The term dual use technologies refers to research and technology with the potential both to yield valuable scientific knowledge and to be used for nefarious purposes with serious consequences for public health or the environment. There are two main approaches to assessing dual use technologies: pragmatic and metaphysical. A pragmatic approach relies on ethical principles and norms to generate specific guidance and policy for dual use technologies. A metaphysical approach exhorts us to the deeper study of human nature, our intentions, (...) goals, values ideals and social relations when considering dual use technology. Use of science and technology (S and T) is determined by two components of human nature: human intentions and choices. We have drawn a distinction between specific measures, goals and intentions with respect to technologies in order to show that moral judgment about technologies must precede their use. Understanding of our intentionality and values, and our moral ideals, as a measurable, tangible part of the real world is important for the prevention of any possible harm from S and T. In the context of dual use technologies, we stress the importance of three main understandings of human nature: vulnerability, responsibility and narrative identity. These can become a strong ontological “antidote” to technology’s poisoning of modern man. Each new technology can be measured and compared with man’s values, traditions and societal norms. This can be done bearing in mind the concept that human nature is not dualistic, but pluralistic. A system of ethical principles that includes the principles of good intentions, the correspondence of goals and means, the balancing of risks and benefits, simplicity, and contextuality, will help ensure that technologies are more humanistic and friendly to human beings. (shrink)
Today local, national and international ethics committees have become an effective means of social regulation in many European countries. Science itself is an important precondition for the development of bioethical knowledge and ethics expertise. Cultural, social, historical and religious preconditions can facilitate different forms and methods of ethics expertise in each country. Ukrainian ethics expertise has some methodological problems connected with its socio-cultural, historical, science and philosophy development particularities. In this context, clarification of some common legitimacies or methodological approaches to (...) ethics committee (EC) phenomena such as globalization, scientization and the prioritization of an ethics paradigm are very important. On the other hand, elaborate study and critical analysis of international experience by Ukraine and other Eastern European countries will provide the integration of their local and national ethics expertises into a world bioethics ethos. (shrink)
The article deals with certain aspects, risks, and ethical problems of technological improvement of human, namely the use of technologies for transformation his / her genome. At the present stage of civilizational progress of humanity, the scientific potential of society and the possibility of producing high technologies initiate technological transformation in the evolution of civilization. There have not yet been analogues of this transformation in the history of mankind. One aspect of this transformation is the transformation of the biological nature (...) of human. Human improves the art of his own qualitative transformation. Human is trying to spread his control over his own evolution. The main objects of technological influence on humans are the brain and the genome. Ethical aspects of human enhancement need philosophical understanding. J. Harris made a significant contribution to the development of this issue. The article presents his teachings of “enhancing evolution”, according to which human improvement is a reasonable way of development. The awareness of the ethical issues associated with the imperfections of these technologies and the problems associated with the perspective of their application to human embryos has contributed to the holding of International Summits on Human Gene Editing. The analysis of the results of their work gives us the opportunity to assert that there is a consensus among scientists to prevent the practical application of inherited editing of the human genome today. The article emphasizes that now, in the conditions of existential threats, risks that have an integrated manner, it is extremely necessary to focus on axiological, ethical and humanistic values in the system of scientific knowledge. Scientists should focus on the socio-cultural dimension of human improvement. In this context, bioethics, which has become the answer to many ethical questions and problems, becomes extremely important. Bioethics can become the basis for creating science-based balance between the practical application of technologies for human improvement and human rights, the principles of humanism and progress. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the analysis of the interaction of power and education. The authors disclose the presentation of meta-structures formed at the crossroads of education with other areas of social life. It is shown that the socio-educational movement, expressing the interests of society in interaction with the authorities, does not cover the whole variety of deep objective processes. The necessity of acquisition and transfer of experience from person to person, from generation to generation, becomes the most important vector (...) of the process and contributes to the integration of various areas of social life. The purpose is to investigate the structure and functions of power in the context of educational and socio-cultural processes, to identify the most important trends in the evolution of power in education, to disclose the specifics of power relations, their role in the functioning and development of the society. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the memory of Vyacheslav Semenovich Stepin and Nikita Nikolaevich Moiseev, whose multifaceted work was integrally focused on philosophical, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research of the key ideas and principles of universal human-dimensional evolutionism. Other remarkable Russian scientists V.I. Vernadsky, S.P. Kurdyumov, S.P. Kapitsa, D.S. Chernavsky worked in the same tradition of universal evolutionism. While V.I. Vernadsky and N.N. Moiseev had been the originators of that scientific approach, V.S. Stepin provided philosophical foundations for the ideas of those (...) remarkable scientists and thinkers. The scientific legacy of V.S. Stepin and N.N. Moiseev maintained the formation of a new quality of research into the philosophy of science and technology as well as into the philosophy of culture. This new quality is multidimensional and it is difficult to define unambiguously, but we presume the formation of those areas of philosophical knowledge as constructively oriented languages of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary co-participation of philosophy in the convergent-evolutionary development of scientific knowledge in general. In this regard, attention is paid to V.S. Stepin’s affirmations about non-classical nature of modern social and humanitarian knowledge. Quantum mechanics teaches us that the reality revealed through it is a hybrid construct, or symbiosis, of both mean and object of cognition. Therefore, the very act of cognitive observation constructs quantum reality. Thus, it is very close to the process of cognition in modern sociology and psychology. V.S. Stepin insisted that these principles are applicable to all complex selfdeveloping systems, and such are all “human-dimensional” objects of modern humanities. In all the phases of homeostasis changes, or crises, there is necessarily a share of chaos, instability, uncertainty in the selection process of future development scenarios, which is ineliminably affected by our observation. Therefore, a cognitive observer in the humanities should be considered as a concept of post-non-classical rationality, that is as an observer of complexity. (shrink)
The article highlights the theoretical foundations of information support of public administration. The paper considers and analyzes effective information and telecommunication systems for implementing information security in public administration, including the development and implementation of a scientific approach to it. The research focuses on the amount of information that moves in the information system of public administration activities and provides authorities received mutually reinforcing effect "economies of scale" that is traditional in costs by increasing the scale of production.
As philosophers of mind we seem to hold in common no very clear view about the relevance that work in psychology or the neurosciences may or may not have to our own favourite questions—even if we call the subject ‘philosophical psychology’. For example, in the literature we find articles on pain some of which do, some of which don't, rely more or less heavily on, for example, the work of Melzack and Wall; the puzzle cases used so extensively in discussions (...) of personal identity are drawn sometimes from the pleasant exercise of scientific fantasy, at times from surprising reports of scientific fact; and there are those who deny, as well as those who affirm, the importance of the discovery of rapid-eye-movement sleep to the philosophical treatment of dreaming. A general account of the relation between scientific, and philosophical, psychology is long overdue and of the first importance. Here I shall limit myself to just one area where the two seem to connect, discussing one type of neuropsychological research and its relevance to questions in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of psychology. (shrink)
ABSTRACT In this wide-ranging interview Professor Douglas V. Porpora discusses a number of issues. First, how he became a Critical Realist through his early work on the concept of structure. Second, drawing on his Reconstructing Sociology, his take on the current state of American sociology. This leads to discussion of the broader range of his work as part of Margaret Archer’s various Centre for Social Ontology projects, and on moral-macro reasoning and the concept of truth in political discourse.
Throughout Christianity, its activities are in one way or another connected to the historical reality of its time. Usually, for different epochs, the strength of these bonds was different, but during the Middle Ages, they were significantly stronger than before and after. It is here that perhaps the most important moment was the rise of Christianity, which spread over a relatively short period of time almost throughout Europe. It was then - and never again in all its history - that (...) the Church was able to participate in the formation of all aspects of its contemporary life, in accordance with its spirit. When solving this task, it inevitably came in close contact with the "world" and the various forms in which it was represented. (shrink)
Рассматриваются актуальные проблемы философской антропологии, проводится анализ парадоксов и противоречий, возникающих при изучении человека, тех кардинальных сдвигов в культуре, которые открыли новые стороны человеческого бытия. Для студентов.
In this work, Kathleen V. Wider discusses Jean-Paul Sartre's analysis of consciousness in Being and Nothingness in light of recent work by analytic philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists. She brings together phenomenological and scientific understandings of the nature of consciousness and argues that the two approaches can strengthen and suppport each other. Work on consciousness from two very different philosophical traditions—the continental and analytic—contributes to her explanation of the deep-seated intuition that all consciousness is self-consciousness.
У статті здійснюється історико-філософський розгляд контроверсійних підвалин комунікативних стратегій, де під контроверсіями розуміється принцип суперечності діалогу як такого, а під комунікативними стратегіями – діалог як «раціональна комунікація», тобто комунікація з наперед заданою метою. Показано зв’язок між морально-етичною настановою історичних періодів та принципом діалогу, притаманного цій добі. Виявлено, що принцип діалогу, запроваджений ще у добу Античності як спосіб знаходження порозуміння, знайшов своє продовження у диспутах середньовічних університетів та жанру діалогу доби Відродження. Водночас індивідуалізм доби Відродження, раціональна настанова Просвітництва та наукові дослідження (...) Нового часу усталили суб’єкт-об’єктний принцип взаємин; відновлення принципу діалогу як засобу порозуміння, пов’язується, зокрема, із працями представників комунікативної філософії. Акцентується увага на значущості критичного мислення та безперервної освіти як засобу подолання маніпулятивних впливів, зокрема у ситуації названою «добою постправди», що актуалізує дане дослідження. (shrink)
The authors investigated the relevance of consequentialism in commercial space exploration as well as in the actively developing space market. The authors conclude that space expansion and colonization of space objects will lead to a revision of the foundational consequentialism provisions. Consequentialism, formed during the history of terrestrial civilization, loses its effectiveness under conditions of space commercialization. The basics of planetary thinking are different from those of cosmic thinking. Therefore, considering the meaning of the terms “cosmic expansion” and “colonization of (...) the cosmos” through the existing theory of consequentialism faces serious contradictions. There is a range of problems that are not explored in modern philosophy and ethics due to the lack of an empirical basis for philosophical analysis. (shrink)
This set reprints volumes that were orginally published by Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. in 1953. Landmark volumes at the time of their original publication, these titles do not merely expound the theoretical constructions of Russian philosophers, but also relate these constructions to the general conditions of Russian life. Volume One examines the historical conditions of the development of philosophy in Russia and explores the general features of Russian philosophy. It also surveys the principal works on the history of Russian (...) philosophy. Volume Two includes biographies and examination of the themes of the following philosophers; Vladimir Solovyov, V.D. Kudryavtsev, N.F. Fyodorov and Later Hegelians such as Chicherin, Debolski and Bakunin. This volume also provides analysis of various schools of thought in Russian philosophy in the twentieth century, for example; Neo-Leibzianism, Modern Positivism and New-Marxism to name but a few. (shrink)
The work presents axiological aspect of tolerance formation under conditions when each culture comprehends its tradition uniqueness and strives to prove its competitiveness under globalization; basic features of tolerance have been outlined as well.
The article is devoted to the study of the problem of training future teachers of fine art in the context of the implementation of the Concept of the New Ukrainian School in order to comparatively analyze the existing level of their professional training in accordance with the new requirements and needs of society, where project technology is the basis of training as a condition for the development of a successful person. The author identifies issues related to the training of teachers (...) of fine art in higher education institutions that require scientific research in order to update the process of preparing future teachers of fine art to work in the New Ukrainian School, clarifies the essence of the concept of professional competence of a teacher of fine art, its structure and criteria for assessing the levels of formation given competency. In the process of research, the advantages of teaching with the help of creative design, its capabilities in the training of fine art teachers are revealed and substantiated. During the ascertaining experiment, which was conducted with the participation of students of the Municipal institution of higher education “Khortytsia National Training and Rehabilitation Academy” of the Zaporizhzhia Regional Council, it was established and justified the need to update the process of professional training of teachers of fine art and the possibility of increasing the existing level of professional competence formation using creative design as an effective means of formation. The relationship between the level of formation of professional competence and the motivational sphere has been practically established, the need to use the visual art of creative design in the training of teachers is logically substantiated. (shrink)