McHugh & Andrew J. Stewart - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (2):272-287.
    ABSTRACTThe recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions as well as differently-valenced emotions conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we (...)
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  19.  63
    Minimal theory of mind – a Millikanian Approach.Nimra Asif - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-26.
    Minimal theory of mind is presented in the theory of mind literature as a middle ground between full-blown ToM and mere behavior-reading. Minimal ToM seems to be a useful construct for studying and understanding the minds of nonhuman animals and infants. However, providing an account of minimal ToM on which minimal mindreading is significantly less demanding than full-blown mindreading yet more than just a behavior-reading process is a challenge. In this paper, I argue that to address (...)
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  20.  36
    Emotion and the computational theory of mind.Craig DeLancey - 1997 - In S. O'Nuillain, Paul McKevitt & E. MacAogain (eds.), Two Sciences of Mind. John Benjamins.
    The case for computationalism about the mind is in doubt when we acknowledge that there are mental phenomena that require, for a proper accounting, that we get below the level of symbol processing. Such phenomena show us that a computational theory of mind cannot be complete. Chief among these phenomena is emotion.
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  21.  24
    Can theory of mind grow up? Mindreading in adults, and its implications for the development and neuroscience of mindreading.Ian Apperly - 2013 - In Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael Lombardo & Helen Tager-Flusberg (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives From Developmental Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 72.
  22. Social Cognition and Theory of Mind.Evan Westra - 2021 - In Benjamin D. Young & Carolyn Dicey Jennings (eds.), Mind, Cognition, and Neuroscience: A Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.
    ‘Social cognition’ refers to the psychological capacities that humans and other animals use to reason about other agents and navigate complex social environments. This chapter focuses on the dominant approach to social cognition in contemporary cognitive science, which is centered around a capacity known as theory of mind or mindreading. Subjects covered include the false-belief task, the social brain network, mirror neurons, major accounts of theory of mind, objections to the theory-of-mind framework, mindreading in (...)
     
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  23. Elements of Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind.Tim Crane - 2001 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Elements of Mind provides a unique introduction to the main problems and debates in contemporary philosophy of mind. Author Tim Crane opposes those currently popular conceptions of the mind that divide mental phenomena into two very different kinds (the intentional and the qualitative) and proposes instead a challenging and unified theory of all the phenomena of mind. In light of this theory, Crane engages students with the central problems of the philosophy of mind--the (...)
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  24.  35
    Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.Lauren Bryant, Anna Coffey, Daniel J. Povinelli & John R. Pruett - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):697-707.
    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought and degree of socializing at the time (...)
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  25.  48
    Theory of mind in schizophrenia: Damaged module or deficit in cognitive coordination?David Leiser & Udi Bonshtein - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):95-96.
    Schizophrenics exhibit a deficit in theory of mind (ToM), but an intact theory of biology (ToB). One explanation is that ToM relies on an independent module that is selectively damaged. Phillips & Silverstein's analyses suggest an alternative: ToM requires the type of coordination that is impaired in schizophrenia, whereas ToB is spared because this type of coordination is not involved.
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  26. Theory of mind’ in animals: ways to make progress.Elske van der Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are (...)
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  27.  35
    Theory of mind.Evan Westra & Peter Carruthers - 2017 - Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science.
    Theory of mind” consists in the ability to use concepts of intentional mental states, such as beliefs, emotions, intentions, goals, and perceptual states, in order to predict and interpret behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed a distinctive network of neural regions that is active during theory-of-mind tasks, including the temporal-parietal junction, the posterior superior temporal sulcus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the temporal poles (Van Overwalle 2009). Deficits in theory-of-mind abilities, (...)
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  28.  65
    Theory of mind and the right cerebral hemisphere: Refining the scope of impairment.Richard Griffin & Ellen Winner - unknown
    The neuropsychological and functional characterisation of mental state attribution (‘‘theory of mind’’ (ToM)) has been the focus of several recent studies. The literature contains opposing views on the functional specificity of ToM and on the neuroanatomical structures most relevant to ToM. Studies with brain-lesioned patients have consistently found ToM deficits associated with unilateral right hemisphere damage (RHD). Also, functional imaging performed with non-braininjured adults implicates several specific neural regions, many of which are located in the right hemisphere. The (...)
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  29.  16
    Acquisition (of theory of mind), see Development Agency, rational, 115-18,209 Anthropocentrism, 322-6, 331, 343.Mind-Reading Metarepresentation - 1996 - In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 153--387.
  30.  17
    Field theories of mind and brain.Jeff Yoshimi - 2004 - In Lester Embree (ed.), Gurwitsch's Relevancy for Cognitive Science. Springer. pp. 111--129.
    Aron Gurwitsch’s Gestalt-inspired “field theory of consciousness” was introduced in the same period as Wolfgang Köhler’s theory of “electrical brain fields.” I consider parallels between these theories, drawing on results that have emerged in the last five years. First, I consider the claim that fields of consciousness supervene on electromagnetic fields in the brain, then I outline Gurwitsch’s field theory of consciousness, and finally I consider how the structures described by Gurwitsch might relate to structures in the (...)
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  31.  77
    'Theory of mind' in animals: ways to make progress.Elske Vaart & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk - 2012 - Synthese (3):1-20.
    Whether any non-human animal can attribute mental states to others remains the subject of extensive debate. This despite the fact that several species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks. In this paper, we review the reasons of skeptics for their doubts: That existing experimental setups cannot distinguish between ‘mind readers’ and ‘behavior readers’, that results that seem to indicate ‘theory of mind’ may come from studies that are (...)
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  32. Computational Theory of Mind.Marcin Milkowski - 2013 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Computational Theory of Mind (CTM) holds that the mind is a computer and that cognition is the manipulation of representations. CTM is commonly viewed as the main hypothesis in cognitive science, with classical CTM (related to the Language of Thought Hypothesis) being the most popular variant. However, other computational accounts of the mind either reject LOTH or do not subscribe to RTM. CTM proponents argue that it clarifies how thought and content are causally relevant in (...)
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  33.  34
    Against theory of mind.Ivan Leudar & Alan Costall (eds.) - 2009 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The "theory of mind" framework has been the fastest growing body of empirical research in contemporary psychology. It has given rise to a range of positions on what it takes to relate to others as intentional beings. This book brings together disparate strands of ToM research, lays out historical roots of the idea, and indicates better alternatives.
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  34.  52
    Acquired `theory of mind' impairments following stroke.Francesca Happé, Hiram Brownell & Ellen Winner - 1999 - Cognition 70 (3):211-240.
  35.  36
    Theory of Mind, pragmatics and the brain.Ivan Enrici, Bruno G. Bara & Mauro Adenzato - 2019 - Pragmatics and Cognition 26 (1):5-38.
    Theory of Mind(ToM) is a neurocognitive system that allows the perceiver to attribute mental states, such as intentions, beliefs, or feelings, to others’ actions. The aim of the present work is to analyse the engagement of the ToM system in communication, in particular, in communicative intention processing. To this aim, we propose anIntention Processing Network(IPN) with its own principles and mechanisms, that is, a brain network differentially engaged according to the complex intertwining of the context, goal, and action (...)
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  36. Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places?Kristin Andrews - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
    I respond to an argument presented by Daniel Povinelli and Jennifer Vonk that the current generation of experiments on chimpanzee theory of mind cannot decide whether chimpanzees have the ability to reason about mental states. I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's proposed experiment is subject to their own criticisms and that there should be a more radical shift away from experiments that ask subjects to predict behavior. Further, I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's theoretical commitments should lead them (...)
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  37.  90
    Autism, theory of mind, and the reactive attitudes.Kenneth A. Richman & Raya Bidshahri - 2017 - Bioethics 32 (1):43-49.
    Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent (...)
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  38.  19
    Theory of Mind and conduct problems in children: Deficits in reading the “emotions of the eyes”.Carla Sharp - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (6):1149-1158.
    Theory of Mind (ToM, also referred to as mentalising; Fonagy, 1991; Frith & Frith, 2006) was coined by primatologists, Premack and Woodruff (1978) and adapted in developmental psychology to refer t...
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  39.  39
    Theory of Mind Development in School-Aged Left-Behind Children in Rural China.Yanchun Liu, Xuelian Yang, Jingjing Li, Erhu Kou, Huidong Tian & Heqing Huang - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:388210.
    The current study aimed to investigate differences in theory of mind between left-behind children and non-left-behind children in rural China and to examine the potential protective role of general reasoning ability in left-behind children’s theory of mind. Participants included 213 children aged 7.10 to 13.67 years (111 boys and 102 girls, M = 10.51 years, SD = 1.33), 101 of whom were left behind in rural areas by one or both migrating parents for at least 6 (...)
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  40.  19
    Theory of Mind, System-2 Thinking, and the Origins of Language.Ronald J. Planer - 2021 - In Sean Allen-Hermanson Anton Killin (ed.), Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy. Synthese Library (Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science). Springer Verlag. pp. 171-195.
    There is growing acceptance among language evolution researchers that an increase in our ancestors’ theory of mind capacities was critical to the origins of language. However, little attention has been paid to the question of how those capacities were in fact upgraded. This article develops a novel hypothesis, grounded in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, on which our theory of mind capacities improved as a result of an increase in our System-2 thinking capacities, in turn based in an (...)
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  41.  38
    Primate theory of mind is a Turing test.Robert W. Mitchell & James R. Anderson - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):127-128.
    Heyes's literature review of deception, imitation, and self-recognition is inadequate, misleading, and erroneous. The anaesthetic artifact hypothesis of self-recognition is unsupported by the data she herself examines. Her proposed experiment is tantalizing, indicating that theory of mind is simply a Turing test.
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  42.  20
    Mathematics and the Mind: An Introduction Into Ibn Sīnā’s Theory of Knowledge.Hassan Tahiri - 2015 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    Few philosophers that have been studied as much as Ibn Sīnā have been as much misunderstood. His extraordinary ability to reflect upon and write in a variety of styles about seemingly every topic in every domain has steered his thought from philosophy and theology to mysticism and esoterism. Instead of helping us to learn and understand better Ibn Sīnā than he has previously been understood, the recent surge of Avicennan studies only adds more confusion to the already complex social context (...)
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  43. Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.C. M. Heyes - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.
    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?,” it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as “want” and “know.” Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, (...)
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  44.  16
    Theory of mind: a new perspective on the puzzle of belief ascription.Gabriella Airenti - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  45.  7
    Measuring Theory of Mind in Adolescents With Language and Communication Problems: An Ecological Perspective.Lidy Smit, Harry Knoors, Inge Rabeling-Keus, Ludo Verhoeven & Constance Vissers - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    We tested if the newly designed ToMotion task reflects a single construct and if the atypical groups differ in their performance compared to typically developing peers. Furthermore, we were interested if ToMotion maps a developmental sequence in a Theory of Mind performance as exemplified by increasing difficulty of the questions asked in every item. The sample consisted of 13 adolescents that have been diagnosed with a developmental language disorder and 14 adolescents that are deaf or hard of hearing. (...)
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  46.  25
    The many theories of mind: eliminativism and pluralism in context.Joe Gough - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-22.
    In recent philosophy of science there has been much discussion of both pluralism, which embraces scientific terms with multiple meanings, and eliminativism, which rejects such terms. Some recent work focuses on the conditions that legitimize pluralism over eliminativism – the conditions under which such terms are acceptable. Often, this is understood as a matter of encouraging effective communication – the danger of these terms is thought to be equivocation, while the advantage is thought to be the fulfilment of ‘bridging roles’ (...)
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  47.  5
    The Meaning of Confucian theory of mind-heart's nature in the Age of AI. 임헌규 - 2018 - Journal of the Daedong Philosophical Association 84:123-143.
    Confucianism regarded mind-heart's nature with importance more than any other schools at all the time. Confucius was the first one to bring up the concept of mind-heart's nature in the history of chinese philosophy. Mencius was the first person to demonstrate reality of human nature's nature systematically and scientifically. Mencius was a protector to block heterodoxy after succeeding Confucius's the doctrine of mind-heart's nature. The mind-heart's nature provided by Mencius are 1) what distinguishes human beings from (...)
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  48.  12
    Assessing Theory of Mind by Humor: The Humor Comprehension and Appreciation Test (ToM-HCAT).Simge Aykan & Erhan Nalçacı - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:382586.
    Theory of Mind (ToM) may be defined as the ability to understand the mental states, such as beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions, of others. Impairment of ToM ability leads to disorders with pathologies in social skills, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. In addition to differences in ToM ability among patient populations, there is variation between neurotypical individuals. Unfortunately, ToM tasks are usually developed for children or patients with cognitive disorders and cannot detect variations in healthy adults. (...)
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  49. Cartesian Epistemology: Is the theory of the self-transparent mind innate?Peter Carruthers - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (4):28-53.
    This paper argues that a Cartesian belief in the self-transparency of minds might actually be an innate aspect of our mind-reading faculty. But it acknowledges that some crucial evidence needed to establish this claim hasn’t been looked for or collected. What we require is evidence that a belief in the self-transparency of mind is universal to the human species. The paper closes with a call to anthropologists (and perhaps also developmental psychologists), who are in a position to collect (...)
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    The Development of Theory of Mind in Saudi Children.Ruba Abdelmatloub Moawad - 2022 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 22 (1-2):164-178.
    Theory of Mind is considered a person’s ability to understand his or her own mind and the minds of others, it includes a social-cognitive skill with implications for many aspects of children’s life, such as social competence, peer acceptance and early success in school. The aims of this research were to study the development of Theory of Mind and to investigate differences in the performance of Theory of Mind tasks across age groups and (...)
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