Results for 'Steven A. Benner'

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  1.  18
    Synthesis as a Route to Knowledge.Steven A. Benner - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (4):357-367.
    A science is an intellectual activity defined by its mechanisms that prevent its scientists from always reaching the conclusions that they set out to reach. Such mechanisms are needed because, if scientists are given full control over what hypotheses they select, what data they discard, and what results they publish, they can communicate any conclusion that they desire. Synthesis, by setting a grand challenge, forces scientists across uncharted territory where they encounter and solve unscripted problems. When theory is inadequate, the (...)
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  2. A Strategy for Origins of Life Research. [REVIEW]Caleb Scharf, Nathaniel Virgo, H. James Cleaves Ii, Masashi Aono, Nathanael Aubert-Kato, Arsev Aydinoglu, Ana Barahona, Laura M. Barge, Steven A. Benner, Martin Biehl, Ramon Brasser, Christopher J. Butch, Kuhan Chandru, Leroy Cronin, Sebastian Danielache, Jakob Fischer, John Hernlund, Piet Hut, Takashi Ikegami, Jun Kimura, Kensei Kobayashi, Carlos Mariscal, Shawn McGlynn, Bryce Menard, Norman Packard, Robert Pascal, Juli Pereto, Sudha Rajamani, Lana Sinapayen, Eric Smith, Christopher Switzer, Ken Takai, Feng Tian, Yuichiro Ueno, Mary Voytek, Olaf Witkowski & Hikaru Yabuta - 2015 - Astrobiology 15:1031-1042.
    Aworkshop was held August 26–28, 2015, by the Earth- Life Science Institute (ELSI) Origins Network (EON, see Appendix I) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. This meeting gathered a diverse group of around 40 scholars researching the origins of life (OoL) from various perspectives with the intent to find common ground, identify key questions and investigations for progress, and guide EON by suggesting a roadmap of activities. Specific challenges that the attendees were encouraged to address included the following: What key (...)
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  3.  25
    A Heideggerian Perspective on the Relationship Between Mintzberg’s Distinction Between Engaged and Disconnected Management: The Role of Uncertainty in Management. [REVIEW]Steven Segal - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (3):469-483.
    In the context of uncertainty and anxiety regarding the role of leadership and management, this article explores the relationship between Mintzberg’s concept of the distinction between the engaged and disconnected manager, Heidegger’s notion authentic and inauthentic being and Benner and Wrubel’s distinction between two forms of professional practice attunement: an attunement to technique and an attunement to lived experience. It argues that while Mintzberg outlines the distinction between engaged and disengaged management, he does not develop an understanding of the (...)
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  4.  41
    The Empirical Case for Two Systems of Reasoning.Steven A. Sloman - 1996 - Psychological Bulletin 119 (1):3-22.
    Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is "rule based" because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve (...)
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  5.  67
    A Causal Model of Intentionality Judgment.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & Scott Ewing - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (2):154-180.
    We propose a causal model theory to explain asymmetries in judgments of the intentionality of a foreseen side-effect that is either negative or positive (Knobe, 2003). The theory is implemented as a Bayesian network relating types of mental states, actions, and consequences that integrates previous hypotheses. It appeals to two inferential routes to judgment about the intentionality of someone else's action: bottom-up from action to desire and top-down from character and disposition. Support for the theory comes from three experiments that (...)
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  6.  31
    Causal Models: How People Think About the World and its Alternatives.Steven A. Sloman - 2005 - Oxford, England: OUP.
    This book offers a discussion about how people think, talk, learn, and explain things in causal terms in terms of action and manipulation. Sloman also reviews the role of causality, causal models, and intervention in the basic human cognitive functions: decision making, reasoning, judgement, categorization, inductive inference, language, and learning.
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  7.  10
    Thought as a Determinant of Political Opinion.Steven A. Sloman & Nathaniel Rabb - 2019 - Cognition 188:1-7.
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  8.  27
    Do We “Do‘?Steven A. Sloman & David A. Lagnado - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (1):5-39.
    A normative framework for modeling causal and counterfactual reasoning has been proposed by Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines. The framework takes as fundamental that reasoning from observation and intervention differ. Intervention includes actual manipulation as well as counterfactual manipulation of a model via thought. To represent intervention, Pearl employed the do operator that simplifies the structure of a causal model by disconnecting an intervened-on variable from its normal causes. Construing the do operator as a psychological function affords predictions about how people (...)
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  9.  28
    Steven M. Cahn and Andrew T. Forechimes, Eds., Principles of Moral Philosophy: Classic and Contemporary Approaches.Steven A. Benko - 2018 - Teaching Ethics 18 (1):104-106.
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  10.  24
    Feature Centrality and Conceptual Coherence.Steven A. Sloman, Bradley C. Love & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 1998 - Cognitive Science 22 (2):189-228.
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  11.  5
    Too Much of a Good Thing? On the Relationship Between CSR and Employee Work Addiction.Steven A. Brieger, Stefan Anderer, Andreas Fröhlich, Anne Bäro & Timo Meynhardt - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 166 (2):311-329.
    Recent research highlights the positive effects of organizational CSR engagement on employee outcomes, such as job and life satisfaction, performance, and trust. We argue that the current debate fails to recognize the potential risks associated with CSR. In this study, we focus on the risk of work addiction. We hypothesize that CSR has per se a positive effect on employees and can be classified as a resource. However, we also suggest the existence of an array of unintended negative effects of (...)
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  12.  11
    Prosociality in Business: A Human Empowerment Framework.Steven A. Brieger, Siri A. Terjesen, Diana M. Hechavarría & Christian Welzel - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):361-380.
    This study introduces a human empowerment framework to better understand why some businesses are more socially oriented than others in their policies and activities. Building on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we argue that human empowerment—comprised of four components: action resources, emancipative values, social movement activity, and civic entitlements—enables, motivates, and entitles individuals to pursue social goals for their businesses. Using a sample of over 15,000 entrepreneurs from 43 countries, we report strong empirical evidence for two ecological effects of the framework (...)
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  13.  18
    How Do We Believe?Steven A. Sloman - 2022 - Wiley: Topics in Cognitive Science 14 (1):31-44.
    Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 14, Issue 1, Page 31-44, January 2022.
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  14.  6
    Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage.Steven A. LeBlanc - 2003 - St. Martin's Press.
    With armed conflict in the Persian Gulf now upon us, Harvard archaeologist Steven LeBlanc takes a long-term view of the nature and roots of war, presenting a controversial thesis: The notion of the "noble savage" living in peace with one another and in harmony with nature is a fantasy. In Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage , LeBlanc contends that warfare and violent conflict have existed throughout human history, and that humans have never lived in ecological (...)
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  15.  26
    A Genealogical Analysis of the Concept of ‘Good’ Teaching: A Polemic.Steven A. Stolz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 52 (1):144-162.
    In this essay I intentionally employ Nietzsche's genealogical method as a means to critique the complex concept of ‘good’ teaching, and at the same time reconstitute ‘good’ teaching in a form that is radically different from contemporary accounts. In order to do this, I start out by undertaking a genealogical analysis to both reveal the complicated historical development of ‘good’ teaching and also disentangle the intertwining threads that remain hidden from us so we are aware of the core threads that (...)
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  16.  15
    When Explanations Compete: The Role of Explanatory Coherence on Judgements of Likelihood.Steven A. Sloman - 1994 - Cognition 52 (1):1-21.
    The likelihood of a statement is often derived by generating an explanation for it and evaluating the plausibility of the explanation. The explanation discounting principle states that people tend to focus on a single explanation; alternative explanations compete with the effect of reducing one another’s credibility. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that this principle applies to inductive inferences concerning the properties of everyday categories. In both experiments, subjects estimated the probability of a series of statements and the conditional probabilities of (...)
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  17.  27
    The Problem of Induction.Steven A. Sloman & D. Lagnado - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 95--116.
  18.  53
    The Causal Psycho-Logic of Choice.Steven A. Sloman & York Hagmayer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (9):407-412.
  19.  6
    Doing Good, Feeling Good? Entrepreneurs’ Social Value Creation Beliefs and Work-Related Well-Being.Steven A. Brieger, Dirk De Clercq & Timo Meynhardt - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 172 (4):707-725.
    Entrepreneurs with social goals face various challenges; insights into how these entrepreneurs experience and appreciate their work remain a black box though. Drawing on identity, conservation of resources, and person–organization fit theories, this study examines how entrepreneurs’ social value creation beliefs relate to their work-related well-being, as well as how this process might be influenced by social concerns with respect to the common good. Using data from the German Public Value Atlas 2015 and 2019 and the Swiss Public Value Atlas (...)
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  20. Community and Loyalty in American Philosophy: Royce, Sellars, and Rorty.Steven A. Miller - 2018 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of Abbreviations -- Introduction: 'We': The Dangerous Thing -- 1 The Sellarsian Ethical Framework -- 2 Josiah Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty -- 3 Richard Rorty's Quasi-Sellarsian We -- 4 On the Prospects of Redescribing Rorty Roycely -- Bibliography -- Index.
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  21.  15
    Similarity as an Explanatory Construct.Steven A. Sloman & Lance J. Rips - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):87-101.
  22.  6
    Phenomenology and Phenomenography in Educational Research: A Critique.Steven A. Stolz - 2020 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 52 (10):1077-1096.
    The use of phenomenology and phenomenography as a method in the educational research literature has risen in popularity, particularly by researchers who are interested in understanding and generati...
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  23.  26
    A Cognitive Process Shell.Steven A. Vere - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):460-461.
  24.  22
    Empowering Women: The Role of Emancipative Forces in Board Gender Diversity.Steven A. Brieger, Claude Francoeur, Christian Welzel & Walid Ben-Amar - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):495-511.
    This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender (...)
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  25. A Brief Disquisition Regarding the Nature of the Object of the Moral Act According to St. Thomas Aquinas.Steven A. Long - 2003 - The Thomist 67 (1):45-71.
     
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  26.  21
    Self-Deception Requires Vagueness.Steven A. Sloman, Philip M. Fernbach & York Hagmayer - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):268-281.
  27.  15
    The Cortical Microstructural Basis of Lateralized Cognition: A Review.Steven A. Chance - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  28.  2
    The Philosophy of Physical Education: A New Perspective.Steven A. Stolz - 2014 - Routledge.
    The discipline area of physical education has historically struggled for legitimacy, sometimes being seen as a non-serious pursuit in educational terms compared to other subjects within the school curriculum. This book represents the first attempt in nearly 30 years to offer a coherent philosophical defence and conceptualisation of physical education and sport as subjects of educational value, and to provide a philosophically sound justification for their inclusion in the curriculum. The book argues that rather than relegating the body to ‘un-thinking’ (...)
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  29.  57
    Toward a Practice of Stoic Pragmatism.Steven A. Miller - 2015 - The Pluralist 10 (2):150-171.
    Despite broad influence on the history of philosophy, Stoicism has lain long dormant as a practical philosophy. Of late, however, some have sought to modernize Stoicism for the contemporary world.1 It has found success in the military, as Stockdale and Sherman report. While the promise of tranquility through reason and self-discipline presents an appealing vision in emotional times, some tenets of Stoicism cannot gain purchase among society at large: predetermination, absolute morality at all times, and the idea of a non-relational (...)
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  30.  9
    Response Interference Between Functional and Structural Actions Linked to the Same Familiar Object.Steven A. Jax & Laurel J. Buxbaum - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):350-355.
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  31. Linguistic Understanding and Belief.Steven A. Gross - 2005 - Mind 114 (453):61-66.
    Comment on Dean Pettit, who replies in same issue.
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  32. STEVEN A. SLOMAN (Brown University, Providence) When Explanations Compete: The Role of Explanatory Coherence on Judgements of Likelihood, 1-21.J. David Smith, Deborah G. Kemler, Lisa A. Grohskopf Nelson, Terry Appleton, Mary K. Mullen, Judy S. Deloache, Nancy M. Burns, Kevin B. Korb, Robert L. Goldstone & Jean E. Andruski - 1994 - Cognition 52 (251):251.
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  33.  69
    Counterfactuals and Causal Models: Introduction to the Special Issue.Steven A. Sloman - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):969-976.
    Judea Pearl won the 2010 Rumelhart Prize in computational cognitive science due to his seminal contributions to the development of Bayes nets and causal Bayes nets, frameworks that are central to multiple domains of the computational study of mind. At the heart of the causal Bayes nets formalism is the notion of a counterfactual, a representation of something false or nonexistent. Pearl refers to Bayes nets as oracles for intervention, and interventions can tell us what the effect of action will (...)
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  34.  30
    Explanatory Coherence and the Induction of Properties.Steven A. Sloman - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (2):81 – 110.
    Statements that share an explanation tend to lend inductive support to one another. For example, being told that Many furniture movers have a hard time financing a house increases the judged probability that Secretaries have a hard time financing a house. In contrast, statements with different explanations reduce one another s judged probability. Being told that Many furniture movers have bad backs decreases the judged probability that Secretaries have bad backs. I pose two questions concerning such discounting effects. First, does (...)
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  35. Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes.Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  36.  51
    In Search of a Pragmatic Systems Method.Steven A. Cavaleri - 2011 - World Futures 67 (4-5):266 - 281.
    In this article, the author describes some of his own experiences of becoming an organizational systems theorist. The article also presents overviews of various systems theories that influenced the learning process from subject exploration to mastery. These include system dynamics, management systems, General Systems Theory, self-organizing systems, and autognomics. Additionally, discussions of system failures, philosophical pragmatism, and knowledge management all relate to their influence on systems theories. The article culminates with an examination of the possible causes of system failures and (...)
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  37.  7
    Schematic Representations of Local Environmental Space Guide Goal-Directed Navigation.Steven A. Marchette, Jack Ryan & Russell A. Epstein - 2017 - Cognition 158:68-80.
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  38.  7
    Is Political Extremism Supported by an Illusion of Understanding?Steven A. Sloman & Marc-Lluis Vives - 2022 - Cognition 225:105146.
  39.  29
    Decisions That Hasten Death: Double Effect and the Experiences of Physicians in Australia.Steven A. Trankle - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):26.
    In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in (...)
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  40.  4
    James A. Palmer, The Virtues of Economy: Governance, Power, and Piety in Late Medieval Rome. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2019. Pp. Xi, 243; 1 Black-and-White Figure and 2 Maps. $49.95. ISBN: 978-1-5017-4237-8. [REVIEW]Steven A. Epstein - 2021 - Speculum 96 (2):544-545.
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  41. If a Lion Could Talk.Steven A. M. Burns - 1994 - Wittgenstein-Studien 1 (1).
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  42. A Long Discussion Regarding Steven A. Long's Interpretation of the Moral Species.Steven Jensen - 2003 - The Thomist 67 (4):623-643.
     
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  43. Celebrate Life: Hope for a Culture Preoccupied with Death.Steven A. Carr - 1990 - Wolgemuth & Hyatt.
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  44.  80
    What’s in a Hole?Steven A. Gross - 1994 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 4 (1):76-80.
  45.  1
    Norms in a Wired World.Steven A. Hetcher - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Social order is regulated from above by the law but its foundation is built on norms and customs, informal social practices that enable people to make meaningful and productive uses of their time and resources. Despite the importance of these practices in keeping the social fabric together, very little of the jurisprudential literature has focused on a discussion of these norms and customs. In Social Norms in a Wired World Steven Hetcher argues that the traditional conception of norms as (...)
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  46. Cognitive Representations and Institutional Hybridity in Agrofood Innovation.Steven A. Wolf & Gilles Allaire - 2004 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 29 (4):431-458.
    Product differentiation has emerged as a central dynamic in contemporary agrofood systems. Departure from the mode of standardization emblematic of agrofood modernization raises questions about future technical trajectories and the ways in which learning will be sustained. This article examines two innovation trajectories: the rapid coupling of biotechnologies and information technologies to yield products differentiated by constituent components—a model based on a cognitive logic of decomposition/ recomposition—and the proliferation of product networks that mobilize distinctive, localized resources to create complete identities—a (...)
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  47.  52
    What's Wrong with Moralism? Edited by C. A. J. Coady: Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Steven A. Jauss - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (2):251-256.
  48.  27
    Problems of Somatic Mutation and Cancer.Steven A. Frank & Martin A. Nowak - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (3):291-299.
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  49.  23
    Wallace Stevens: A Portrait of the Artist as a Phenomenologist.James A. Clark - 1997 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 4 (3):1-5.
    Confusing modern poetry with philosophy is a common fault of literary criticism. Yet, the work of some poets can benefit critically from philosophical interpretations. Wallace Stevens is a poet who manifested an abiding interest in philosophy. His poems consistently display, in both their syntax and modulation of thought, philosophical parallels. Stevens’ dominant mode of thought is phenomenological. This can be shown by analyzing parallels between phenomenological methodology and Stevens’ poetry. Particularly three poems---“Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird” (1917), “The (...)
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  50.  65
    Fundamental Errors of the New Natural Law Theory.Steven A. Long - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (1):105-132.
    This essay argues that the new natural law theory propounds five errors that place it on a collision course with the traditional Thomistic understanding central to the moral magisterium of the Roman Catholic Church. These root errors are argued to be the denial of the primacy of speculative over practical truth, the negation of unified normative natural teleology expressed in the NNLT doctrine of the putative “incommensurability” of basic goods prior to choice, failure to affirm the transcendence of the common (...)
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