31 found
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  1.  67
    Ethics and the Acquisition of Organs.T. M. Wilkinson - 2011 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Transplantation is a medically successful and cost-effective way to treat people whose organs have failed--but not enough organs are available to meet demand. T. M. Wilkinson explores the major ethical problems raised by policies for acquiring organs. Key topics include the rights of the dead, the role of the family, and the sale of organs.
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  2.  42
    Counter-Manipulation and Health Promotion.T. M. Wilkinson - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (3):257-266.
    It is generally wrong to manipulate. One leading reason is because manipulation interferes with autonomy, in particular the component of autonomy called ‘independence’, that is, freedom from intentional control by others. Manipulative health promotion would therefore seem wrong. However, manipulative techniques could be used to counter-manipulation, for example, playing on male fears of impotence to counter ‘smoking is sexy’ advertisements. What difference does it make to the ethics of manipulation when it is counter-manipulation? This article distinguishes two powerful defences of (...)
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  3.  42
    Individual and family consent to organ and tissue donation: is the current position coherent?T. M. Wilkinson - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (10):587-590.
    The current position on the deceased’s consent and the family’s consent to organ and tissue donation from the dead is a double veto—each has the power to withhold and override the other’s desire to donate. This paper raises, and to some extent answers, questions about the coherence of the double veto. It can be coherently defended in two ways: if it has the best effects and if the deceased has only negative rights of veto. Whether the double veto has better (...)
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  4.  72
    Individual and family decisions about organ donation.T. M. Wilkinson - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (1):26–40.
    abstract This paper examines, from a philosophical point of view, the ethics of the role of the family and the deceased in decisions about organ retrieval. The paper asks: Who, out of the individual and the family, should have the ultimate power to donate or withhold organs? On the side of respecting the wishes of the deceased individual, the paper considers and rejects arguments by analogy with bequest and from posthumous bodily integrity. It develops an argument for posthumous autonomy based (...)
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  5.  42
    Consent and the Use of the Bodies of the Dead.T. M. Wilkinson - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (5):445-463.
    Gametes, tissue, and organs can be taken from the dying or dead for reproduction, transplantation, and research. Whole bodies as well as parts can be used for teaching anatomy. While these uses are diverse, they have an ethical consideration in common: the claims of the people whose bodies are used. Is some use permissible only when people have consented to the use, actually wanted the use, would have wanted the use, not opposed the use, or what? The aim of this (...)
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  6.  42
    Last rights: The ethics of research on the dead.T. M. Wilkinson - 2002 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):31–41.
    People often have strong views about being the subjects of research after their deaths. Should these views be given any weight and, if so, how much? How could we find out what the views are and what should we do if we cannot? This paper defends the idea of posthumous interests and discusses the significance of those interests for research ethics. It argues that we can be guided by a symmetry between the interests of living and dead people and uses (...)
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  7.  95
    Thinking harder about nudges.T. M. Wilkinson - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):486-486.
    According to much modern social psychology, behavioural economics and common sense, people's actions and beliefs are frequently the result of rapid intuitive thought rather than careful deliberation. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, in their influential book, Nudge, synthesised the literature and used it as the basis for numerous policy ideas.1 Not least, they gave the word ‘nudge’ as a handy term to apply to all sorts of ways of taking advantage of people's psychological quirks without coercing or bribing them. But (...)
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  8.  60
    Racist organ donors and saving lives.T. M. Wilkinson - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (2):63–74.
    ABSTRACT This paper considers what should be done about offers of organs for transplant that come with racist strings attached. Saving lives or improving their quality seem powerful reasons to accept the offer. Fairness, justice, and rejecting racism seem like powerful reasons against. This paper argues that conditional allocation should occur when it would provide access to organs for at least one person without costing others their access to organs. The bulk of the paper concentrates on defending this claim against (...)
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  9.  49
    What's not wrong with conditional organ donation?T. M. Wilkinson - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):163-164.
    In a well known British case, the relatives of a dead man consented to the use of his organs for transplant on the condition that they were transplanted only into white people. The British government condemned the acceptance of racist offers and the panel they set up to report on the case condemned all conditional offers of donation. The panel appealed to a principle of altruism and meeting the greatest need. This paper criticises their reasoning. The panel’s argument does not (...)
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  10.  24
    Smokers’ Regrets and the Case for Public Health Paternalism.T. M. Wilkinson - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (1):90-99.
    Paternalist policies in public health often aim to improve people’s well-being by reducing their options, regulating smoking offering a prime example. The well-being challenge is to show that people really are better off for having their options reduced. The distribution challenge is to show how the policies are justified since they produce losers as well as winners. If we start from these challenges, we can understand the importance of the empirical evidence that a very high proportion of smokers regret smoking. (...)
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  11.  93
    Contagious disease and self-defence.T. M. Wilkinson - 2007 - Res Publica 13 (4):339-359.
    This paper gives a self-defence account of the scope and limits of the justified use of compulsion to control contagious disease. It applies an individualistic model of self-defence for state action and uses it to illuminate the constraints on public health compulsion of proportionality and using the least restrictive alternative. It next shows how a self-defence account should not be rejected on the basis of past abuses. The paper then considers two possible limits to a self-defence justification: compulsion of the (...)
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  12. Against Dworkin's Endorsement Constraint.T. M. Wilkinson - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (2):175-193.
    Ronald Dworkin argues on the basis of a theory of well-being that critical paternalism is self-defeating. People must endorse their lives if they are to benefit. This is the endorsement constraint and this paper rejects it. For certain kinds of important mistakes that people can make in their lives, the endorsement constraint is either incredible or too narrow to rule out as much paternalism as Dworkin wants. The endorsement constraint cannot be interpreted to give sensible judgements when people change their (...)
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  13.  6
    Obesity Policy and Welfare.T. M. Wilkinson - 2019 - Public Affairs Quarterly 33 (2):115-136.
    Governments can try to counter obesity through preventive regulations such as sugar taxes, which appear to raise costs or reduce options for consumers. Would the regulations improve the welfare of adult consumers? The regulations might improve choice sets through a mechanism such as reformulation, but the scope for such improvement is limited. Otherwise, a paternalistic argument must be made that preventive regulations would improve welfare despite reducing choice. This paper connects arguments about obesity, health, and choice to a philosophically plausible (...)
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  14.  63
    Opt-out organ procurement and tacit consent.T. M. Wilkinson - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (2):74-75.
  15.  20
    Individualism and the ethics of research on humans.T. M. Wilkinson - 2004 - HEC Forum 16 (1):6-26.
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  16.  26
    Should Children Be Given Priority in Kidney Allocation?T. M. Wilkinson & I. D. Dittmer - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (4):535-545.
    Kidneys for transplantation are scarce, and many countries give priority to children in allocating them. This paper explains and criticizes the paediatric priority. We set out the relevant ethical principles of allocation, such as utility and severity, and the relevant facts to do with such matters as sensitization and child development. We argue that the facts and principles do not support and sometimes conflict with the priority given to children. We next consider various views on how age or the status (...)
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  17.  72
    The confiscation and sale of organs.T. M. Wilkinson - 2007 - Res Publica 13 (3):327-337.
  18.  24
    Judging our own good.T. M. Wilkinson - 1996 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (3):488 – 494.
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  19.  69
    Parental consent and the use of dead children's bodies.T. M. Wilkinson - 2001 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (4):337-358.
    : It has recently become known that, in Liverpool and elsewhere, parts of children's bodies were taken postmortem and used for research without the parents being told. But should parental consent be sought before using children's corpses for medical purposes? This paper presents the view that parental consent is overrated. Arguments are rejected for consent from dead children's interests, property rights, family autonomy, and religious freedom. The only direct reason to get parental consent is to avoid distressing the parents, which (...)
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  20. The ethics and economics of the minimum wage.T. M. Wilkinson - 2004 - Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):351-374.
    This paper develops a normative evaluation of the minimum wage in the light of recent evidence and theory about its effects. It argues that the minimum wage should be evaluated using a consequentialist criterion that gives priority to the jobs and incomes of the worst off. This criterion would be accepted by many different types of consequentialism, especially given the two major views about what the minimum wage does. One is that the minimum wage harms the jobs and incomes of (...)
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  21.  75
    Robert George , Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996, pp. x + 311.T. M. Wilkinson - 1999 - Utilitas 11 (1):134.
  22.  25
    Bioethics, bodies and care(ful thinking).T. M. Wilkinson - 2005 - Res Publica 11 (1):75-83.
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  23.  59
    Community, Public Health and Resource Allocation.T. M. Wilkinson - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):267-271.
    If ‘community’ is the answer, what is the problem? While questions undoubtedly arise in allocating resources to public health, such as ‘how much?’ and ‘to whom?’, we already have answers based on (i) the observation that disease and illness are bad, (ii) views of justice and fairness and (iii) an appreciation of market failure. What does the concept of community add to the existing answers? Not nothing, I shall argue, but not much either. In some cases, health providers should take (...)
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  24. Deontic efficiency and equality.T. M. Wilkinson - 2010 - In Christi Favor, Gerald F. Gaus & Julian Lamont (eds.), Essays on Philosophy, Politics & Economics: Integration & Common Research Projects. Stanford Economics and Finance.
     
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  25.  9
    : Healthy Eating Policy and Political Philosophy: A Public Reason Approach.T. M. Wilkinson - 2023 - Ethics 133 (3):415-420.
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  26.  39
    Mill's On Liberty and Social Pressure.T. M. Wilkinson - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (2):219-235.
    Mill's On Liberty is centrally concerned with avoiding social tyranny. But Mill's Principle of Liberty defines interfering, in the context of social pressure, as intentionally punishing and it seems to allow speech and actions that critics have thought would conflict with liberty in self-regarding matters. To critics, Mill draws distinctions among social influences where no genuine difference is to be found and he permits more social pressure than can be accepted by someone who values liberty highly. In this article, I (...)
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  27.  53
    Reason, paternalism, and disaster.T. M. Wilkinson - 2009 - Res Publica 15 (2):203-211.
  28.  30
    The Ethics of Transplants: Why Careless Thought Costs Lives, by Janet Radcliffe Richards.T. M. Wilkinson - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):243-246.
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  29.  8
    [Book review] freedom, efficiency and equality. [REVIEW]T. M. Wilkinson - 2002 - Ethics 112 (2):417-420.
  30.  54
    Daniel sperling, posthumous interests: Legal and ethical perspectives. [REVIEW]T. M. Wilkinson - 2009 - Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4):531-535.
  31.  31
    Health, Luck, and Justice by Shlomi Segall. [REVIEW]T. M. Wilkinson - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):469-471.