Results for 'The holy: rational and irrational aspects'

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  1. Friedrich Schleiermacher and Rudolf Otto.Jacqueline Mariña - 2008 - In John Corrigan (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion. Oxford University Press.
    Two names often grouped together in the study of religion are Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1884) and Rudolf Otto (1869–1937). Central to their understanding of religion is the idea that religious experience, characterized in terms of feeling, lies at the heart of all genuine religion. In his book On Religion, Schleiermacher speaks of religion as a “sense and taste for the Infinite.” In The Christian Faith, Schleiermacher grounds religion in the immediate self-consciousness and the “feeling of absolute dependence.” Influenced by Schleiermacher, Otto (...)
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  2.  4
    The Significance of Irrational Aspect for the Formation of Relations in the “Teacher – Student – Teacher” System.T. E. Marinosyan - 2019 - Russian Journal of Philosophical Sciences 62 (2):58-76.
    The article is devoted to the significance of the irrational in education processes and to the role of teacher as an actor of psychological influence on the formation of child’s personality. Unfortunately, teacher education programs at universities do not properly introduce to the students all the aspects of the interaction between people, in particular in the “teacher – student” system. At the same time, in the pedagogical literature there are no special works related to this issue. Psychological theories (...)
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  3.  19
    Rationality and the Shoulds.Windy Dryden & Arthur Still - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (1):1–23.
    This paper is about rational and irrational uses of deontological words, such as “should”, “ought”, and “must”, referred to as “the shoulds”. Rationality is taken as a mutual relationship between conceptual schemes and human agency. These are expressed in what Bakhtin referred to as authoritative discourse and internally persuasive discourse respectively. When the conceptual scheme is in place and its authority transparent, and there is interplay between authoritative discourse and internally persuasive discourse, then the shoulds are perceived as (...)
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  4.  9
    The Holy, Necessary Goodness, and Morality.David Ray Griffin - 1980 - Journal of Religious Ethics 8 (2):330 - 349.
    The notion that "the holy reality wills it" can provide both the rational justification (the move from "is" to "ought") and the psychological motivation for acting morally. But can the will of God be the criterion for the morally right? Although what is right cannot be reduced to what God wills (due to the perceptual aspect of the meaning of "right"), it can be deduced from it, given an understanding of perception that implies that an omniscient perceiver would (...)
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  5.  49
    Sublimity: The Non-Rational and the Irrational in the History of Aesthetics.James Kirwan - 2005 - Routledge.
    In the history of aesthetics, few concepts have been as powerful and as elusive as the idea of the sublime, the "enthusiastic terror" that can possess us when we behold a mountain or a miracle. In his new book, James Kirwan traces the history of the sublime from its emergence in the eighteenth century to its resurgence in contemporary aesthetics. Sublimity addresses the nature of the sublime experience itself, and the function that experience has played, and continues to play, within (...)
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  6. Status Quo Bias, Rationality, and Conservatism About Value.Jacob M. Nebel - 2015 - Ethics 125 (2):449-476.
    Many economists and philosophers assume that status quo bias is necessarily irrational. I argue that, in some cases, status quo bias is fully rational. I discuss the rationality of status quo bias on both subjective and objective theories of the rationality of preferences. I argue that subjective theories cannot plausibly condemn this bias as irrational. I then discuss one kind of objective theory, which holds that a conservative bias toward existing things of value is rational. This (...)
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  7. Temporally Extended Practical Rationality and the Ethics of Belief.Emily Sherwin - unknown
    Actors may be called on to judge their reasons for action at two different points in time: once when they form an intention to act in the future and again at the time of action. At the time the actor forms her intention, her perspective is a general one, encompassing a range of possible circumstances that cannot be narrowed or fully specified in advance of action. At time of action, the actor's perspective is particularized, with more evidence available about reasons (...)
     
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  8.  32
    Rational and Irrational Intentions: An Argument for Externalism.Wilhelm Vossenkuhl - 2002 - In Verena Mayer & Sabine A. Döring (eds.), Die Moralität der Gefühle. De Gruyter. pp. 163-174.
    There is plenty of evidence, e.g. in mathematics, in the sciences, and in economics, that rationality is paramount to all other cognitive powers. There is further evidence that intentions are borne and originate in the mind. We therefore might be inclined to conclude that rational intentions are brought about in the mind internally by the best of all cognitive powers. In this case it would be enough to analyse mental representations which are antecedent to decision making in order to (...)
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  9.  32
    Rationality and Revolution.Nancy Holmstrom - 1983 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):305 - 325.
    The question of an action's rationality has two aspects: 1) the ‘appropriateness’ of the action given the beliefs held and 2) the ‘reasonableness’ of the beliefs themselves or of holding those beliefs. The former involves questions of motivation, the latter epistemology. This paper will concentrate on the former aspect of the question.One way of understanding rational motivation is so widely accepted as to seem incontrovertible to many of its proponents. This is the sense of rationality as maximization of (...)
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  10.  36
    Sublimity: The Non-Rational and the Irrational in the History of Aesthetics.Emily Brady - 2007 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (2):242-244.
  11.  48
    Freud's Dual Process Theory and the Place of the a-Rational.Linda A. W. Brakel & Howard Shevrin - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):527-528.
    In this commentary on Stanovich & West (S&W) we call attention to two points: (1) Freud's original dual process theory, which antedates others by some seventy-five years, deserves inclusion in any consideration of dual process theories. His concepts of primary and secondary processes (Systems 1 and 2, respectively) anticipate significant aspects of current dual process theories and provide an explanation for many of their characteristics. (2) System 1 is neither rational nor irrational, but instead a-rational. Nevertheless, (...)
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  12.  16
    Sublimity: The Non-Rational and the Irrational in the History of Aesthetics: Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Ronald Hepburn - 2007 - British Journal of Aesthetics 47 (2):217-219.
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  13. Thick Rationality and Normativity.Carl David Mildenberger - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 49:57-61.
    Thick ethical concepts are characterized by having both a “world-guided”/descriptive and an “action-guiding”/prescriptive aspect. The purpose of this paper is to argue that if we conceive of rationality as a thick ethical concept we will be able to understand two things. First, why people are inclined to believe that rationality – even if defined in terms of rational requirements – actually is normative. The action-guiding aspect of the concept of ‘rationality’ is responsible for this. It is highlighted for example (...)
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  14. The Myth of the Closed Mind: Understanding Why and How People Are Rational.Ray Scott Percival - 2011 - Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company.
    It’s often claimed that some people—fundamentalists or fanatics—are indeed sealed off from rational criticism. And every month new pop psychology books appear, describing the dumb ways ordinary people make decisions, as revealed by psychological experiments. The conclusion is that all or most people are fundamentally irrational. -/- Ray Scott Percival sets out to demolish the whole notion of the closed mind and of human irrationality. There is a difference between making mistakes and being irrational. Though humans are (...)
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  15.  54
    Rationalization is Irrational and Self-Serving, but Useful.Jake Quilty-Dunn - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Rationalization through reduction of cognitive dissonance does not have the function of representational exchange. Instead, cognitive dissonance is part of the “psychological immune system” and functions to protect the self-concept against evidence of incompetence, immorality, and instability. The irrational forms of attitude change that protect the self-concept in dissonance reduction are useful primarily for maintaining motivation.
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  16.  15
    The Rational and the Irrational.N. S. Mudragei - 1995 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 34 (2):46-65.
    The problem of the rational and the irrational has been one of the most important problems of philosophy since philosophy's birth, for what is philosophy if not meditation on the structure of the universe and of man, immersed in it: Is the universe rational, or is it at bottom irrational and hence unknowable and unpredictable? Are our means of coming to know being [bytie] rational, or can one reach the depths of being only through intuition, (...)
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  17.  42
    A General Theory of Acts, with Application to the Distinction Between Rational and Irrational 'Social Cognition'.A. Y. Aulin-Ahmavaara - 1977 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 8 (2):195-220.
    A general theory of acts leads to a theory of cognition distinguishing between formation of apriorical knowledge about values, norms, and cognitive beliefs, based on conditioning by means of rewards and punishments, and formation of aposteriorical knowledge based on conscious, theoretical analysis of observations. The latter, rational layer of consciousness can be built on the former, irrational layer only, if certain conditions are fulfilled. It is shown that rational cognition of values presupposes a notion of aposteriorical value, (...)
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  18.  8
    Church In The Public Sphere: Production Of Meaning Between Rational And Irrational.Stefan Bratosin - 2014 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 13 (38):3-20.
    In the public sphere and especially in the media, the discourse on the Church and about the Church on faith and religion is often tainted by the confusion of meaning due, among other things, to the mutual borrowing less rigorous – epistemologically and methodologically – of the concepts which engage various disciplines (theology, sociology, anthropology, political science, information and communication science, and so on) who take possession of problematic centered on the relation between mankind and divinity. This article presents some (...)
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  19. Aspects of the Theory of Qualitative Rational Belief Change.Stephen Murray Glaister - 1999 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    If we suppose that reasonable belief is reasonable not because it has a foundation but because it is self-correcting, and that bodies of reasonable belief are self-correctable in virtue of their web-like internal structure, then it becomes natural to ask for explicit accounts both of self-correction itself, and of the web-like internal structure that makes self-correction possible: The theory of rational belief change. ;In this essay we study qualitative, logical theories of rational belief change, in particular the AGM (...)
     
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  20.  18
    The Rational and the Irrational As Experience.Erazim Kohák - 1978 - Idealistic Studies 8 (3):220-232.
    The purpose of this paper is not to theorize but to examine the primordial perceptions of “the rational” and “the irrational” on which our theoretical judgments are based. We do not question the importance of such judgments. But, unless they build on a clear experiential foundation—even if by inverting it—their results remain arbitrary. Whether we wish to deal with the real and the derivative, the true and the false, the good and the evil, or, as in our case, (...)
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  21.  13
    Expecting the Unexpected: Goal Recognition for Rational and Irrational Agents.Peta Masters & Sebastian Sardina - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 297:103490.
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  22.  41
    Bostock David. Logic and Arithmetic. Volume 1. Natural Numbers. The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1974, X + 219 Pp.Bostock David. Logic and Arithmetic. Volume 2. Rational and Irrational Numbers. The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1979, Ix + 307 Pp. [REVIEW]Michael D. Resnik - 1982 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 47 (3):708-713.
  23.  6
    Indignation, Practical Rationality and Our Moral Life: A Grammatical Investigation.Jônadas Techio - 2016 - [email protected] - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 15 (2):260-278.
    This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational (...)
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  24.  30
    Adaptive Rationality, Biases, and the Heterogeneity Hypothesis.Andrea Polonioli - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):787-803.
    Adaptive rationality theorists question the manner in which psychologists have typically assessed rational behavior and cognition. According to them, human rationality is adaptive, and the biases reported in the psychological literature are best seen as the result of using normative standards that are too narrow. As it turns out, their challenge is also quite controversial, and several aspects of it have been called into question. Yet, whilst it is often suggested that the lack of cogency comes about due (...)
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  25.  16
    The Little Word “As.” On Making Contexts and Aspects Explicit.Konrad Werner - 2020 - Axiomathes 30 (1):69-90.
    The word “as” enables one to make contexts and aspects of things explicit while attributing properties or descriptions to them. For example “John is rational as a mathematician”; “John is irrational as a driver.” This paper examines the idea according to which all propositions containing “as” should be targeted as potential inferences about the subject; as for the examples given—about John. If the inference is valid—the conception in question holds—one can get rid of “as.” I argue against (...)
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  26. Philo of Alexandria on the Rational and Irrational Emotions.David Winston - 2008 - In John T. Fitzgerald (ed.), Passions and Moral Progress in Greco-Roman Thought. Routledge.
  27. A Philosophical Discourse of the Nature of Rational and Irrational Souls.S. M. - 1695 - Printed, and Are to Be Sold by Richard Baldwin.
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  28. The Rational and the Irrational in Society.Carl Mayer - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
     
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  29. The Holy Qurʼan: With English Translation of the Arabic Text and Commentary According to the Version of the Holy Ahlul-Bait: With Special Notes From Ayatullah Agha Haji Mirza Mahdi Pooya Yazdi on the Philosophic Aspects of Some of the Verses.Ahmed Ali & V. S. (eds.) - 1988 - Tahrike Tarsile Qurʼan.
  30.  1
    Indignation, Practical Rationality and Our Moral Life: A Grammatical Investigation.Jônadas Techio - 2016 - [email protected]: An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 15 (2):260-278.
    This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational (...)
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  31. Unconscious Rationalization, Or: How (Not) to Think About Awfulness and Death.Jake Quilty-Dunn - manuscript
    Many contemporary epistemologists take rational inference to be a conscious action performed by the thinker (Boghossian 2014; 2018; Valaris 2014; Malmgren 2018). It is tempting to think that rational evaluability requires responsibility, which in turn requires conscious action. In that case, unconscious cognition involves merely associative or otherwise arational processing. This paper argues instead for deep rationalism: unconscious inference often exhibits the same rational status and richly structured logical character as conscious inference. The central case study is (...)
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  32.  32
    Rationality, Reason and the History of Thought.M. Lane Bruner - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (2):185-208.
    Philosophers over the course of the last century, including Edmund Husserl, Chaim Perelman, and Jacques Derrida, have attempted to unravel the tangled relationship between the rational and the reasonable in order to understand how the history of thought progresses. Critical political theorists, including Michel Foucault and Ernesto Laclau have also investigated this issue from a range of perspectives, especially as it relates to the relationship between ideational limits and their transgression and the universal and the particular. This essay compares (...)
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  33.  1
    A General Theory of Acts, with Application to the Distinction Between Rational and Irrational ‘Social Cognition’.A. Y. Aulin-Ahmavaara - 1977 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 8 (2):195-220.
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  34.  43
    The Limited Rationality of Democracy: Schumpeter as the Founder of Irrational Choice Theory.Manfred Prisching - 1995 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 9 (3):301-324.
    Joseph Schumpeter's work has been all too selectively appropriated by public choice theorists. Schumpeter criticized the high level of rationality the classical model of democracy imputes to citizens, and he provided an alternative theory, inspiring rational choice theory and allowing for diverse forms of irrationality. Following in Schumpeter's footsteps I will discuss four problems: the deficient rationality of voters, politicians as ?political entrepreneurs,? leadership in democracy and the rise of the ?political class,? and the affinity between democracy and capitalism.
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  35.  52
    Rationality and the Genetic Challenge: Making People Better?Matti Häyry - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Seven ways of making people better; 2. Rational approaches to the genetic challenge; 3. The best babies and parental responsibility; 4. Deaf embryos, morality, and the law; 5. Saviour siblings and treating people as a means; 6. Reproductive cloning and designing human beings; 7. Embryonic stem cells, vulnerability, and sanctity; 8. Gene therapies, hopes, and fears; 9. Considerable life extension and the meaning of life; 10. Taking the genetic challenge rationally.
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  36.  13
    The Loss of the Holy Land and Sir Isumbras: Literary Contributions to Fourteenth-Century Crusade Discourse.Lee Manion - 2010 - Speculum 85 (1):65-90.
    In the late thirteenth century, western Europe suffered the notable disgrace of losing the last of the Christian strongholds in mainland Syria with the fall of Acre in 1291, and yet throughout the early fourteenth century Western powers were unable to launch a crusade to recover the Holy Land despite repeated and costly attempts. Until not long ago, historians of the crusades had interpreted the inaction of the fourteenth century as a sign that the age of true crusading was (...)
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  37. Rational Deliberation and the Sense of Freedom.Dana Kay Nelkin - 1995 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    In this dissertation, I offer an interpretation and defense of the following argument for the claim that we--together with all rational deliberators--are free: rational deliberators necessarily possess a sense of freedom in virtue of their nature as rational deliberators, and if rational deliberators, in virtue of their nature as rational deliberators, necessarily possess a sense of freedom, then they are free. Therefore, rational deliberators are free. ;I offer two related arguments for , each of (...)
     
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  38.  45
    The Rational and the Social.James Robert Brown - 1989 - Routledge.
    THE SOCIOLOGICAL TURN The problem we are concerned with is just this: How should we understand science? Are we to account for scientific knowledge (or ...
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  39.  35
    Rational Choice Theory at the Origin? Forms and Social Factors of “Irrational Choice”.Milan Zafirovski - 2016 - Social Epistemology 30 (5-6):728-763.
    The paper addresses the ‘rational choice only’ reconstruction, characterization, and interpretation of classical and neoclassical economics. It argues that such a reconstruction is inaccurate failing to do justice to the dual theoretical character of classical/neoclassical economics. The paper instead proposes and shows that the latter involves not only elements of ‘rational choice theory’ but also those of an alternative conception. It identifies various and important ideas, observations, and implications of irrational choice and action within classical/neoclassical economics. One (...)
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  40. Rationality and the Refusal of Medical Treatment: A Critique of the Recent Approach of the English Courts.M. Stauch - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (3):162-165.
    This paper criticises the current approach of the courts to the problem of patients who refuse life-saving medical treatment. Recent judicial decisions have indicated that, so long as the patient satisfies the minimal test for capacity outlined in Gillick, the courts will not be concerned with the substantive grounds for the refusal. In particular, a 'rationality requirement' will not be imposed. This paper argues that, whilst this approach may accord with our desire to uphold the autonomy of a patient who (...)
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  41.  29
    Normative Models of Rational Agency: The Theoretical Disutility of Certain Approaches.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (6):597-613.
    Much of cognitive science seeks to provide principled descriptions of various kinds and aspects of rational behaviour, especially in beings like us or AI simulacra of beings like us. For the most part, these investigators presuppose an unarticulated common sense appreciation of the rationality that such behaviour consists in. On those occasions when they undertake to bring the relevant norms to the surface and to give an account of that to which they owe their legitimacy, these investigators tend (...)
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  42.  17
    How Universities Can Best Respond to the Climate Crisis and Other Global Problems.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Philosophies 1.
    The world is in a state of crisis. Global problems that threaten our future include: the climate crisis; the destruction of natural habitats, catastrophic loss of wild life, and mass extinction of species; lethal modern war; the spread of modern armaments; the menace of nuclear weapons; pollution of earth, sea and air; rapid rise in the human population; increasing antibiotic resistance; the degradation of democratic politics, brought about in part by the internet. It is not just that universities around the (...)
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  43. Holiness.Jacqueline Mariña - 2010 - In Charles Taliaferro, Paul Draper & Phil Quinn (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Religion. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This essay analyzes the category of “the holy” as developed by Rudolf Otto, examining his division of the holy into rational and non-rational elements. While rational elements of the holy are closely tied to ethics, another aspect of the holy can only be apprehended through sui generis feelings irreducible to other mental states. But how do non-rational elements relate to rational, ethical categories? I trace the distinction between rational and non- (...) elements in Otto’s analysis to Kant’s two faculty psychology: the holy is apprehended in one way through feeling, in another way through thought, but a single ultimate reality is experienced. (shrink)
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  44.  51
    Rationality and the Tu Quoque Argument.Joseph Agassi - 1973 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 16 (1-4):395 – 406.
    The tu quoque argument is the argument that since in the end rationalism rests on an irrational choice of and commitment to rationality, rationalism is as irrational as any other commitment. Popper's and Polanyi's philosophies of science both accept the argument, and have on that account many similarities; yet Popper manages to remain a rationalist whereas Polanyi decided for an irrationalist version of rationalism. This is more marked in works of their respective followers, W. W. Bartley III and (...)
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  45. The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism.Alison Hills - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Part One introduces three different versions of egoism. Part Two looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false, and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. But in part Three, Hills defends morality and develops a new problem for (...)
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  46. Suicide is Neither Rational nor Irrational.Christopher Cowley - 2006 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (5):495 - 504.
    Richard Brandt, following Hume, famously argued that suicide could be rational. In this he was going against a common ‘absolutist’ view that suicide is irrational almost by definition. Arguments to the effect that suicide is morally permissible or prohibited tend to follow from one’s position on this first issue of rationality. I want to argue that the concept of rationality is not appropriately ascribed – or withheld – to the victim or the act or the desire to commit (...)
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  47.  23
    Rational Cooperation, Irrational Retaliation.Joe Mintoff - 1993 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74 (4):362-380.
    David Gauthier has argued that, under certain conditions, cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma is rational. A crucial principle he employs in this argument, however, also implies the pointless retaliation after a failed threat could also be rational. In this paper, I introduce one possible reformulation of the Cooperation Argument, by replacing its second premise with a principle connecting rationally adopted intentions, rational action, and rational reconsideration, and a specific theory of rational reconsideration. I then argue (...)
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  48. Rationality and the Human Good.Warren Quinn - 1992 - Social Philosophy and Policy 9 (2):81.
    In this essay I want to look at some questions concerning the relation between morality and rationality in the recommendations they make about the best way to live our lives and achieve our good. Specifically, I want to examine ways in which the virtue of practical rationality and the various moral virtues might be thought to part company, giving an agent conflicting directives regarding how best to live his life. In conducting this enquiry, I shall at some crucial points be (...)
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  49.  56
    Religion, Rationality, and Experience: A Response to the New Rational Choice Theory of Religion.Colin Jerolmack & Douglas Porpora - 2004 - Sociological Theory 22 (1):140-160.
    This paper is a critical response to the newest version of the rational choice theory of religion (RCTR). In comparison with previous critiques, this paper takes aim at RCTR's foundational assumption of psychological egoism and argues that the thesis of psychological egoism is untenable. Without that thesis, the normative aspects of religious commitment cannot be reduced validly to instrumental reason. On neither conceptual nor empirical grounds therefore can religion or religious commitment be defined comprehensively in terms of exchange (...)
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  50.  30
    The Rational and the Moral Order: The Social Roots of Reason and Morality. [REVIEW]Sarah Stroud - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (4):577.
    The first four chapters develop his account of reason and reasons in general. Baier calls actions, beliefs, and feelings that can be assessed as rational or irrational “performances”. He argues that the aim of the enterprise of reason is to arrive at performances that are as good as possible ; in order to further this aim, societies promulgate guidelines of rationality. Baier thinks that a being cannot be fully rational unless it has the benefit of such publicly (...)
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