46 found
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  1.  45
    Healing Without Waging War: Beyond Military Metaphors in Medicine and HIV Cure Research.Jing-Bao Nie, Adam Gilbertson, Malcolm de Roubaix, Ciara Staunton, Anton van Niekerk, Joseph D. Tucker & Stuart Rennie - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):3-11.
    Military metaphors are pervasive in biomedicine, including HIV research. Rooted in the mind set that regards pathogens as enemies to be defeated, terms such as “shock and kill” have become widely accepted idioms within HIV cure research. Such language and symbolism must be critically examined as they may be especially problematic when used to express scientific ideas within emerging health-related fields. In this article, philosophical analysis and an interdisciplinary literature review utilizing key texts from sociology, anthropology, history, and Chinese and (...)
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  2.  31
    Key ethical issues encountered during COVID-19 research: a thematic analysis of perspectives from South African research ethics committees.Keymanthri Moodley, Stuart Rennie & Theresa Burgess - 2023 - BMC Medical Ethics 24 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic presents significant challenges to research ethics committees (RECs) in balancing urgency of review of COVID-19 research with careful consideration of risks and benefits. In the African context, RECs are further challenged by historical mistrust of research and potential impacts on COVID-19 related research participation, as well as the need to facilitate equitable access to effective treatments or vaccines for COVID-19. In South Africa, an absent National Health Research Ethics Council (NHREC) also left RECs without national guidance for (...)
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  3.  19
    What Could “Fair Allocation” during the Covid‐19 Crisis Possibly Mean in Sub‐Saharan Africa?Keymanthri Moodley, Laurent Ravez, Adetayo Emmanuel Obasa, Alwyn Mwinga, Walter Jaoko, Darius Makindu, Frieda Behets & Stuart Rennie - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):33-35.
    The Covid‐19 pandemic has sparked rapid and voluminous production of bioethics commentary in popular media and academic publications. Many of the discussions are new twists on an old theme: how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, such as ventilators and intensive care unit beds. In this essay, we do not add another allocation scheme to the growing pile, partly out of appreciation that such schemes should be products of inclusive and transparent community engagement and partly out of recognition of their (...)
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  4.  32
    Advancing a Data Justice Framework for Public Health Surveillance.Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Stuart Rennie, Colleen Blue & David L. Rosen - 2022 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 13 (3):205-213.
    Background Bioethical debates about privacy, big data, and public health surveillance have not sufficiently engaged the perspectives of those being surveilled. The data justice framework suggests that big data applications have the potential to create disproportionate harm for socially marginalized groups. Using examples from our research on HIV surveillance for individuals incarcerated in jails, we analyze ethical issues in deploying big data in public health surveillance. -/- Methods We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 24 people living with HIV who had (...)
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  5.  48
    Viewing Research Participation as a Moral Obligation: In Whose Interests?Stuart Rennie - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):40.
    Over the past few years, a growing number of people have called for reconceptualizing participation in health research as a moral obligation. John Harris argues that seriously debilitating diseases give rise to important needs, and since medical research is necessary to relieve those needs in many circumstances, people are morally obligated to act as research subjects.1 Rosamond Rhodes claims that research participation is a moral obligation for reasons of justice, beneficence, and self-development: because we all benefit significantly from modern medicine, (...)
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  6.  38
    The ethics of talking about ‘HIV cure’.Stuart Rennie, Mark Siedner, Joseph D. Tucker & Keymanthri Moodley - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):18.
    In 2008, researchers reported that Timothy Brown , a man with HIV infection and leukemia, received a stem-cell transplant that removed HIV from his body as far as can be detected. In 2013, an infant born with HIV infection received anti-retroviral treatment shortly after birth, but was then lost to the health care system for the next six months. When tested for HIV upon return, the child had no detectable viral load despite cessation of treatment. These remarkable clinical developments have (...)
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  7.  19
    In Whose Interests?Stuart Rennie - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):40-47.
  8.  38
    Living apart together: reflections on bioethics, global inequality and social justice.Stuart Rennie & Bavon Mupenda - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3:25-.
    Significant inequalities in health between and within countries have been measured over the past decades. Although these inequalities, as well as attempts to improve sub-standard health, raise profound issues of social justice and the right to health, those working in the field of bioethics have historically tended to devote greater attention to ethical issues raised by new, cutting-edge biotechnologies such as life-support cessation, genomics, stem cell research or face transplantation. This suggests that bioethics research and scholarship may revolve around issues (...)
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  9.  26
    Allocation of scarce resources in Africa during COVID‐19: Utility and justice for the bottom of the pyramid?Keymanthri Moodley, Stuart Rennie, Frieda Behets, Adetayo Emmanuel Obasa, Robert Yemesi, Laurent Ravez, Patrick Kayembe, Darius Makindu, Alwyn Mwinga & Walter Jaoko - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (1):36-43.
    The COVID‐19 pandemic has raised important universal public health challenges. Conceiving ethical responses to these challenges is a public health imperative but must take context into account. This is particularly important in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, we examine how some of the ethical recommendations offered so far in high‐income countries might appear from a SSA perspective. We also reflect on some of the key ethical challenges raised by the COVID‐19 pandemic in low‐income countries suffering from chronic shortages in (...)
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  10.  50
    No More Militaristic and Violent Language in Medicine: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Healing Without Waging War: Beyond Military Metaphors in Medicine and HIV Cure Research”.Jing-Bao Nie, Stuart Rennie, Adam Gilbertson & Joseph D. Tucker - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):9-11.
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  11.  11
    HIV Molecular Epidemiology: Tool of Oppression or Empowerment?Stuart Rennie, Kristen Sullivan & Ann Dennis - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (10):44-47.
    Volume 20, Issue 10, October 2020, Page 44-47.
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  12.  19
    Scraping the Web for Public Health Gains: Ethical Considerations from a ‘Big Data’ Research Project on HIV and Incarceration.Stuart Rennie, Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Colleen Blue & David L. Rosen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (1):111-121.
    Web scraping involves using computer programs for automated extraction and organization of data from the Web for the purpose of further data analysis and use. It is frequently used by commercial companies, but also has become a valuable tool in epidemiological research and public health planning. In this paper, we explore ethical issues in a project that “scrapes” public websites of U.S. county jails as part of an effort to develop a comprehensive database to enhance HIV surveillance and improve continuity (...)
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  13.  47
    Ethics of treatment interruption trials in HIV cure research: addressing the conundrum of risk/benefit assessment.Gail E. Henderson, Holly L. Peay, Eugene Kroon, Rosemary Jean Cadigan, Karen Meagher, Thidarat Jupimai, Adam Gilbertson, Jill Fisher, Nuchanart Q. Ormsby, Nitiya Chomchey, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich & Stuart Rennie - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104433.
    Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption, involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally. We address these questions through a longitudinal decision-making study (...)
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  14.  42
    Developing ethics guidance for HIV prevention research: the HIV Prevention Trials Network approach.Stuart Rennie & Jeremy Sugarman - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):810-815.
    More than 25 years into the HIV epidemic, in excess of 2 million new infections continue to occur each year. HIV prevention research is crucial for groups at heightened risk for HIV, but the design and conduct of HIV prevention research with vulnerable populations worldwide raises considerable ethical challenges. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is a global collaborative network that conducts clinical and behavioural studies on non-vaccine interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV. In 2003, the HPTN developed ethical (...)
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  15.  11
    Penile transplantation as an appropriate response to botched traditional circumcisions in South Africa: an argument against.Keymanthri Moodley & Stuart Rennie - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (2):86-90.
    Traditional male circumcision is a deeply entrenched cultural practice in South Africa. In recent times, there have been increasing numbers of botched circumcisions by untrained and unscrupulous practitioners, leading to genital mutilation and often, the need for penile amputation. Hailed as a world’s first, a team of surgeons conducted the first successful penile transplant in Cape Town, South Africa in 2015. Despite the euphoria of this surgical victory, concerns about the use of this costly intervention in a context of severe (...)
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  16.  36
    AIDS Care and Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implementation Ethics.Stuart Rennie & Frieda Behets - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (3):23-31.
    With the advent of new AIDS treatment initiatives such as the World Health Organization's “3 by 5” program and the United States' “President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief,” the ethical questions about AIDS care in the developing world have changed. No longer are they fundamentally about the conduct of research; now, we must turn our attention to developing treatment programs. In particular, we must think about how to spread limited treatment resources among the vast reservoir of people who need them.
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  17.  12
    Ethics of pursuing targets in public health: the case of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV-prevention programs in Kenya.Stuart Rennie, Adam Gilbertson, Denise Hallfors & Winnie K. Luseno - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e51-e51.
    The use of targets to direct public health programmes, particularly in global initiatives, has become widely accepted and commonplace. This paper is an ethical analysis of the utilisation of targets in global public health using our fieldwork on and experiences with voluntary medical male circumcision initiatives in Kenya. Among the many countries involved in VMMC for HIV prevention, Kenya is considered a success story, its programmes having medically circumcised nearly 2 million men since 2007. We describe ethically problematic practices in (...)
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  18.  12
    The FDA and Helsinki.Stuart Rennie - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (3):3-3.
  19.  13
    Enhancing ethics review of social and behavioral research: developing a review template in Ethiopia.Liya Wassie, Senkenesh Gebre-Mariam, Geremew Tarekegne & Stuart Rennie - 2019 - Research Ethics 15 (3-4):1-23.
    Background:Africa is increasingly becoming an important region for health research, mainly due to its heavy burden of disease, socioeconomic challenges, and inadequate health facilities. Regulatory...
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  20.  6
    Exploring views of South African research ethics committees on pandemic preparedness and response during COVID-19.Theresa Burgess, Stuart Rennie & Keymanthri Moodley - forthcoming - Research Ethics.
    South African research ethics committees (RECs) faced significant challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research ethics committees needed to find a balance between careful consideration of scientific validity and ethical merit of protocols, and review with the urgency normally associated with public health emergency research. We aimed to explore the views of South African RECs on their pandemic preparedness and response during COVID-19. We conducted in-depth interviews with 21 participants from RECs that were actively involved in the review of COVID-19 related (...)
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  21.  15
    Stakeholders’ experiences of ethical challenges in cluster randomized trials in a limited resource setting: a qualitative analysis.Tiwonge K. Mtande, Carl Lombard, Gonasagrie Nair & Stuart Rennie - 2024 - Research Ethics 20 (1):64-78.
    Although the use of the cluster randomized trial (CRT) design to evaluate vaccines, public health interventions or health systems is increasing, the ethical issues posed by the design are not adequately addressed, especially in low- and middle-income country settings (LMICs). To help reveal ethical challenges, qualitative interviews were conducted with key stakeholders experienced in designing and conducting two selected CRTs in Malawi. The 18 interviewed stakeholders included investigators, clinicians, nurses, data management personnel and community workers who were invited to share (...)
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  22.  11
    The Infrastructure Effect: Scientific Conjecture or Wishful Thinking?Stuart Rennie - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (6):12-13.
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  23.  28
    Is It Ethical to Study What Ought Not to Happen? 1.Stuart Rennie - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (2):71-77.
    In the Democratic Republic of Congo, only an estimated 2% of all AIDS patients have access to treatment. As AIDS treatment access is scaled‐up in the coming years, difficult rationing decisions will have to be made concerning who will come to gain access to this scarce medical resource. This article focuses on the position, expressed by representatives of Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), that the practice of AIDS treatment access rationing is fundamentally unethical because it conflicts with the ideal of universal (...)
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  24.  12
    Tinkering With the Health of the Poor.Stuart Rennie - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):43-44.
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  25.  30
    Ethical Use of Antiretroviral Resources for HIV Prevention in Resource Poor Settings.Stuart Rennie - 2013 - Developing World Bioethics 13 (2):79-86.
    The effectiveness of antiretroviral regimes (ARVs) to reduce risk of HIV transmission from mother to child and as post-exposure prophylaxis has been known for almost two decades. Recent research indicates ARVs can also reduce the risk of HIV transmission via sexual intercourse in two other ways. With pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), ARVs are used to reduce risk of HIV acquisition among persons who are HIV negative and significantly exposed to the virus. With treatment as prevention (TasP), ARVs are used to reduce (...)
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  26.  33
    White (Coat) Lies: Bending the Truth to Stay Faithful to Patients.Christopher Bennett, Alex Finch & Stuart Rennie - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (9):15-17.
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  27.  11
    Corrigendum: Scraping the Web for Public Health Gains: Ethical Considerations from a ‘Big Data’ Research Project on HIV and Incarceration.Stuart Rennie, Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein & Colleen Blue and David L. Rosen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):314-314.
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  28.  6
    Corrigendum: Scraping the Web for Public Health Gains: Ethical Considerations from a ‘Big Data’ Research Project on HIV and Incarceration.Stuart Rennie, Mara Buchbinder, Eric Juengst, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein & Colleen Blue and David L. Rosen - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):314-314.
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  29.  33
    Deflating Rhetoric About “Ethical Inflation”.Stuart Rennie & Lawrence Rosenfeld - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (11):58-60.
  30.  35
    Do the ravages of the hiv/aids epidemic ethically justify mandatory hiv testing?Stuart Rennie - 2007 - Developing World Bioethics 7 (1):48–49.
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  31.  17
    Delineating the role of penile transplantation when traditional male circumcisions go wrong in South Africa.Stuart Rennie & Keymanthri Moodley - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (3):192-193.
    Back in 2017, Moodley and Rennie published a paper in the Journal of Medical Ethics entitled ‘Penile transplantation as an appropriate response to botched traditional circumcisions in South Africa: an argument against.’1 As the title suggests, we took a critical view towards penile transplantation as a way of responding to the problem of young men in South Africa experiencing genital mutilation and amputation as a result of traditional circumcision practices. Our main conclusion was that prevention is key: social, cultural and (...)
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  32.  9
    Ethical considerations for HIV remission clinical research involving participants diagnosed during acute HIV infection.Stuart Rennie, Maartje Dijkstra, Karine Dubé, Joseph D. Tucker & Adam Gilbertson - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-12.
    HIV remission clinical researchers are increasingly seeking study participants who are diagnosed and treated during acute HIV infection—the brief period between infection and the point when the body creates detectable HIV antibodies. This earliest stage of infection is often marked by flu-like illness and may be an especially tumultuous period of confusion, guilt, anger, and uncertainty. Such experiences may present added ethical challenges for HIV research recruitment, participation, and retention. The purpose of this paper is to identify potential ethical challenges (...)
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  33.  41
    Ethics of mandatory premarital hiv testing in Africa: The case of goma, democratic republic of congo.Stuart Rennie & Bavon Mupenda - 2007 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (2):126-137.
    Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse ('opt out'). While these (...)
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  34.  22
    Elegant variations: Remarks on Rorty's' Liberal utopia'.Stuart Rennie & R. Rorty - 1998 - South African Journal of Philosophy 17 (4):313-345.
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  35.  14
    Medical Scholarships and the Social Determinants of Health.Stuart Rennie - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (5):38-39.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 5, Page 38-39, May 2012.
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  36. Perspective: The FDA and Helsinki.Stuart Rennie - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
     
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  37.  21
    Regarding research participation as a moral obligation: who shoulders the burdens and who reaps the benefits?Stuart Rennie - 2010 - Asian Bioethics Review 2 (4):308-321.
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  38.  17
    Strengthening Howick's Argument Against The Alleged Superiority of Placebo-Controlled Trials.Stuart Rennie & Til Stürmer - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (9):62-64.
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  39.  13
    Stakeholder views on informed consent models for future use of biological samples in Malawi and South Africa.Stuart Rennie, Walter Jaoko & Francis Masiye - 2023 - BMC Medical Ethics 24 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundCurrent advances in biomedical research have introduced new ethical challenges in obtaining informed consent in low and middle-income settings. For example, there are controversies about the use of broad consent in the collection of biological samples for use in future biomedical research. However, few studies have explored preferred informed consent models for future use of biological samples in Malawi and South Africa. Therefore, we conducted an empirical study to understand preferred consent models among key stakeholders in biomedical studies that involve (...)
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  40.  7
    The Ethics of Stigma in Medical Male Circumcision Initiatives Involving Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa.Stuart Rennie, Adam Gilbertson, Denise Hallfors & Winnie K. Luseno - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (1):79-89.
    Ongoing global efforts to circumcise adolescent and adult males to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV constitute the largest public health prevention initiative, using surgical means, in human history. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in Africa have significantly altered social norms related to male circumcision among previously non-circumcising groups and groups that have practiced traditional (non-medical) circumcision. One consequence of this change is the stigmatization of males who, for whatever reason, remain uncircumcised. This paper discusses the ethics of stigma (...)
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  41.  12
    The Ethics of Globalizing Bioethics.Stuart Rennie & Bavon Mupenda - 2011 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 2 (2):147-156.
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  42.  29
    The Paywall as Metaphor and Symptom.Stuart Rennie & Keymanthri Moodley - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (10):17-18.
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  43.  38
    When Experiments Travel: Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects – By Adriana Petryna.Stuart Rennie - 2010 - Developing World Bioethics 10 (2):114-115.
  44.  25
    HIV prevention research and COVID-19: putting ethics guidance to the test.Jeremy Sugarman, Steven Wakefield, Brandon Brown, Ernest Moseki, Robert Klitzman, Florencia Luna, Leah A. Schrumpf, Wairimu Chege & Stuart Rennie - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundCritical public health measures implemented to mitigate the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have disrupted health research worldwide, including HIV prevention research. While general guidance has been issued for the responsible conduct of research in these challenging circumstances, the contours of the dueling COVID-19 and HIV/aids pandemics raise some critical ethical issues for HIV prevention research. In this paper, we use the recently updated HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) Ethics Guidance Document (EGD) to situate and analyze key (...)
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  45. Principlism, medical individualism, and health promotion in resource-poor countries: can autonomy-based bioethics promote social justice and population health? [REVIEW]Jacquineau Azétsop & Stuart Rennie - 2010 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 5:1.
    Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics (...)
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  46.  13
    Review of Health for Sale, By Mannut Film. [REVIEW]Stuart Rennie - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (12):83-84.
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