Results for 'Steven A. Hecht'

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  1.  24
    Pure short-term memory capacity has implications for understanding individual differences in math skills.Steven A. Hecht & Todd K. Shackelford - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):124-125.
    Future work is needed to establish that pure short-term memory is a coherent individual difference attribute that is separable from traditional compound short-term memory measures. Psychometric support for latent pure short-term memory capacity will provide an important starting point for future fine-grained analyses of the intrinsic factors that influence individual differences in math skills.
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  2.  9
    Adaptationism and Optimality.Steven Hecht Orzack & Elliott Sober (eds.) - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    The debate over the relative importance of natural selection as compared to other forces affecting the evolution of organisms is a long-standing and central controversy in evolutionary biology. The theory of adaptationism argues that natural selection contains sufficient explanatory power in itself to account for all evolution. However, there are differing views about the efficiency of the adaptation model of explanation. If the adaptationism theory is applied, are energy and resources being used to their optimum? This book presents an up-to-date (...)
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  3.  16
    A commentary on “The Formal Darwinism Project”: there is no grandeur in this view of life.Steven Hecht Orzack - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):259-270.
    The Formal Darwinism Project is an attempt to use mathematical theory to prove the claim that fitness maximization is the outcome of evolution in nature. Grafen’s (2014, p. 12) conclusion from this project is that “….there is a very general expectation of something close to fitness maximisation, which will convert into fitness-maximisation unless there are particular kinds of circumstances—and further, that fitness is the same quantity for all genetic architectures.” Grafen’s claim appears to mean to him that natural populations are (...)
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  4.  30
    Modeling in Biology: looking backward and looking forward.Steven Hecht Orzack & Brian McLoone - 2019 - Studia Metodologiczne 39.
    Understanding modeling in biology requires understanding how biology is organized as a discipline and how this organization influences the research practices of biologists. Biology includes a wide range of sub-disciplines, such as cell biology, population biology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, and systems biology among others. Biologists in sub-disciplines such as cell, molecular, and systems biology believe that the use of a few experimental models allows them to discover biological universals, whereas biologists in sub-disciplines such as ecology and evolutionary biology believe (...)
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  5.  12
    Not so rational: A more natural way to understand the ANS.Eli Hecht, Tracey Mills, Steven Shin & Jonathan Phillips - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    In contrast to Clarke and Beck's claim that that the approximate number system represents rational numbers, we argue for a more modest alternative: The ANS represents natural numbers, and there are separate, non-numeric processes that can be used to represent ratios across a wide range of domains, including natural numbers.
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  6.  33
    Discussion: What, If Anything, Is "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology?" A Comment on Levins (1966) and Odenbaugh (2003). [REVIEW]Steven Hecht Orzack - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 72 (3):479-485.
    In our 1993 paper, “A Critical Look,‘ Elliott Sober and I concluded that the famous claim about model formulation and constraints made by Richard Levins in his influential 1966 article on model building in population biology is neither true nor normative. Here, I comment upon the claim of Odenbaugh that the conclusions of “A Critical Look‘ are incorrect. My conclusions remain that Levins’ claim about the tradeoff between model properties lacks logical coherence, generates an arbitrary model classification, and lacks normative (...)
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  7.  80
    Common ancestry and natural selection.Elliott Sober & Steven Hecht Orzack - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):423-437.
    We explore the evidential relationships that connect two standard claims of modern evolutionary biology. The hypothesis of common ancestry (which says that all organisms now on earth trace back to a single progenitor) and the hypothesis of natural selection (which says that natural selection has been an important influence on the traits exhibited by organisms) are logically independent; however, this leaves open whether testing one requires assumptions about the status of the other. Darwin noted that an extreme version of adaptationism (...)
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  8.  19
    The Toolbox Dialogue Initiative: The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Practice.Graham Hubbs, Michael O'Rourke & Steven Hecht Orzack (eds.) - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: CRC Press.
    Cross-disciplinary scientific collaboration is emerging as standard operating procedure for many scholarly research enterprises. And yet, the skill set needed for effective collaboration is neither taught nor mentored. The goal of the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative is to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration. This book, inspired by this initiative, presents dialogue-based methods designed to increase mutual understanding among collaborators so as to enhance the quality and productivity of cross-disciplinary collaboration. It provides a theoretical context, principal activities, and evidence for effectiveness that will assist (...)
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  9.  21
    Ethics in comedy: essays on crossing the line.Steven A. Benko (ed.) - 2020 - Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
    All humans laugh. However, there is little agreement about what is appropriate to laugh at. While laughter can unite people by showing how they share values and perspectives, it is also has the power to separate and divide. Humor that "crosses the line" can make people feel excluded and humiliated. This collection of new essays addresses possible ways that moral and ethical lines can be drawn around humor and laughter. What would a Kantian approach to humor look like? Do games (...)
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  10.  4
    The Good Other.Steven A. Benko - 2020-08-27 - In Kimberly S. Engels (ed.), The Good Place and Philosophy. Wiley. pp. 110–120.
    From beginning to end, the ethical vision of The Good Place is shaped by creator Mike Schur's reading of T.M. Scanlon's What We Owe to Each Other. The characters on The Good Place become better people not because they have figured out a system for getting along with each other. Rather, the moral journey of the characters on The Good Place changes them into fundamentally different people. Levinasian ethics focuses on the encounter with other people and the response to that (...)
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  11. The Meaning of Cause and Prevent: The Role of Causal Mechanism.Clare R. Walsh & Steven A. Sloman - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (1):21-52.
    How do people understand questions about cause and prevent? Some theories propose that people affirm that A causes B if A's occurrence makes a difference to B's occurrence in one way or another. Other theories propose that A causes B if some quantity or symbol gets passed in some way from A to B. The aim of our studies is to compare these theories' ability to explain judgements of causation and prevention. We describe six experiments that compare judgements for causal (...)
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  12.  64
    The empirical case for two systems of reasoning.Steven A. Sloman - 1996 - Psychological Bulletin 119 (1):3-22.
    Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve (...)
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  13.  15
    Constant battles: the myth of the peaceful, noble savage.Steven A. LeBlanc - 2003 - New York: St. Martin's Press. Edited by Katherine E. Register.
    With armed conflict in the Persian Gulf now upon us, Harvard archaeologist Steven LeBlanc takes a long-term view of the nature and roots of war, presenting a controversial thesis: The notion of the "noble savage" living in peace with one another and in harmony with nature is a fantasy. In Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage , LeBlanc contends that warfare and violent conflict have existed throughout human history, and that humans have never lived in ecological (...)
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  14.  17
    Response interference between functional and structural actions linked to the same familiar object.Steven A. Jax & Laurel J. Buxbaum - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):350-355.
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  15.  38
    Feature Centrality and Conceptual Coherence.Steven A. Sloman, Bradley C. Love & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 1998 - Cognitive Science 22 (2):189-228.
    Conceptual features differ in how mentally tranformable they are. A robin that does not eat is harder to imagine than a robin that does not chirp. We argue that features are immutable to the extent that they are central in a network of dependency relations. The immutability of a feature reflects how much the internal structure of a concept depends on that feature; i.e., how much the feature contributes to the concept's coherence. Complementarily, mutability reflects the aspects in which a (...)
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  16.  43
    Do We “do‘?Steven A. Sloman & David A. Lagnado - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (1):5-39.
    A normative framework for modeling causal and counterfactual reasoning has been proposed by Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines. The framework takes as fundamental that reasoning from observation and intervention differ. Intervention includes actual manipulation as well as counterfactual manipulation of a model via thought. To represent intervention, Pearl employed the do operator that simplifies the structure of a causal model by disconnecting an intervened-on variable from its normal causes. Construing the do operator as a psychological function affords predictions about how people (...)
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  17.  23
    Doing Good, Feeling Good? Entrepreneurs’ Social Value Creation Beliefs and Work-Related Well-Being.Steven A. Brieger, Dirk De Clercq & Timo Meynhardt - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 172 (4):707-725.
    Entrepreneurs with social goals face various challenges; insights into how these entrepreneurs experience and appreciate their work remain a black box though. Drawing on identity, conservation of resources, and person–organization fit theories, this study examines how entrepreneurs’ social value creation beliefs relate to their work-related well-being (job satisfaction, work engagement, and lack of work burnout), as well as how this process might be influenced by social concerns with respect to the common good. Using data from the German Public Value Atlas (...)
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  18.  33
    Empowering Women: The Role of Emancipative Forces in Board Gender Diversity.Steven A. Brieger, Claude Francoeur, Christian Welzel & Walid Ben-Amar - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):495-511.
    This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender (...)
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  19.  20
    Schematic representations of local environmental space guide goal-directed navigation.Steven A. Marchette, Jack Ryan & Russell A. Epstein - 2017 - Cognition 158 (C):68-80.
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  20.  36
    How Do We Believe?Steven A. Sloman - 2022 - Topics in Cognitive Science 14 (1):31-44.
    Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 14, Issue 1, Page 31-44, January 2022.
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  21.  11
    Community and Loyalty in American Philosophy: Royce, Sellars, and Rorty.Steven A. Miller - 2018 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of Abbreviations -- Introduction: 'We': The Dangerous Thing -- 1 The Sellarsian Ethical Framework -- 2 Josiah Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty -- 3 Richard Rorty's Quasi-Sellarsian We -- 4 On the Prospects of Redescribing Rorty Roycely -- Bibliography -- Index.
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  22.  15
    Too Much of a Good Thing? On the Relationship Between CSR and Employee Work Addiction.Steven A. Brieger, Stefan Anderer, Andreas Fröhlich, Anne Bäro & Timo Meynhardt - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 166 (2):311-329.
    Recent research highlights the positive effects of organizational CSR engagement on employee outcomes, such as job and life satisfaction, performance, and trust. We argue that the current debate fails to recognize the potential risks associated with CSR. In this study, we focus on the risk of work addiction. We hypothesize that CSR has per se a positive effect on employees and can be classified as a resource. However, we also suggest the existence of an array of unintended negative effects of (...)
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  23.  11
    Causal Models and Screening‐Off.Juhwa Park & Steven A. Sloman - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Malden, MA: Wiley. pp. 450–462.
    This chapter explains the screening‐off rule in the psychological laboratory. The Markov assumption states that any variable in a set is independent in probability of all its ancestors in the set conditional on its own parents. The screening‐off rule is also critical to allow Bayes nets to make an inference of the state of an unknown variable in a causal structure from the states of other variables in that structure. The chapter examines which causal representations people use to make predictions (...)
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  24.  76
    A Causal Model of Intentionality Judgment.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & Scott Ewing - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (2):154-180.
    We propose a causal model theory to explain asymmetries in judgments of the intentionality of a foreseen side-effect that is either negative or positive (Knobe, 2003). The theory is implemented as a Bayesian network relating types of mental states, actions, and consequences that integrates previous hypotheses. It appeals to two inferential routes to judgment about the intentionality of someone else's action: bottom-up from action to desire and top-down from character and disposition. Support for the theory comes from three experiments that (...)
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  25. Linguistic understanding and belief.Steven A. Gross - 2005 - Mind 114 (453):61-66.
    Comment on Dean Pettit, who replies in same issue.
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  26.  4
    Cognitive Representations and Institutional Hybridity in Agrofood Innovation.Steven A. Wolf & Gilles Allaire - 2004 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 29 (4):431-458.
    Product differentiation has emerged as a central dynamic in contemporary agrofood systems. Departure from the mode of standardization emblematic of agrofood modernization raises questions about future technical trajectories and the ways in which learning will be sustained. This article examines two innovation trajectories: the rapid coupling of biotechnologies and information technologies to yield products differentiated by constituent components—a model based on a cognitive logic of decomposition/ recomposition—and the proliferation of product networks that mobilize distinctive, localized resources to create complete identities—a (...)
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  27.  21
    Prosociality in Business: A Human Empowerment Framework.Steven A. Brieger, Siri A. Terjesen, Diana M. Hechavarría & Christian Welzel - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):361-380.
    This study introduces a human empowerment framework to better understand why some businesses are more socially oriented than others in their policies and activities. Building on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we argue that human empowerment—comprised of four components: action resources, emancipative values, social movement activity, and civic entitlements—enables, motivates, and entitles individuals to pursue social goals for their businesses. Using a sample of over 15,000 entrepreneurs from 43 countries, we report strong empirical evidence for two ecological effects of the framework (...)
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  28.  23
    Is political extremism supported by an illusion of understanding?Steven A. Sloman & Marc-Lluis Vives - 2022 - Cognition 225 (C):105146.
  29. The cortical microstructural basis of lateralized cognition: a review.Steven A. Chance - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  30.  39
    When explanations compete: the role of explanatory coherence on judgements of likelihood.Steven A. Sloman - 1994 - Cognition 52 (1):1-21.
    The likelihood of a statement is often derived by generating an explanation for it and evaluating the plausibility of the explanation. The explanation discounting principle states that people tend to focus on a single explanation; alternative explanations compete with the effect of reducing one another’s credibility. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that this principle applies to inductive inferences concerning the properties of everyday categories. In both experiments, subjects estimated the probability of a series of statements and the conditional probabilities of (...)
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  31.  44
    The problem of induction.Steven A. Sloman & D. Lagnado - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 95--116.
  32.  32
    Similarity as an explanatory construct.Steven A. Sloman & Lance J. Rips - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):87-101.
  33.  33
    Synthesis as a route to knowledge.Steven A. Benner - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  34.  81
    John Dewey is a Tool: Lessons from Rorty and Brandom on the History of Pragmatism.Steven A. Miller - 2014 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 50 (2):246.
    Richard Rorty’s writings have long frustrated scholars of classical American philosophy. Robert Brandom’s recent engagements with the history of pragmatism have been met with similar disdain. This essay draws on Larry A. Hickman’s theory of technology and tool-use to find a productive framework for thinking through these interpretations. Foregrounding the purposes that guide their readings, we may find value where many readers have seen only ignorance. This strategy does not embrace interpretive relativism, nor does it preclude all scholarly criticism, but (...)
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  35.  41
    Decisions that hasten death: double effect and the experiences of physicians in Australia.Steven A. Trankle - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):26.
    In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in (...)
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  36.  18
    Thought as a determinant of political opinion.Steven A. Sloman & Nathaniel Rabb - 2019 - Cognition 188 (C):1-7.
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  37.  31
    Problems of somatic mutation and cancer.Steven A. Frank & Martin A. Nowak - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (3):291-299.
    Somatic mutation plays a key role in transforming normal cells into cancerous cells. The analysis of cancer progression therefore requires the study of how point mutations and chromosomal mutations accumulate in cellular lineages. The spread of somatic mutations depends on the mutation rate, the number of cell divisions in the history of a cellular lineage, and the nature of competition between different cellular lineages. We consider how various aspects of tissue architecture and cellular competition affect the pace of mutation accumulation. (...)
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  38.  35
    Self-deception requires vagueness.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & York Hagmayer - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):268-281.
  39.  41
    A cognitive process shell.Steven A. Vere - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):460-461.
  40. Integral Ecology, Epigenetics and the Common Good.Russell A. Butkus & Steven A. Kolmes - 2017 - Journal of Catholic Social Thought 14 (2):291-320.
    With the release of Laudato Si (2015) Pope Francis has introduced new conceptual language into Catholic social teaching (CST), what he has called "integral ecology." His intent appears to be grounded in the realization that "It is essential to seek comprehensive solutions which consider the interactions with natural systems themselves and with social systems" (LS, no. CXXXVIII). Pope Francis goes on to make the case that ''We are faced not with two separate crises, one environmental and the other social, but (...)
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  41.  41
    Steven M. Cahn and Andrew T. Forechimes, eds., Principles of Moral Philosophy: Classic and Contemporary Approaches.Steven A. Benko - 2018 - Teaching Ethics 18 (1):104-106.
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  42.  36
    A Genealogical Analysis of the Concept of ‘Good’ Teaching: A Polemic.Steven A. Stolz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 52 (1):144-162.
    In this essay I intentionally employ Nietzsche's genealogical method as a means to critique the complex concept of ‘good’ teaching, and at the same time reconstitute ‘good’ teaching in a form that is radically different from contemporary accounts. In order to do this, I start out by undertaking a genealogical analysis to both reveal the complicated historical development of ‘good’ teaching and also disentangle the intertwining threads that remain hidden from us so we are aware of the core threads that (...)
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  43.  13
    The descent into words: Jakob Böhme's transcendental linguistics.Steven A. Konopacki - 1979 - Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
  44.  17
    Clustered and genome‐wide transient mutagenesis in human cancers: Hypermutation without permanent mutators or loss of fitness.Steven A. Roberts & Dmitry A. Gordenin - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (4):382-393.
    The gain of a selective advantage in cancer as well as the establishment of complex traits during evolution require multiple genetic alterations, but how these mutations accumulate over time is currently unclear. There is increasing evidence that a mutator phenotype perpetuates the development of many human cancers. While in some cases the increased mutation rate is the result of a genetic disruption of DNA repair and replication or environmental exposures, other evidence suggests that endogenous DNA damage induced by AID/APOBEC cytidine (...)
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  45.  28
    Wright's adaptive landscape versus Fisher's fundamental theorem.Steven A. Frank - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press.
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  46.  62
    In Search of a Pragmatic Systems Method.Steven A. Cavaleri - 2011 - World Futures 67 (4-5):266 - 281.
    In this article, the author describes some of his own experiences of becoming an organizational systems theorist. The article also presents overviews of various systems theories that influenced the learning process from subject exploration to mastery. These include system dynamics, management systems, General Systems Theory, self-organizing systems, and autognomics. Additionally, discussions of system failures, philosophical pragmatism, and knowledge management all relate to their influence on systems theories. The article culminates with an examination of the possible causes of system failures and (...)
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  47.  69
    Toward a Practice of Stoic Pragmatism.Steven A. Miller - 2015 - The Pluralist 10 (2):150-171.
    Despite broad influence on the history of philosophy, Stoicism has lain long dormant as a practical philosophy. Of late, however, some have sought to modernize Stoicism for the contemporary world.1 It has found success in the military, as Stockdale and Sherman report. While the promise of tranquility through reason and self-discipline presents an appealing vision in emotional times, some tenets of Stoicism cannot gain purchase among society at large: predetermination, absolute morality at all times, and the idea of a non-relational (...)
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  48.  7
    Celebrate life: hope for a culture preoccupied with death.Steven A. Carr - 1990 - Brentwood, Tenn.: Wolgemuth & Hyatt. Edited by Franklin A. Meyer.
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  49.  82
    Fundamental Errors of the New Natural Law Theory.Steven A. Long - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (1):105-131.
    This essay argues that the new natural law theory (NNLT) propounds five errors that place it on a collision course with the traditional Thomistic understanding central to the moral magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church. These root errors are argued to be (1) the denial of the primacy of speculative over practical truth, (2) the negation of unified normative natural teleology expressed in the NNLT doctrine of the putative “incommensurability” of basic goods prior to choice, (3) failure to affirm the (...)
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  50. Systems thinking for knowledge.Steven A. Cavaleri - 2005 - World Futures 61 (5):378 – 396.
    The capacity to engage in systems thinking is often viewed as being a product of being able to understand complex systems due to one's facility in mastering systems theories, methods, and being able to adeptly reason. Relatively little attention is paid in the systems literature to the processes of learning from experience and creating knowledge as a direct consequence of individuals engaging systems thinking itself over time. In fact, the potential efficacy of systems thinking to improve performance normally seen as (...)
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