45 found
Order:
  1.  30
    Categories and induction in young children.Susan A. Gelman & Ellen M. Markman - 1986 - Cognition 23 (3):183-209.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   219 citations  
  2.  51
    Insides and Essences: Early Understandings of the Non- Obvious.Susan A. Gelman & Henry M. Wellman - 1991 - Cognition 38 (3):213-244.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   180 citations  
  3.  61
    The role of covariation versus mechanism information in causal attribution.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles W. Kalish, Douglas L. Medin & Susan A. Gelman - 1995 - Cognition 54 (3):299-352.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   92 citations  
  4. Generic Statements Require Little Evidence for Acceptance but Have Powerful Implications.Andrei Cimpian, Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1452-1482.
    Generic statements (e.g., “Birds lay eggs”) express generalizations about categories. In this paper, we hypothesized that there is a paradoxical asymmetry at the core of generic meaning, such that these sentences have extremely strong implications but require little evidence to be judged true. Four experiments confirmed the hypothesized asymmetry: Participants interpreted novel generics such as “Lorches have purple feathers” as referring to nearly all lorches, but they judged the same novel generics to be true given a wide range of prevalence (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   55 citations  
  5.  62
    How biological is essentialism.Susan A. Gelman & Lawrence A. Hirschfeld - 1999 - In D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.), Folkbiology. MIT Press. pp. 403--446.
  6.  89
    Why essences are essential in the psychology of concepts.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles Kalish, Susan A. Gelman, Douglas L. Medin, Christian Luhmann, Scott Atran, John D. Coley & Patrick Shafto - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):59-69.
  7.  21
    Bewitchment, Biology, or Both: The Co-Existence of Natural and Supernatural Explanatory Frameworks Across Development.Cristine H. Legare & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):607-642.
    Three studies examined the co-existence of natural and supernatural explanations for illness and disease transmission, from a developmental perspective. The participants (5-, 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults; N = 366) were drawn from 2 Sesotho-speaking South African communities, where Western biomedical and traditional healing frameworks were both available. Results indicated that, although biological explanations for illness were endorsed at high levels, witchcraft was also often endorsed. More important, bewitchment explanations were neither the result of ignorance nor replaced by biological (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  8.  96
    Early word-learning entails reference, not merely associations.Sandra R. Waxman & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (6):258-263.
  9.  50
    Generic Language for Social and Animal Kinds: An Examination of the Asymmetry Between Acceptance and Inferences.Federico Cella, Kristan A. Marchak, Claudia Bianchi & Susan A. Gelman - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (12):e13209.
    Generics (e.g., “Ravens are black”) express generalizations about categories or their members. Previous research found that generics about animals are interpreted as broadly true of members of a kind, yet also accepted based on minimal evidence. This asymmetry is important for suggesting a mechanism by which unfounded generalizations may flourish; yet, little is known whether this finding extends to generics about groups of people (heretofore, “social generics”). Accordingly, in four preregistered studies (n = 665), we tested for an inferential asymmetry (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  10.  62
    So It Is, So It Shall Be: Group Regularities License Children's Prescriptive Judgments.Steven O. Roberts, Susan A. Gelman & Arnold K. Ho - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3):576-600.
    When do descriptive regularities become prescriptive norms? We examined children's and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups that engaged in morally neutral behaviors. Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals. Children negatively evaluated non-conformity, with negative evaluations declining with age. These effects were replicable across competitive and cooperative intergroup contexts and stemmed from reasoning about group regularities rather than reasoning about individual regularities. These data provide new insights into children's group concepts and have (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  11. Artifacts and Essentialism.Susan A. Gelman - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):449-463.
    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  12.  51
    Children's Developing Intuitions About the Truth Conditions and Implications of Novel Generics Versus Quantified Statements.Amanda C. Brandone, Susan A. Gelman & Jenna Hedglen - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):711-738.
    Generic statements express generalizations about categories and present a unique semantic profile that is distinct from quantified statements. This paper reports two studies examining the development of children's intuitions about the semantics of generics and how they differ from statements quantified by all, most, and some. Results reveal that, like adults, preschoolers recognize that generics have flexible truth conditions and are capable of representing a wide range of prevalence levels; and interpret novel generics as having near-universal prevalence implications. Results further (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  13.  36
    Causal status effect in children's categorization.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Susan A. Gelman, Jennifer A. Amsterlaw, Jill Hohenstein & Charles W. Kalish - 2000 - Cognition 76 (2):B35-B43.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  14.  21
    Shape and representational status in children's early naming.Susan A. Gelman & Karen S. Ebeling - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):B35-B47.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  15. Essentialist Beliefs About Bodily Transplants in the United States and India.Meredith Meyer, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Susan A. Gelman & Sarah M. Stilwell - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):668-710.
    Psychological essentialism is the belief that some internal, unseen essence or force determines the common outward appearances and behaviors of category members. We investigated whether reasoning about transplants of bodily elements showed evidence of essentialist thinking. Both Americans and Indians endorsed the possibility of transplants conferring donors' personality, behavior, and luck on recipients, consistent with essentialism. Respondents also endorsed essentialist effects even when denying that transplants would change a recipient's category membership (e.g., predicting that a recipient of a pig's heart (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  16.  75
    Memory Errors Reveal a Bias to Spontaneously Generalize to Categories.Shelbie L. Sutherland, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan A. Gelman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):1021-1046.
    Much evidence suggests that, from a young age, humans are able to generalize information learned about a subset of a category to the category itself. Here, we propose that—beyond simply being able to perform such generalizations—people are biased to generalize to categories, such that they routinely make spontaneous, implicit category generalizations from information that licenses such generalizations. To demonstrate the existence of this bias, we asked participants to perform a task in which category generalizations would distract from the main goal (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  17.  19
    Preschoolers’ use of spatiotemporal history, appearance, and proper name in determining individual identity.Grant Gutheil, Susan A. Gelman, Eileen Klein, Katherine Michos & Kara Kelaita - 2008 - Cognition 107 (1):366-380.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  18.  43
    A cross-linguistic comparison of generic noun phrases in English and Mandarin.Susan A. Gelman & Twila Tardif - 1998 - Cognition 66 (3):215-248.
    Generic noun phrases (e.g. 'bats live in caves') provide a window onto human concepts. They refer to categories as 'kinds rather than as sets of individuals. Although kind concepts are often assumed to be universal, generic expression varies considerably across languages. For example, marking of generics is less obligatory and overt in Mandarin than in English. How do universal conceptual biases interact with language-specific differences in how generics are conveyed? In three studies, we examined adults' generics in English and Mandarin (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  19. Scientific and Folk Theories of Viral Transmission: A Comparison of COVID-19 and the Common Cold.Danielle Labotka & Susan A. Gelman - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Disease transmission is a fruitful domain in which to examine how scientific and folk theories interrelate, given laypeople’s access to multiple sources of information to explain events of personal significance. The current paper reports an in-depth survey of U.S. adults’ causal reasoning about two viral illnesses: a novel, deadly disease that has massively disrupted everyone’s lives, and a familiar, innocuous disease that has essentially no serious consequences. Participants received a series of closed-ended and open-ended questions probing their reasoning about disease (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20.  53
    Differences in preschoolers’ and adults’ use of generics about novel animals and artifacts: A window onto a conceptual divide.Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Cognition 110 (1):1-22.
    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants’ generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to generate properties about novel animals and artifacts (Experiment 1: real animals/artifacts; Experiments 2 and 3: matched pairs of maximally similar, novel animals/artifacts). Data demonstrate that even without prior knowledge about these items, the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  21.  24
    The role of preschoolers’ social understanding in evaluating the informativeness of causal interventions.Tamar Kushnir, Henry M. Wellman & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1084-1092.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  22.  21
    Children’s and Adults’ Intuitions about Who Can Own Things.Nicholaus S. Noles, Frank C. Keil, Susan A. Gelman & Paul Bloom - 2012 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 12 (3-4):265-286.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  23.  25
    You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose‐Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts.Elizabeth A. Ware & Susan A. Gelman - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):197-243.
    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring would have the same property as the birth or rearing parent. For each vignette, the animal parents had contrasting values on a physical property dimension (e.g., the birth parent had (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  24.  36
    My Heart Made Me Do It: Children's Essentialist Beliefs About Heart Transplants.Meredith Meyer, Susan A. Gelman, Steven O. Roberts & Sarah-Jane Leslie - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (6):1694-1712.
    Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict whether trading hearts with an individual would cause them to take on the donor's attributes. Control conditions asked children to consider the effects of trading money with an individual. Results (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25.  67
    Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3):523-544.
    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history. Experiments 3–5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  26.  39
    Expressing generic concepts with and without a language model.Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan A. Gelman & Carolyn Mylander - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):109-126.
  27.  55
    Tracking the Actions and Possessions of Agents.Susan A. Gelman, Nicholaus S. Noles & Sarah Stilwell - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):599-614.
    We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set , and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  28.  27
    Young children’s preference for unique owned objects.Susan A. Gelman & Natalie S. Davidson - 2016 - Cognition 155 (C):146-154.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  29.  19
    Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: Evidence for developmental change.Marjorie Rhodes, Daniel Brickman & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):543-556.
  30.  33
    Testimony and observation of statistical evidence interact in adults' and children's category-based induction.Zoe Finiasz, Susan A. Gelman & Tamar Kushnir - 2024 - Cognition 244 (C):105707.
  31.  30
    What we would (but shouldn't) do for those we love: Universalism versus partiality in responding to others' moral transgressions.Laura K. Soter, Martha K. Berg, Susan A. Gelman & Ethan Kross - 2021 - Cognition 217 (C):104886.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32.  31
    History and essence in human cognition.Susan A. Gelman, Meredith A. Meyer & Nicholaus S. Noles - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):142-143.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) provide compelling evidence that sensitivity to context, history, and design stance are crucial to theories of art appreciation. We ask how these ideas relate to broader aspects of human cognition. Further open questions concern how psychological essentialism contributes to art appreciation and how essentialism regarding created artifacts (such as art) differs from essentialism in other domains.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  33.  10
    A developmental perspective on the Imperfective Paradox.Josep Call, Olga Kochukhova, Gustaf Gredebäck, Sorel Cahan, Yaniv Mor, Nina Kazanina, Colin Phillips, Ori Friedman, Alan M. Leslie & Susan A. Gelman - 2007 - Cognition 105 (1):65-102.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  34.  21
    What makes Voldemort tick? Children's and adults' reasoning about the nature of villains.Valerie A. Umscheid, Craig E. Smith, Felix Warneken, Susan A. Gelman & Henry M. Wellman - 2023 - Cognition 233 (C):105357.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  29
    Children's reasoning about physics within and across ontological kinds.Gail D. Heyman, Ann T. Phillips & Susan A. Gelman - 2003 - Cognition 89 (1):43-61.
  36.  40
    A Dollar Is a Dollar Is a Dollar, or Is It? Insights From Children's Reasoning About “Dirty Money”.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12950.
    Money can take many forms—a coin or a bill, a payment for an automobile or a prize for an award, a piece from the 1989 series or the 2019 series, and so on—but despite this, money is designed to represent an amount and only that. Thus, a dollar is a dollar, in the sense that money is fungible. But when adults ordinarily think about money, they think about it in terms of its source, and in particular, its moral source (e.g., (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  12
    Testing the effects of congruence in adult multilingual acquisition with implications for creole genesis.Danielle Labotka, Emily Sabo, Rawan Bonais, Susan A. Gelman & Marlyse Baptista - 2023 - Cognition 235 (C):105387.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  10
    How does “emporiophobia” develop?Margaret Echelbarger, Susan A. Gelman & Charles W. Kalish - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  21
    A Slippery Myth: How Learning Style Beliefs Shape Reasoning about Multimodal Instruction and Related Scientific Evidence.Shaylene E. Nancekivell, Xin Sun, Susan A. Gelman & Priti Shah - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (10):e13047.
    The learning style myth is a commonly held myth that matching instruction to a student's “learning style” will result in improved learning, while providing mismatched instruction will result in suboptimal learning. The present study used a short online reasoning exercise about the efficacy of multimodal instruction to investigate the nature of learning styles beliefs. We aimed to: understand how learning style beliefs interact with beliefs about multimodal learning; characterize the potential complexity of learning style beliefs and understand how this short (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  26
    Defining essentialism.Susan A. Gelman - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (9):404-409.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  32
    Two insights about naming in the preschool child.Susan A. Gelman - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York, US: Oxford University Press USA. pp. 198--215.
    This chapter examines associationist models of cognitive development, focusing on the development of naming in young children — the process by which young children learn of construct the meanings of words and concepts. It presents two early-emerging insights that children possess about the nature of naming. These insights are: essentialism: certain words map onto nonobvious, underlying causal features, and genericity: certain expressions map onto generic kinds as opposed to particular instances. The chapter discusses empirical studies with preschool children to support (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  42.  10
    “It kinda has like a mind”: Children's and parents' beliefs concerning viral disease transmission for COVID-19 and the common cold.Danielle Labotka & Susan A. Gelman - 2023 - Cognition 235 (C):105413.
  43.  7
    To Give or to Receive? The Role of Giver Versus Receiver on Object Tracking and Object Preferences in Children and Adults.Nicholaus S. Noles, Susan A. Gelman & Sarah Stilwell - 2021 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 21 (5):369-388.
    For adults, ownership is a concept that rests on principles and connections that apply broadly – whether the owner is the self or someone else, and whether the self is giver or receiver. The present studies tested whether preschool children likewise treat ownership in this abstract fashion. In Experiment 1, 20 children and 24 adults were assigned to be either “givers” or “receivers.” They were then asked to identify which items they and the researcher owned. In Experiment 2, 20 children (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44.  24
    The Importance of Clarifying Evolutionary Terminology Across Disciplines and in the Classroom: A Reply to Kampourakis.Elizabeth A. Ware & Susan A. Gelman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):838-841.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  45
    Psychological models often assume that young children learn words and concepts bymeansof associative learning mechanisms, without the need to posit any innate predispositions. For example, Smith, Jones, and Landau (1996) propose that children learn concepts by hearing specific linguistic frames while viewing specific object properties. The environment provides all the information that children need; the conjunction of sights and sounds is proposed to be sufficient to enable children. [REVIEW]Susan A. Gelman - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen P. Stich (eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York, US: Oxford University Press USA. pp. 1--198.