The study of ethical leadership has emerged as an important topic for understanding the effects of leadership in organizations. In a study with 845 working adults across multiple organizations, the relationships between ethical leadership with positive employee outcomes were examined. Results suggest that ethical leadership is related to both psychological well-being and job satisfaction in employees, but the processes are different. Employee voice mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and psychological well-being. Feelings of psychological ownership mediated the relationship between ethical (...) leadership and job satisfaction. A discussion of theoretical and practical implications concludes the article. (shrink)
This essay examines how Tārā ‘reclaims’ the discourse of enlightenment for Buddhist women and feminist theologians. Despite universal concern for the liberation of all beings, Buddhahood in mainstream texts and narratives was confined to male deities and masters, or females that switched their genders in their final rebirth. Furthermore, Tārā’s senior male bodhisattvas, Avalokiteśvara and Mañjuśrî, overwhelmingly monopolized compassion and wisdom as the latters’ embodiments. This study proposes how Tārā’s theology gradually came to distinguish her from her male colleagues and (...) reclaim the state of Buddhahood. Tārā is an unequivocally female Buddha in Vajrayāna Buddhism because she has managed to assimilate these theological virtues that were essentially reserved as masculine, correcting them as genderless qualities without identity. Tārā’s legitimization sets a concrete precedent for the title of ‘Buddha’ to be included amongst the categories of feminine faith and practice. (shrink)
The Mathematical Intelligencer recently published a note by Y. Sergeyev that challenges both mathematics and intelligence. We examine Sergeyev’s claims concerning his purported Infinity computer. We compare his grossone system with the classical Levi-Civita fields and with the hyperreal framework of A. Robinson, and analyze the related algorithmic issues inevitably arising in any genuine computer implementation. We show that Sergeyev’s grossone system is unnecessary and vague, and that whatever consistent subsystem could be salvaged is subsumed entirely within a stronger and (...) clearer system. Lou Kauffman, who published an article on a grossone, places it squarely outside the historical panorama of ideas dealing with infinity and infinitesimals. (shrink)
Recognizing gaps in our present understanding of leader apologies, this investigation examines how followers appraise leader apologies and how these perceptions impact work-related outcomes. Results indicate that followers who viewed their leader as trustworthy or caring before a leader wrongdoing were more likely to perceive their leader’s apology to be sincere, as compared to followers who previously doubted their leader’s trustworthiness and caring. Attributions of apology sincerity affected follower reactions, with followers perceiving sincere apologies reporting greater trust in leadership, satisfaction (...) with supervision, leader–member exchange quality, affective organizational commitment, and forgiveness than those reporting insincere or no apologies. A mediation model was supported, showing that attributions of apology sincerity fostered perceptions of humility, which enhanced perceptions of transformational leadership, and consequently garnered more positive follower reactions. (shrink)
Ayn Rand's first novel, We the Living, offers an early form of the author's nascent philosophy—the philosophy Rand later called Objectivism. Robert Mayhew's collection of entirely new essays brings together pre-eminent scholars of Rand's writing. In part a history of We the Living, from its earliest drafts to the Italian film later based upon it, Mayhew's collection goes on to explore the enduring significance of Rand's first novel as a work both of philosophy and of literature.
This is the first scholarly study of Atlas Shrugged, covering in detail the historical, literary, and philosophical aspects of Ayn Rand's magnum opus. Topics explored in depth include the history behind the novel's creation, publication, and reception; its nature as a romantic novel; and its presentation of a radical new philosophy.
Popular podcast host and author of The Bible Recap offers 90 scriptural devotions to get into the Word and gain a deeper understanding of the character of our Heavenly Father--what He says and does, what He loves and hates, and what motivates Him to do what He does.
This paper explores the work of Nicolas Rashevsky, a Russian émigré theoretical physicist who developed a program in "mathematical biophysics" at the University of Chicago during the 1930s. Stressing the complexity of many biological phenomena, Rashevsky argued that the methods of theoretical physics -- namely mathematics -- were needed to "simplify" complex biological processes such as cell division and nerve conduction. A maverick of sorts, Rashevsky was a conspicuous figure in the biological community during the 1930s and early 1940s: he (...) participated in several Cold Spring Harbor symposia and received several years of funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. However, in contrast to many other physicists who moved into biology, Rashevsky's work was almost entirely theoretical, and he eventually faced resistance to his mathematical methods. Through an examination of the conceptual, institutional, and scientific context of Rashevsky's work, this paper seeks to understand some of the reasons behind this resistance. (shrink)
Omar Khadr was arrested at the age of 15 by the U.S military and has remained in custody in Guantanamo for 8 years. Today, he plead guilty to five war crime charges. Despite stating in open court last summer that he would not plead guilty, today he muttered a confession. In accordance with the plea bargain, Khadr plead guilty to murder, attempted murder, conspiracy, providing material support to terrorists, and spying. Following this, a jury imposed the harshest possible sentence, 40 (...) years imprisonment. Khadr may receive parole after eight years. The first year of this sentence will be served in Gauntanamo, following which he may be repatriated. The government of Canada does not have to repatriate Khadr, nor is parole guaranteed. Rather than hypothesizing outcomes, I want to discuss the case philosophically. (shrink)
This essay contends that the debate between subjectivism and objectivism in ethics is better understood as a dispute among three alternatives: subjectivism, objectivism, and intrinsicism. Ayn Rand has identified intrinsicism – the belief that certain things are good “in, by, and of” themselves – as the doctrine that is actually operative in many defenses of moral objectivity. What intrinsicism fails to appreciate, however, is the significant role of the subject, the person to whom and for whom anything can be valuable. (...) Objective value, in Rand's view, is relational. Its existence depends on contributions of both external reality and human consciousness. Values are not reducible to psychological states, as in subjectivism, but nor are they independent of them, as in intrinsicism. Objectivity in ethics is attained neither through revelation of the intrinsic property of goodness nor through the subject's creation of goodness, but through a rational procedure of evaluation that is governed by the method of objectivity. This essay is in three parts, explaining Rand's view of exactly what intrinsicism is; elaborating on her view of the nature of moral objectivity; and highlighting certain features that make plain the differences between an intrinsicist and an objectivist account of value. (shrink)
Ayn Rand is well known for advocating egoism, but the substance of that instruction is rarely understood. Far from representing the rejection of morality, selfishness, in Rand's view, actually demands the practice of a systematic code of ethics. This book explains the fundamental virtues that Rand considers vital for a person to achieve their objective well-being: rationality, honesty, independence, justice, integrity, productiveness, and pride. Tracing Rand's account of the value and harmony of human beings' rational interests, Smith examines what each (...) of these virtues consists of, why it is a virtue, and what it demands of people in practice. Along the way she addresses the status of several conventional virtues within Rand's theory, considering traits such as kindness, charity, generosity, temperance, courage, forgiveness, and humility. Ayn Rand's Normative Ethics thus offers an in-depth exploration of several specific virtues and an illuminating integration of these with the broader theory of egoism. (shrink)
The aim of this study was to investigate the ethical dilemma of prioritising financial resources to expensive biological therapies. For this purpose, the four principles of biomedical ethics formulated by ethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress were used as a theoretical framework. Based on arguments of justice, Beauchamp and Childress advocate for a health care system organised in line with the Danish system. Notably, our study was carried out in a Danish setting.
Ayn Rand is well known for advocating egoism, but the substance of that instruction is rarely understood. Far from representing the rejection of morality, selfishness, in Rand's view, actually demands the practice of a systematic code of ethics. This book explains the fundamental virtues that Rand considers vital for a person to achieve his objective well-being: rationality, honesty, independence, justice, integrity, productiveness, and pride. Tracing Rand's account of the harmony of human beings' rational interests, Smith examines what each of these (...) virtues consists of, why it is a virtue, and what it demands of a person in practice. Along the way she addresses the status of several conventional virtues within Rand's theory, considering traits such as kindness, charity, generosity, temperance, courage, forgiveness, and humility. Ayn Rand's Normative Ethics thus offers an in-depth exploration of several specific virtues and an illuminating integration of these with the broader theory of egoism. (shrink)
Women in the business school are beginning to assume characteristics that will prove both ineffective and detrimental in the workplace. This paper seeks to present a framework for understanding these changes as well as their implications. We present several testable hypotheses as well as suggestions for easing the tensions felt by women in business settings.
Three partners founded the Grenada Chocolate Company in 1999: Mott Green, Doug Browne and Edmond Brown. Several years ago Doug passed away of cancer and in June 2013 Mott suffered a fatal electrocution while repairing a piece of equipment. Edmond was now thrust into the leadership position and left to decide what direction GCC should take. The GCC product line was becoming increasingly popular both on the island and internationally and demand was high,but the original vision for the company was (...) to produce bean-to-bar chocolates while providing a fair wage to the local employees and farmers. Expansion could be an option for Edmond and GCC, but was it possible to expand and stay true to the ideas on which GCC was founded? (shrink)
There is one theme that appears in one way or another in all the selections of this issue—the role of the dialectic in A.F. Losev's early philosophical thought. The first selection—the last three chapters of Losev's The Dialectics of Myth—demonstrates his dialectical phenomenology at work: chapter 12 defines myth by negation, by contrasting it with other related concepts, chapter 13 comes up with synthetic positive definitions, and chapter 14 looks forward to a dialectically constructed philosophical interpretation of the Orthodox faith. (...) V.L. Marchenkov's full translation of Losev's book—the first substantial translation of any of Losev's works into English—will be published by Routledge in 2003. (shrink)
Russian philosophers have always been interested in Descartes's thought and the philosophical movements, particularly the phenomeno-logical movement, which grew out of it. Some of them, notably Gustav Shpet and Murab Mamardashvili, were even influenced by and contributed to the development of transcendental phenomenology. Except for N. V. Motroshilova's paper, this issue deals with Descartes and the Cartesian tradition in modern philosophy rather than their influence in Russia. The articles presented here are recent studies by Russian philosophers of Descartes's ideas and (...) their influence in European thought. The last article in this area to appear in our journal was Iu. D. Artamonova's analysis of Descartes's and Aristotle's conceptions of the mind. The familiarity with primary sources and the sophistication of the argumentation in the selections presented here confirm the fact that the history of philosophy was one of the strongest and most interesting branches of Soviet philosophy. (shrink)
Since perestroika, popular interest in the ideas of Pavel Florenskii has declined, but scholarly interest in them has increased steadily. In Russia an authoritative four-volume collection of his works came out in 1994-99 and a fifteen-volume collection has been planned. His largest and most important work, The Pillar and Ground of the Truth [Stolp i utverzhdenie istiny] was reprinted in Moscow in 1990 and was translated into English in 1997. An Italian translation has been available since 1974 and a French (...) one since 1975. A German translation is under way. The first three volumes of a ten-volume German collection of his works have come out. There is a dearth of English translations and studies of Florenskii's work. The only book-length study is R. Slesinski's Pavel Florensky: A Metaphysics of Love. The most solid and extensive research on Florenskii is done in Germany and it is fully covered by M. Hagemeister's bibliographies, which appear among the papers of two international conferences on Florenskii. The papers of the first conference, which took place in 1988 in Bergamo, were published as PA. Florenskij i kul'tura ego vremeni / P.A. Florenskij e la cultura della sua epoca in 1995 and those of the second conference, which took place in Potsdam in 2000, as Pavel Florenskij—Tradition und Moderne in 2001. Our journal has published a translation of Florenskii's "Avtoreferat " and two articles on him— one on his relation to contemporary Orthodox theology and one on his importance to the future Russian culture. (shrink)
The first selection in this issue is the fullest available biography of G.G. Shpet. Written by his grandson, it is particularly interesting for its attempt to place Shpet in the social and cultural context of his time. There are a number of inaccuracies in it, to which Shpet's daughter by the second marriage, Marina Gustavovich Shtorkh, has drawn attention. Shpet's birthday is March 26, not 25 OS. Shpet's mother did not marry a distant relative; the boy was adopted by her (...) brother, Jan Boleslaw Shpett. She did not welcome her son's second marriage but she accepted it. She registered her son as a Lutheran, rather than a Catholic, because she believed that one's religious faith should be a personal decision and that it would be easier for him later to switch, if he chose to do so, from Lutheranism to Catholicism than vice versa. Shpet's first wife, Mar'ia Aleksandrovna, left the stage by her own decision, not because of his insistence: she thought her acting career was incompatible with raising a family. She was not the sole support of her children and Shpet's mother: he always helped to support them and his mother always worked. She died in September, not in October 1940. In exile Shpet was not always accompanied by a family member and, after his death, at Leonora's and then Marina's apartments. (shrink)
Since perestroika, Russian thinkers have joined the general discussion of the contemporary relevance of Marxism. In the last two decades, this debate has intensified in the West. According to one side, Marxism is intellectually and politically exhausted. It is a prime example of the grand narrative and the Enlightenment project. In practice it has proved to be not merely incapable of raising undeveloped societies out of poverty but immensely destructive: it has served as the ideological underpinning of the most totalitarian (...) regimes the world has ever known. According to the other side, Marxism is an enduring critical tradition that has furnished postmodernism with its key concepts and has helped to transform the primitive capitalism of Marx's time into the postindustrial welfare state of today. To meet the new challenges of globalization, world poverty, environmental degradation, and gender and racial inequality, this side argues, we must make full use of Marxism's critical potential. (shrink)
Russia lacks a tradition of religious and political tolerance and the topic has been rarely discussed by Russian philosophers. The Philosophical Encyclopedia published in the Soviet period contains no entry on tolerance. It is only in the last few years, in the course of the larger discussion of Russia's place in the world, the distinctive character of its culture and history, and the direction of its future development that some thinkers have begun to raise the question of tolerance. The first (...) two selections in this issue of our journal attempt to analyze the concept of tolerance, while the subsequent selections explore its importance in today's multicultural world and in Russia's history and current predicament. (shrink)
The historical turn in nineteenth-century philosophy, the recognition of the history of philosophy as an integral part of philosophy itself, gave rise to the study of ancient philosophy as a special philosophical discipline. The interest of Russian philosophers in ancient thought is attributable not only to the influence of German idealism but also to their rootedness in Orthodox theological thought, which is Platonic at its core. The earliest systematic studies of the ancient philosophers were written by professors at Kiev University (...) or the Kiev Theological Academy, all of whom were graduates of the academy: M. Novytskyi, P.I. Linytskyi, and S. Gogotskyi. A new educational policy, introduced by the imperial government in the 1880s, provided a strong stimulus to studies of ancient philosophy. The policy placed classical philology at the core of higher education and made ancient philosophy a mandatory subject. The authorities hoped that this reform would sever the link between higher education and political radicalism and divert the attention of students from current social issues. At the turn of the century, studies of ancient philosophy in Russia were enriched not only with translations of well-established names in the field, but also with original contributions from Russian scholars such as A.N. Giliarov, M.I. Karinskii, S.N. Trubetskoi, F. Zelenogorskii, and A.I. Vvedenskii. (shrink)
This issue is devoted to recent studies of Kant's philosophy in Russia. Russian Kant studies have a long and distinguished tradition: in the nineteenth century there was a strong Kantian current in Russian philosophy itself and in the Soviet period Kant was studied as the key figure in the development of German thought, which led to Marxism. The impact of German philosophy on Russian thought has been and, I think, continues to be greater than that of any other philosophical tradition. (...) It is not surprising, then, that Russia has produced some outstanding specialists not only on Marx and Hegel but also on Kant. They include such names as V.F. Asmus, A.V. Gulyga, and T.I. Oizerman. Hopefully, this issue will be of interest to Kant specialists in the English-speaking world. (shrink)
In this issue, Russian philosophers look back at the seventy-year Soviet period of their discipline and try to sort out its main achievements, key turning points, and patterns of development. All of them realize that their involvement in the period that they are assessing—they were all recognized Soviet philosophers—and the temporal closeness of the period—only a decade has passed since the period's official ending—makes it impossible for them to offer anything more than subjectively tinted, tentative judgments. But at the same (...) time, they are well situated to fix the telling details, the special atmosphere, and the memorable figures of this period, facts that, otherwise, will become inaccessible to future historians. The strength of the accounts presented here lies in their immediacy, their rootedness in personal experience. (shrink)
In the last few decades we have become aware of the ecological problem, a problem of unprecedented scale and urgency. It consists of the danger that within our or the succeeding generation all life on earth, including the human species, will become extinct. This possibility rests on the one hand on the conspicuous changes in the global environment that are being effeted by human activity and, on the other, on a new physical theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. According to this discipline, (...) complex dynamic systems like the earth's biosphere are extremely unstable. When internal or external fluctuations exceed a certain threshold, such systems collapse into a state of chaos, the outcome of which is in principle unpredictable. The new systems that emerge from chaos are more complex, flexible, and efficient in utilizing free energy, but their components and structure cannot be foreseen. By applying this theory to our biosphere we can infer that if the man-caused disturbances in it exceed a certain level, the biosphere will break down and, eventually, a radically different environment will form. Such catastrophes have already occurred in the course of evolution, wiping out chains of interdependent species and restructuring the biosphere. As two of our authors—V. I. Kurashov and V. I. Danilov-Danil'ian—point out, the fact that we cannot determine our biosphere's threshold and predict at what point the biosphere will descend into chaos is no comfort; on the contrary, it makes our situation all the more dangerous. It is clear that we must immediately drastically reduce our impact on the natural environment. How to do so is not at all clear. (shrink)
In the past decade, the philosophical scene in Russia has changed dramatically: it has become much more diverse, lively, and interesting. As a result, it is more difficult, but at the same time more important, to keep abreast of significant developments in Russian philosophy. As a journal of translations, Russian Studies in Philosophy plays a unique role in giving the English-language reader direct access to at least some of the serious philosophical work currently being done in Russia. I endorse the (...) editorial policy set forth by my predecessor, James P. Scanlan, in his first issue . With the help of the new advisory board, I shall try to make the journal reflect, as it has done in the past, the state of Russian philosophy. To achieve this, the journal will cover various branches of philosophy and publish materials from different sources—articles from the long-established as well as new specialized journals, chapters or sections from books, book reviews, roundtable discussions, and conference papers. As the Russian philosophical community becomes increasingly diversified, the journal will try to focus on the most controversial issues and present the conflicting viewpoints in a fair and balanced way. It is particularly important to follow Russia's changing view of itself, its revaluation of the Soviet and pre-Soviet philosophical heritage, and its increasing involvement in the world dialogue of the various philosophical traditions. The current issue of the journal presents a discussion of the importance and merits of one doctrine of Marxism-Leninism. (shrink)
In breadth and depth the influence of Nietzsche's ideas on Russian intellectual culture at the turn of the nineteenth century has no parallel in any other country and period. Ten years after the first critical article on Nietzsche appeared in a Russian philosophical journal, a nine-volume and a ten-volume collection of his translated works came out. In 1909 a full collection of his works in Russian translation was launched, but only four volumes were published when the project was discontinued in (...) 1912. In the two decades preceding World War I, Nietzsche had become a household name in Russia. (shrink)
In the past decade, the philosophical scene in Russia has changed dramatically: it has become much more diverse, lively, and interesting. As a result, it is more difficult, but at the same time more important, to keep abreast of significant developments in Russian philosophy. As a journal of translations, Russian Studies in Philosophy plays a unique role in giving the English-language reader direct access to at least some of the serious philosophical work currently being done in Russia. I endorse the (...) editorial policy set forth by my predecessor, James P. Scanlan, in his first issue. With the help of the new advisory board, I shall try to make the journal reflect, as it has done in the past, the state of Russian philosophy. To achieve this, the journal will cover various branches of philosophy and publish materials from different sources—articles from the long-established as well as new specialized journals, chapters or sections from books, book reviews, roundtable discussions, and conference papers. As the Russian philosophical community becomes increasingly diversified, the journal will try to focus on the most controversial issues and present the conflicting viewpoints in a fair and balanced way. It is particularly important to follow Russia's changing view of itself, its revaluation of the Soviet and pre-Soviet philosophical heritage, and its increasing involvement in the world dialogue of the various philosophical traditions. The current issue of the journal presents a discussion of the importance and merits of one doctrine of Marxism-Leninism. (shrink)