The aim of this paper is to critically inquire into some of the interpretations of what appears to me to be the core of Hobbes's political philosophy: his concept of political obligation. And in so doing I will provide a new way of reading the problem of obedience in Hobbes, one that does not dismiss the limits of political obligation and the theological context that surrounds it.
Neither the lived body, taken up by Merleau-Ponty after Husserl, nor the libidinal body theorised by psychanalysts after Freud, can be reduced to the counted, measured, physical body, apprehended only from outside. Both phenomenology and psychoanalysis set forth the priority of a global subjective lived body, approached "from within". However, their perspectives seem to differ when it comes to the conception of the interiority of this lived body, which psychoanalysis deems as imaginary. This paper examines the similarities and discrepancies between (...) the Merleau-Pontyan phenomenological body and the Freudian erogenous body. It attempts to show how the very categories of perception and imagination are reversed when moving from one discipline to the other. It concludes by proposing some lines along which the comparison could be prolonged. 2012 APA, all rights reserved). (shrink)
The Catholics order is from the way they worship to the way they behave. Protestants, on the other hand, commence with the question, ‘What are we to believe?’ The Protestant order would therefore be lex credendi, lex orandi, lex vivendi. Lex credendi is the law of belief. Lex orandi, lex credendi, literally means the law of prayer is the law of belief or the law of praying constitutes or establishes the law of believing. As we believe, so we live forms (...) the basis and foundation of both the Catholic doctrine and the Catholic moral life. Lex orandi, the law of prayer has to do with the enactment of the liturgy itself. In this article, I argue that the liturgy of life makes apparent what we believe. Lex vivendi [the rule of life] therefore pertains to how one should conduct oneself in a specified way, especially in relation to others regarding the teachings of the church as well as to ethical and social questions. Lex vivendi has to do with the faithful living of the Gospel. This article will therefore attend to the following: the meaning of lex credendi, lex orandi, lex vivendi; expansion of adage to lex orandi, lex credendi, lex vivendi; justice and lex orandi, lex credendi, lex vivendi; interplay between lex credendi, lex orandi, lex vivendi in Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa.Contribution: From the perspective of Protestant dogmatics, this article aims to contribute to the reflection on the notion fides quaerens intellectum [faith seeks understanding]. (shrink)
The validity of Husserl’s early apprehension/content of apprehension schema of intentionality has long been a subject of dispute. In the case of phantasy, commentators often assert that the talk of “non-intentional content,” i.e. the phantasm, is abandoned in Husserl’s mature phenomenology of phantasy, and his subsequent theory of reproductive consciousness aims precisely to replace the previous schema. Against the current dismissive stance in the literature, this paper argues for the centrality of the concept of phantasm in the phenomenology of phantasy. (...) This is achieved in three steps. First, I argue for a functional interpretation of the schema, which maintains that it is not an empirical-genetic account of how non-intentional “sense-data” is transformed into presentations of intentional objects, but a structural exposition of the essential moments of objectifying consciousness. Second, I revisit Husserl’s theory of reproductive consciousness, arguing that in reproduction, what is reproduced is not only the noetic experience but also the hyletic substrate. Hence, the theory of reproductive consciousness, far from calling for an abandonment of the concept of phantasm, instead clarifies this concept and its function in phantasy. To fortify the point that the phantasm is crucial for the phenomenology of phantasy, I examine two features of phantasy, namely the perspectivalness of phantasized objects and the experience of my phantasy Ego being the “zero point of orientation” in phantasy, arguing that these two essential features can only be accounted for by appealing to the concept of phantasm. (shrink)
In this paper, I present a critique of taxonomic pluralism, namely the view that there are multiple correct ways to classify entities into natural kinds within a given scientific domain. I argue that taxonomic pluralism, as an anti-essentialist position, fails to provide a realist alternative to taxonomic monism, i.e., the view that there is only one correct way to classify entities into natural kinds within a given scientific domain. To establish my argument, I first explain why the naturalist approach to (...) natural kinds adopted by pluralists requires them to give up the mind-independence criterion of reality presupposed by monists. Next, I survey two types of pluralist account. I argue that, while the modest pluralist account is not pluralistic enough, the radical pluralist account fails to come up with an alternative criterion of reality that is robust enough to differentiate its position from anti-realism about natural kinds. I conclude by drawing out the implications of my critique for the essentialism/anti-essentialism debate about natural kinds. (shrink)
Trish Glazebrook has written an interesting book, and philosophers who care for Heidegger’s writing will do well to read it. The book is fertile and suggestive; it spans a large number of Heidegger’s writings, famous and obscure, and it presents Heidegger’s thinking on science from the same important variety of perspectives that Heidegger himself deems necessary to all philosophizing: science as a thought-system in need of theoretical grounding; science as a practice that involves an existential commitment by the practitioner; science (...) as a cultural possibility within an institutional setting; science as a body of knowledge that has a history; science as a way of comportment in which the world is disclosed. She shows that these perspectives belong together, and thus produces an interesting narrative in which Heidegger’s famous later critique of technology grows more or less directly out of his disastrous attempt at managing university politics, which in turn results from his Kant-and Aristotle-inspired thought on contemporary physics. In the end, Glazebrook can justifiably “hope to have awakened in others an interest in Heidegger’s philosophy of science.” And perhaps to have added momentum to the burgeoning literature on just this topic. (shrink)
En este artículo nos ocupamos de la Polémica conceptual entre la lectura de la metafísica de Aristóteles que hace el profesor suizo André de Muralt, que se vertebra sobre la doctrina analogía del ser, y la interpretación de Pierre Aubenque, que defiende una Interpretación aporética, que niega la presencia de tal doctrina en los textos aristotélicos. Esbozaremos, por tanto, dos imágenes muy distintas del pensamiento aristotélico. El Aristóteles de Aubenque es un filósofo que fracasa en su pretensión científica y que (...) acaba reconociendo la imposibilidad de unificación de la ciencia física y la ciencia de los principios, inaugurando un pensamiento del límite y del ideal inalcanzable de la perfecta univocidad, lo que constituye el problema de/ser que no alcanza una solución El Aristóteles de Muralt es el artífice de la invención del discurso metafísico, que se estructura sistemáticamente, proveyendo los temas, los conceptos y las grandes líneas de fuerza que en su desarrollo analógico impulsarán el nacimiento de las diversas formas del pensamiento Occidental. (shrink)
In this note we introduce the notion of Kâplayer additive extension of a symmetric two-player game and prove a result relating the equilibria in mixed strategies in the two games. Then we apply the result to the Borda electoral competition game.
The Diagnosis Confirmation Model includes a dual-pricing mechanism designed to support value-based pricing of novel antibiotics while improving the alignment of financial incentives with their optimal use in patients at high risk of drug-resistant infections. DCM is a market-based model and complementary to delinked models. Policymakers interested in stimulating antibiotic innovation could consider tailoring the DCM to their reimbursement systems and incorporating it into the suite of incentives to improve the economics of antibiotics.
Influential in shaping the practice of Chinese medicine, acupuncture is an ancient form of healing based on theories of traditional medicine. The clashes between western science and traditional knowledge have ushered Chinese medicine into a new era, so has acupuncture. The major challenges facing researchers are whether it is feasible to scientificize acupuncture and how to do so if feasible. Causing unprecedented responses at home and abroad, the publication of The New Acupuncture ( Xin zhenjiu xue ???? ) by Zhu (...) Lian (1909-1987) in 1951 dramatized the already heated discussion. This medical treatise was considered as the pioneer in scientification of acupuncture in mainland China since 1949. The purpose of this paper is to (1) put Zhu Lian’s The New Acupuncture and its relevant discussions back into the historical context of Chinese medicine in mainland China and Hong Kong in the 1950s, and (2) analyze the arguments set forth by her and other practitioners so as to get a clearer picture of how the issue on scientificizing acupuncture was being dealt with. (shrink)
Contemporary virtue epistemologists who write about education have often failed to answer two rather fundamental questions: firstly, “Why cultivate intellectual virtues?” Secondly, and more fundamentally, “Why ought children to learn? That is, how should we conceive of the epistemic goal of education?” In addressing this latter question, I posit that cognitive flourishing is the comprehensive epistemic goal of education that can serve as the basis for virtue-focused epistemology of education. After establishing this point, I then argue that a well-grounded virtue-centered (...) epistemology of education would be possible after addressing the following three questions: 1) what is a cognitively good life? 2) how does it relate to understanding? and 3) what is the relationship between understanding and intellectual virtues? (shrink)
This thesis presents an interpretation of David Hume’s essay ‘Of the Standard of Taste’. The most distinguishing feature of this interpretation is the emphasis placed on the significance of Hume’s general philosophical position in a faithful reading of this philosophical classic. The success of this interpretation will show that Hume’s essay should be read as an integral part of his system of philosophy. There are three parts in this thesis. The first part is an overview of some key aspects of (...) Hume’s philosophy which are relevant to my interpretation. Unlike many contemporary philosophers in the analytic tradition, Hume is a systematic thinker. A faithful reading of his works should take his general philosophical framework seriously. Therefore, this overview of his system serves as the general background of the next two parts. The second part is a discussion of Hume’s aesthetic thought. More specifically, it provides an exposition of his view on beauty and judgements of beauty. This part completes the stage-setting for the development of my interpretation, by helping the reader form a more specific conceptual framework for understanding Hume’s essay. The third part develops an interpretation of ‘Of the Standard of Taste’ according to what has been provided in the previous two parts. It starts with an outline of the essay, which indicates Hume’s aim in writing it. After that, a few sections are devoted to some central elements of the essay. The last section of this part discusses four controversies concerning Hume’s essay. These discussions establish the strength of this interpretation, or at least, the fruitful prospect of an interpretative project that integrates Hume’s essay into his whole system. (shrink)
The purpose of this article was to validate the published artificial intelligence facilities management outsourcing relationships system by real business cases in the working environment. The research aims to inspire the modern FM professionals in different industries with some challenging and innovative concepts about FM outsourcing relationships between facilities owners and service providers. First, it will briefly introduce the theory of the FM outsourcing relationships system on how it can help the FM seniors and strategists to design their FM daily (...) strategies wisely and make their business more effective and productive. Second, it will also introduce what the research is practically doing in the stage of case study for test and verification. It is concluded that FM outsourcing categorization may help to define the appropriate relationships. This further detailed outcome generated from the AI can be considered a solid reference to define and explain the existing outsourcing relationships between the stakeholders and the service providers to assign an outsourcing category to the FM relationship between the client and service provider based on the learnt rules. (shrink)
I want to express my own position on the introduction of Christian ethics in the school course. The problem, which is being actively discussed in Ukrainian society - the problem of spirituality - has been particularly intensified today in connection with the initiatives of the President of the State on the early implementation of the Ethics of Faith in school education. This idea added additional headache to the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, opened the hands of some church (...) figures in their ambitions and raised many questions for scholars who still cannot decide what it is - the ethics of faith. (shrink)
This essay attempts to approach the dispute over the conceptualist or non-conceptualist interpretation of Husserl’s conception of intentional experience from a specific question: Is the intuitive act essentially a carrier of meaning? In the sixth Investigation, Husserl apparently tries to show that intuition is no carrier of meaning and therefore must be unified with a meaning-conferring act in order to be meaningful. But it seems to me that the brief arguments given by Husserl here are far from conclusive and that (...) there are passages in the Logical Investigations which suggest otherwise. I will try to demonstrate that the sense conferred by the interpretation in perception is not different from linguistic meaning, and therefore perception is actually a synthetic act of fulfillment and is always meaningful. The conceptualist reading is no less convincing and no less susceptible to objections than the non-conceptualist one. (shrink)
An almost unheard-of analogy : Derrida reading Levinas -- This monstrous figure without figure or face -- Ça me regarde : regarding responsibility in Derrida -- The ghost of Jacques Derrida -- Phantasmaphotography -- By the board : Derrida approaching Blanchot -- Salutations : between Derrida and Nancy.
Christianity has exerted invaluable influence on all spheres of human existence, first of all spiritual. Religious systems, being the same content for many nations, have a different effect on the history and consciousness of these peoples.Religious situation in Ukraine at the end of the XVI century. is marked by complexity. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, Ukrainian Orthodoxy, along with Catholicism, became dominant in the Commonwealth. But the episcopate of the Kievan Metropolitanate, worried about increasing its own and church (...) holdings, paid little attention to the training of staff for the Orthodox Church, the education of young people. At the same time, Catholic orders that appeared in Ukraine after the union, were active missionary work. Over time, they permeated all spheres of public life of the Ukrainian people. The prestige of Orthodoxy began to fall, causing the gentry to convert to Catholicism. The situation was complicated by the so-called right of "submission" to the king and "patronage" of the gentry, especially when the "patron" of Orthodox laymen became a Catholic or Protestant. Kievan Metropolis gradually embraced church disorder. (shrink)