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Stephen Wilkinson
Lancaster University
  1. Bodies for Sale: Ethics and Exploitation in the Human Body Trade.Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Routledge.
    _Bodies for Sale: Ethics and Exploitation in the Human Body Trade _explores the philosophical and practical issues raised by activities such as surrogacy and organ trafficking. Stephen Wilkinson asks what is it that makes some commercial uses of the body controversial, whether the arguments against commercial exploitation stand up, and whether legislation outlawing such practices is really justified. In Part One Wilkinson explains and analyses some of the notoriously slippery concepts used in the body commodification debate, including exploitation, harm and (...)
  2. Choosing Tomorrow's Children: The Ethics of Selective Reproduction.Stephen Wilkinson - 2010 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    To what extent should parents be allowed to use reproductive technologies to determine the characteristics of their future children? Is there something morally wrong with choosing what their sex will be, or with trying to 'screen out' as much disease and disability as possible before birth? Stephen Wilkinson offers answers to such questions.
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  3.  44
    Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.Anthony Wrigley, Stephen Wilkinson & John B. Appleby - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (9):631-638.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer and Maternal Spindle Transfer. It examines how questions of identity impact (...)
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  4.  56
    Should uterus transplants be publicly funded?Stephen Wilkinson & Nicola Jane Williams - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):559-565.
    Since 2000, 11 human uterine transplantation procedures (UTx) have been performed across Europe and Asia. Five of these have, to date, resulted in pregnancy and four live births have now been recorded. The most significant obstacles to the availability of UTx are presently scientific and technical, relating to the safety and efficacy of the procedure itself. However, if and when such obstacles are overcome, the most likely barriers to its availability will be social and financial in nature, relating in particular (...)
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  5. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (2):169–187.
    It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded, therefore, that those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on: (a) improving the (...)
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  6.  17
    Before and beyond trust: reliance in medical AI.Charalampia Kerasidou, Angeliki Kerasidou, Monika Buscher & Stephen Wilkinson - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (11):852-856.
    Artificial intelligence is changing healthcare and the practice of medicine as data-driven science and machine-learning technologies, in particular, are contributing to a variety of medical and clinical tasks. Such advancements have also raised many questions, especially about public trust. As a response to these concerns there has been a concentrated effort from public bodies, policy-makers and technology companies leading the way in AI to address what is identified as a "public trust deficit". This paper argues that a focus on trust (...)
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  7.  77
    Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2015 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is (...)
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  8.  39
    Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health.Stephen Wilkinson - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (1):26-35.
    One widely held view of prenatal screening is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, (...)
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  9.  41
    Is 'Normal Grief' a Mental Disorder?Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (200):290-304.
  10.  16
    Is ‘Normal Grief’ a Mental Disorder&quest.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 50 (200):290-304.
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  11. Commodification Arguments for the Legal Prohibition of Organ Sale.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Health Care Analysis 8 (2):189-201.
    The commercial trading of human organs, along withvarious related activities (for example, advertising)was criminalised throughout Great Britain under theHuman Organ Transplants Act 1989.This paper critically assesses one type of argumentfor this, and similar, legal prohibitions:commodification arguments.Firstly, the term `commodification' is analysed. Thiscan be used to refer to either social practices or toattitudes. Commodification arguments rely on thesecond sense and are based on the idea that having acommodifying attitude to certain classes of thing(e.g. bodies or persons) is wrong. The commodifyingattitude consists (...)
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  12. Female Genital Mutilation and Cosmetic Surgery: Regulating Non‐Therapeutic Body Modification.Sally Sheldon & Stephen Wilkinson - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (4):263–285.
    In the UK, female genital mutilation is unlawful, not only when performed on minors, but also when performed on adult women. The aim of our paper is to examine several arguments which have been advanced in support of this ban and to assess whether they are sufficient to justify banning female genital mutilation for competent, consenting women. We proceed by comparing female genital mutilation, which is banned, with cosmetic surgery, towards which the law has taken a very permissive stance. We (...)
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  13.  60
    Smokers' rights to health care: Why the 'restoration argument' is a moralising wolf in a liberal sheep's clothing.Stephen Wilkinson - 1999 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (3):255–269.
    Do people who cause themselves to be ill (e.g. by smoking) forfeit some of their rights to healthcare? This paper examines one argument for the view that they do, the restoration argument. It goes as follows. Smokers need more health‐resources than non‐smokers. Given limited budgets, we must choose between treating everyone equally (according to need) or reducing smokers' entitlements. If we choose the former, non‐smokers will be harmed by others' smoking, because there will be less resources available for them than (...)
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  14.  28
    The Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement.John B. Appleby, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Bioethics 31 (1):2-6.
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  15.  95
    Selecting Disability and the Welfare of the Child.Stephen Wilkinson - 2006 - The Monist 89 (4):482-504.
  16.  52
    Eugenics, embryo selection, and the Equal Value Principle.Stephen Wilkinson - 2006 - Clinical Ethics 1 (1):46-51.
    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and some prenatal screening programmes have been criticized for being 'eugenic'. This paper aims to analyse this criticism and to evaluate one of the main ethical arguments lying behind it. It starts with a discussion of the meaning of the term 'eugenics' and of some relevant distinctions: for example, that between objections to eugenic ends and objections to certain means of achieving them. Next, a particular argument against using preimplantation genetic diagnosis to 'screen out' disability is considered, (...)
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  17.  48
    Do we need an alternative ‘relational approach’ to saviour siblings?Stephen Wilkinson - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):927-928.
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  18. Cutting to the Core: Exploring the Ethics of Contested Surgeries.Michael Benatar, Leslie Cannold, Dena Davis, Merle Spriggs, Julian Savulescu, Heather Draper, Neil Evans, Richard Hull, Stephen Wilkinson, David Wasserman, Donna Dickenson, Guy Widdershoven, Françoise Baylis, Stephen Coleman, Rosemarie Tong, Hilde Lindemann, David Neil & Alex John London - 2006 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    When the benefits of surgery do not outweigh the harms or where they do not clearly do so, surgical interventions become morally contested. Cutting to the Core examines a number of such surgeries, including infant male circumcision and cutting the genitals of female children, the separation of conjoined twins, surgical sex assignment of intersex children and the surgical re-assignment of transsexuals, limb and face transplantation, cosmetic surgery, and placebo surgery.
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  19.  25
    The ethics of uterus transplantation.Nicola Jane Williams, Rosamund Scott & Stephen Wilkinson - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (8):478-480.
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  20. On the distinction between positive and negative eugenics.Stephen Wilkinson - 2010 - In Matti Häyry (ed.), Arguments and Analysis in Bioethics. Rodopi.
     
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  21. Designer babies', instrumentalisation and the child's right to an open future.Stephen Wilkinson - 2005 - In Nafsika Athanassoulis (ed.), Philosophical Reflections on Medical Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  22.  83
    Saviour siblings and organ transplantation.Stephen Wilkinson - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (3):107-108.
  23.  83
    Eugenics and the Criticism of Bioethics.Stephen Wilkinson - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (4):409-418.
    This article provides a critical assessment of some aspects of Ann Kerr and Tom Shakespeare's Genetic Politics: from eugenics to genome. In particular, I evaluate their claims: (a) that bioethics is too ‘top down’, involving normative prescriptions, whereas it should instead be ‘bottom up’ and grounded in social science; and (b) that contemporary bioethics has not dealt particularly well with people's moral concerns about eugenics. I conclude that several of Kerr and Shakespeare's criticisms are well-founded and serve as valuable reminders (...)
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  24.  8
    Philosophical clinical ethics.Angus Dawson & Stephen Wilkinson - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (1):36-37.
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  25.  32
    Guest Editorial.Sheelagh Mcguinness, Tom Walker & Stephen Wilkinson - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (1):4-7.
  26.  8
    Guest Editorial - A Complex Web of Questions.Sheelagh Mcguinness, Tom Walker & Stephen Wilkinson - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (1):4-7.
  27.  15
    Biomedical Research and the Commercial Exploitation of Human Tissue.Stephen Wilkinson - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (1):1-14.
    There is widespread anxiety about the commercialisation and commodification of human tissue. The aims of this paper are: (a) to analyse some of these concerns, and (b) to see whether some of the main ethical arguments that lie behind them are sound. Part 1 looks at 'inducement arguments' against paying individuals for their tissue and concludes that these are generally quite weak. Part 2 examines some ethical objections to third parties (e.g. biotechnology companies and researchers) commercially exploiting human tissue. Firstly, (...)
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  28.  22
    Public funding, social change and uterus transplants: a response to commentaries.Stephen Wilkinson & Nicola Jane Williams - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):572-573.
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  29.  5
    Rationing health care: individuals and the broader public.Stephen Wilkinson - 2001 - Philosophy Today 14 (36):10-11.
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  30.  21
    Separating conjoined twins: the case of Laden and Laleh Bijani.Stephen Wilkinson - 2005 - In Jennifer Gunning & Søren Holm (eds.), Ethics, Law, and Society. Ashgate. pp. 1--257.
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  31. Selective Reproduction, eugenics, and public health.Stephen Wilkinson - 2011 - In Angus Dawson (ed.), Public Health Ethics: Key Concepts and Issues in Policy and Practice. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48-66.
     
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  32.  16
    Using some “new” political ideas: Feminism and “green ideology”.Stephen Wilkinson - 1999 - Res Publica 5 (1):103-108.
  33.  32
    Why I wrote…Choosing Tomorrow's Children: The Ethics of Selective Reproduction.Stephen Wilkinson - 2010 - Clinical Ethics 5 (1):46-50.
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  34.  48
    Why lying is worse than merely misleading.Stephen Wilkinson - 2000 - Philosophy Today 13 (34):6-7.
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  35.  2
    Book Review: Sue Eckstein, Manual for Research Ethics Committees (Centre of Medical Law and Ethics, King's College London). [REVIEW]Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (4):459-460.
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  36.  20
    Book review: Sue Eckstein, manual for research ethics committees (centre of medical law and ethics, King's college london). [REVIEW]Stephen Wilkinson - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (4):459-460.
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  37.  26
    Review: Eugenics and the Criticism of Bioethics. [REVIEW]Stephen Wilkinson - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (4):409 - 418.
    This article provides a critical assessment of some aspects of Ann Kerr and Tom Shakespeare's Genetic Politics: from eugenics to genome. In particular, I evaluate their claims: (a) that bioethics is too ‘top down’, involving normative prescriptions, whereas it should instead be ‘bottom up’ and grounded in social science; and (b) that contemporary bioethics has not dealt particularly well with people's moral concerns about eugenics. I conclude that several of Kerr and Shakespeare's criticisms are well-founded and serve as valuable reminders (...)
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