This paper draws together as many as possible of the clues and pieces of the puzzle surrounding T. S. Eliot’s “infamous” literary term “objective correlative”. Many different scholars have claimed many different sources for the term, in Pound, Whitman, Baudelaire, Washington Allston, Santayana, Husserl, Nietzsche, Newman, Walter Pater, Coleridge, Russell, Bradley, Bergson, Bosanquet, Schopenhauer and Arnold. This paper aims to rewrite this list by surveying those individuals who, in different ways, either offer the truest claim to being the source of (...) the term, or contributed the most to Eliot’s development of it: Allston, Husserl, Bradley and Bergson. What the paper will argue is that Eliot’s possible inspiration for the term is more indebted to the idealist tradition, and Bergson’s aesthetic development of it, than to the phenomenology of Husserl. (shrink)
Issues in interpreting the yoga tradition -- Issues in interpreting the Vedānta tradition -- Issues of continuity and compatibility -- Issues of narrative, philosophical discourse and grammar -- Issues of Brāmanical intellectuals, ascetics and renunciants -- Issues in contemporary Hinduism : environment, non-violence, gender, faith and syncretism.
Compiled in the twelfth century A.D. by Chu Hsi, leading exponent of Neo-Confucianism, with the assistance of Lü Tsu-Ch'ien, Chin-ssu Lu serves as a summary of, and introduction to, the vast literature of Neo-Confucian philosophy. Adding a more rational theoretical foundation and new methods of moral cultivation and study to traditional thought and practice, Neo-Confucianism has exercised great influence upon thought and social life in East Asia in the past six hundred years. As the classical statement of this philosophy, this (...) anthology brings together passages from Chou Tun-i, Ch'eng Hao and Ch'eng I, and Chang Tsai on the Way, Learning, and Self-improvement, as well as assessments of the character of Sages and Worthies; also included is a chapter on the doctrines of Buddhism and Taoism, pointing out ways in which they deviated from the Confucian Way. It is a very stimulating work; indeed almost every sentence has spark and substance. Although it has been widely studied by East Asian scholars, so far in the West there has been only the translation into German by Father Olaf Graf, now virtually unobtainable. With his mastery of Chinese philosophical literature, his industriousness in research and his augmentation of the text by generous quotations from the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean commentaries, the translator has achieved extraordinary success in making the English version even more comprehensible than the original Chinese.--T. S. C. (shrink)
The author restricts herself to a biological and anthropological viewpoint to discover what it was that suggested to the primitive mind the concept of an "unseen overruling Power." She finds the answer in the primitive woman's experience of pregnancy and childbirth, in which some unseen Power was felt to bestow upon her the gift of a child. The book is absorbing, but contains little of distinctly philosophical interest.—T. S. V.
In this third and revised edition of the first volume on the philosophy of the Church fathers, Professor Wolfson explores the gradual development of a relationship between faith and reason in the early Church and the subsequent speculation that took place concerning the mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation. At every step of the way, he gives a most painstaking review of the many divergent opinions held, together with the likely derivations of the technical terms in which these opinions (...) came to be formulated. In the final part, which deals with the anathematized, he shows the sources, both within and without Christianity, of what finally came to be known as heresy. Though this work is not, formally speaking, a theological inquiry, it provides an enormous wealth of textual material and references which the inquiring theologian can hardly afford to overlook.--T. S. P. (shrink)
In his Aquinas Lecture of 1964, Pegis contends that a dynamic Thomism for our time must avoid, 1) merely detaching and then recomposing separable philosophical elements from the theological whole in which Thomas cast them, and 2) simply protracting the medieval ancilla theologiae status of philosophy for such a "theologically managed philosophy" cannot speak to our times. A living Thomism must develop Thomas' basic insights in a living personalistic context, assuming all the risks that creative inquiry entails. Thomism thus appears (...) less a doctrine than a project, and the contemporary Thomist's aim can only be "to give a genuine philosophical life to the principles that St. Thomas used in another day and under the conditions of another culture." Pegis' discussion is lucid and its import cogent for those sympathetic to Thomism.—T. S. V. (shrink)
This article reassesses Weber's position on the influence of Confucianism on China's failure to develop the modern form of capitalism by focusing on the conception of wealth among the merchants in the Ming and Qing dynasties. It starts with a review of the criticisms directed towards Weber's theses, including his claim about an affinity between Calvinism and the spirit of capitalism, and his assertion about the lack of moral tensions in Confucianism. We argue that despite the flaws in his analyses, (...) Weber's position that ideas matter is still relevant. The main shortcoming of his argument about the link between the Confucian value system and the failure of China to develop a modern form of capitalism is that he overlooked a critical element in this value system. This was the idea, widely shared among the merchants in late imperial China, of the desirability of disposing of one's wealth. This had the effect of discouraging the accumulation of capital in a period of incipent capitalism. While this idea was intrinsic to the Confucian intellectual tradition, it was also reinforced by the vulnerable position of the merchants under the omnipotent structure of state political power during the Ming dynasty. This shows that while ideas were crucial in preventing China from developing modern capitalism, they did not operate in isolation from the socio-political context as a historical force. (shrink)
Manju Jain's innovative study of T. S. Eliot 's Harvard years traces the genesis of his major literary, religious and intellectual preoccupations in his early work as a student of philosophy, and explores its influence on his poetic and critical practice. His concerns were located within the mainstream of Harvard philosophical debates, especially in relation to the controversy of science versus religion. These questions point forward to important debates in contemporary philosophy and hermeneutics. Drawing extensively on unpublished sources, Manju Jain (...) offers answers to the questions of why Eliot failed to find satisfaction in an academic career devoted to philosophy, and why he abandoned the speculations of metaphysics for the dogmas of theology. (shrink)
Manju Jain's innovative study of T. S. Eliot's Harvard years traces the genesis of his major literary, religious and intellectual preoccupations in his early work as a student of philosophy, and explores its influence on his poetic and critical practice. His concerns were located within the mainstream of Harvard philosophical debates, especially in relation to the controversy of science versus religion. These questions (and Eliot's work as he grappled with them) point forward to important debates in contemporary philosophy and hermeneutics. (...) Drawing extensively on unpublished sources, Manju Jain offers answers to the questions of why Eliot failed to find satisfaction in an academic career devoted to philosophy, and why he abandoned the speculations of metaphysics for the dogmas of theology. (shrink)
This work is, in many ways, a tour de force in common sense. For, as Thomas explores his topics, he treads a middle road between the two extremes that await anyone who deals with such subjects. His most valuable contribution in this regard is his insistence that religious experience, qua experience, is a fact of history and had best be treated by the intellectual with as much unprejudiced consideration as he would give to any other kind of experience. But while (...) the sensibleness of this work comes at first like a breath of fresh air in these polarized times, the work as a whole eventually suffers from the great limitation that has always plagued common sense. One wonders what we really learn from being told that Pelagius overstressed man's ability to overcome sin while Augustine understressed it.--T. S. P. (shrink)
This research study sought to identify and categorize international marketing ethical problems that confront business managers in Australia and Canada. The study focused on ten major ethical problems developed from previous exploratory research. Managers from both countries indicate that the most frequently cited ethical problem is "gifts/ favors/entertainment" and the most important ethical problem is "large-scale bribery". However, there exist significant differences in terms of rankings and mean values of frequency and importance ratings for other ethical problems.
Eliot once wrote a doctoral dissertation on F. H. Bradley. This book attempts to use the philosophy to gain insight into the early poetry and criticism, and uses the conjunction of these to interpret Eliot's artistic and intellectual development. The resulting theory is applied in an extended discussion of Burnt Norton. This three-pronged approach to Eliot is fruitful; it would have been better had it not slighted the theological dimension of his poetry.--R. J. W.