22 found
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  1.  64
    Minding Rights: Mapping Ethical and Legal Foundations of ‘Neurorights’.Sjors Ligthart, Marcello Ienca, Gerben Meynen, Fruzsina Molnar-Gabor, Roberto Andorno, Christoph Bublitz, Paul Catley, Lisa Claydon, Thomas Douglas, Nita Farahany, Joseph J. Fins, Sara Goering, Pim Haselager, Fabrice Jotterand, Andrea Lavazza, Allan McCay, Abel Wajnerman Paz, Stephen Rainey, Jesper Ryberg & Philipp Kellmeyer - 2023 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):461-481.
    The rise of neurotechnologies, especially in combination with artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods for brain data analytics, has given rise to concerns around the protection of mental privacy, mental integrity and cognitive liberty – often framed as “neurorights” in ethical, legal, and policy discussions. Several states are now looking at including neurorights into their constitutional legal frameworks, and international institutions and organizations, such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, are taking an active interest in developing international policy and governance guidelines (...)
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  2.  51
    Brain Recording, Mind-Reading, and Neurotechnology: Ethical Issues from Consumer Devices to Brain-Based Speech Decoding.Stephen Rainey, Stéphanie Martin, Andy Christen, Pierre Mégevand & Eric Fourneret - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2295-2311.
    Brain reading technologies are rapidly being developed in a number of neuroscience fields. These technologies can record, process, and decode neural signals. This has been described as ‘mind reading technology’ in some instances, especially in popular media. Should the public at large, be concerned about this kind of technology? Can it really read minds? Concerns about mind-reading might include the thought that, in having one’s mind open to view, the possibility for free deliberation, and for self-conception, are eroded where one (...)
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  3.  27
    Correcting the Brain? The Convergence of Neuroscience, Neurotechnology, Psychiatry, and Artificial Intelligence.Stephen Rainey & Yasemin J. Erden - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2439-2454.
    The incorporation of neural-based technologies into psychiatry offers novel means to use neural data in patient assessment and clinical diagnosis. However, an over-optimistic technologisation of neuroscientifically-informed psychiatry risks the conflation of technological and psychological norms. Neurotechnologies promise fast, efficient, broad psychiatric insights not readily available through conventional observation of patients. Recording and processing brain signals provides information from ‘beneath the skull’ that can be interpreted as an account of neural processing and that can provide a basis to evaluate general behaviour (...)
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  4.  40
    Neuroprosthetic Speech: The Ethical Significance of Accuracy, Control and Pragmatics.Stephen Rainey, Hannah Maslen, Pierre Mégevand, Luc H. Arnal, Eric Fourneret & Blaise Yvert - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):657-670.
    :Neuroprosthetic speech devices are an emerging technology that can offer the possibility of communication to those who are unable to speak. Patients with ‘locked in syndrome,’ aphasia, or other such pathologies can use covert speech—vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalization—to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesizing the speech they would have spoken, but for their impairment.We provide an analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in speech mediated by neuroprosthetic devices. This analysis provides a framework for accounting for (...)
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  5.  12
    Neurorights as Hohfeldian Privileges.Stephen Rainey - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (1):1-12.
    This paper argues that calls for neurorights propose an overcomplicated approach. It does this through analysis of ‘rights’ using the influential framework provided by Wesley Hohfeld, whose analytic jurisprudence is still well regarded in its clarificatory approach to discussions of rights. Having disentangled some unclarities in talk about rights, the paper proposes the idea of ‘novel human rights’ is not appropriate for what is deemed worth protecting in terms of mental integrity and cognitive liberty. That is best thought of in (...)
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  6.  21
    Control and Ownership of Neuroprosthetic Speech.Hannah Maslen & Stephen Rainey - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):425-445.
    Implantable brain-computer interfaces are being developed to restore speech capacity for those who are unable to speak. Patients with locked-in syndrome or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis could be able to use covert speech – vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalisation – to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesising speech. User control has been identified as particularly pressing for this type of BCI. The incorporation of machine learning and statistical language models into the decoding process introduces a contribution to the (...)
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  7.  17
    Datafied Brains and Digital Twins: Lessons From Industry, Caution For Psychiatry.Stephen Rainey - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (1):29-42.
  8.  14
    Speaker Responsibility for Synthetic Speech Derived from Neural Activity.Stephen Rainey - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (4):503-515.
    This article provides analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in language-use mediated by a neuroprosthetic device. It is motivated by the thought that users of speech neuroprostheses require sufficient control over what their devices externalize as synthetic speech if they are to be thought of as responsible for it, but that the nature of this control, and so the status of their responsibility, is not clear.
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  9.  22
    Data as a Cross-Cutting Dimension of Ethical Importance in Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnologies.Stephen Rainey, Jan Christoph Bublitz, Hannah Maslen & Hannah Thornton - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):180-182.
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  10.  19
    Managing Ethics in the HBP: A Reflective and Dialogical Approach.Bernd Carsten Stahl, Stephen Rainey & Mark Shaw - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):20-24.
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  11.  19
    Toward a normative ethics for technology development.Stephen Rainey & Philippe Goujon - 2011 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 9 (3):157-179.
    PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to criticise ad hoc approaches to ethics in research and development in technology as descriptive and non‐ethical, and based upon a narrow conception of rationality.Design/methodology/approachThe approach deploys a theory of normativity that can incorporate values and a broad conception of rationality, in order to account for the relevance of issues for the addressees of normative injunctions.FindingsA normative approach is possible and required in order to implement ethics in research and development in technology.Originality/valueThe approach draws (...)
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  12.  10
    An Anticipatory Approach to Ethico-Legal Implications of Future Neurotechnology.Stephen Rainey - 2024 - Science and Engineering Ethics 30 (3):1-15.
    This paper provides a justificatory rationale for recommending the inclusion of imagined future use cases in neurotechnology development processes, specifically for legal and policy ends. Including detailed imaginative engagement with future applications of neurotechnology can serve to connect ethical, legal, and policy issues potentially arising from the translation of brain stimulation research to the public consumer domain. Futurist scholars have for some time recommended approaches that merge creative arts with scientific development in order to theorise possible futures toward which current (...)
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  13.  11
    Rights and Wrongs in Talk of Mind-Reading Technology.Stephen Rainey - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-11.
    This article examines the idea of mind-reading technology by focusing on an interesting case of applying a large language model (LLM) to brain data. On the face of it, experimental results appear to show that it is possible to reconstruct mental contents directly from brain data by processing via a chatGPT-like LLM. However, the author argues that this apparent conclusion is not warranted. Through examining how LLMs work, it is shown that they are importantly different from natural language. The former (...)
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  14.  21
    Turing and the Real Girl.Yasemin J. Erden & Stephen Rainey - 2012 - The New Bioethics 18 (2):133-144.
    In 1950 Alan Turing asked whether machines could think. This question has been vigorously debated since, and its relevance for machine intelligence, or even agency, continues to provoke interdisciplinary debate. In fact, Turing’s next step in his paper is to ask a far more nuanced question about imitation, which, we suggest, assumes a number of connections between intelligence, agency and the possibility of imitation. This paper will offer three key arguments against these assumptions, and in so doing make the following (...)
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  15.  14
    Brain-State Transitions, Responsibility, and Personal Identity.Stephen Rainey, Karmele Olaciregui Dague & Roger Crisp - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (4):453-463.
    This article examines the emerging possibility of “brain-state transitioning,” in which one brain state is prompted through manipulating the dynamics of the active brain. The technique, still in its infancy, is intended to provide the basis for novel treatments for brain-based disorders. Although a detailed literature exists covering topics around brain-machine interfaces, where targets of brain-based activity include artificial limbs, hardware, and software, there is less concentration on the brain itself as a target for instrumental intervention. This article examines some (...)
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  16.  44
    Austin, Grice and Strawson.Stephen Rainey - 2007 - Essays in Philosophy 8 (1):182-193.
    Austin discusses the supposed opposition between performative and constative utterances in a paper delivered to a French audience in 1962 entitled Performative—Constative. It is his aim in this paper in a sense to recant his earlier views that such a distinction was clear. A translation of this paper made by G. J. Warnock appeared in 1972 in a collection of essays on the philosophy of language, edited by John Searle. Alongside this translation were criticisms and comments by P. F. Strawson (...)
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  17.  33
    Enhanced, Improved, Perfected?Stephen Rainey - 2012 - The New Bioethics 18 (1):21-35.
    In trying to enhance, improve or perfect ourselves through technological intervention, we can risk the very idea of a practical identity and self-possession. In thinking of the enhancement, improvement or perfection of the body through technological interventions, we ought to acknowledge limits in our outlook at least as seriously as we enjoy the considerable advances offered by technology in general. In postulating the chance of enhancement, improvement and perfection it is important to think about the distinction between what we can (...)
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  18.  14
    ‘Limited but useful’: Datafied Brains and Digital Twins.Stephen Rainey - 2022 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (1):47-48.
    Ivery much appreciated the thoughtful response to my Datafied brains and digital twins: lessons from industry, caution for psychiatry provided by Douglas W. Heinrichs. I am encouraged that we differ merely in emphasis among the issues upon which we share a wider understanding.In his response, Assessing the Dangers of the Next Reductionist Fantasy, Heinrichs elaborates upon an underemphasized dimension in my Digital Twin article. Heinrichs approaches this dimension through “a semantic understanding of scientific theorizing.” According to this understanding, all science (...)
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  19.  10
    Philosophical Perspectives on Brain Data.Stephen Rainey - 2023 - Springer Verlag.
    Where there is data there are questions of ownership, leaks, and worries about misuse. When what’s at stake is data on our brains, the stakes are high. This book brings together philosophical analysis and neuroscientific insights to develop an account of ‘brain data’: what it is, how it is used, and how we ought to take care of it. Emerging trends in neuroscience appear to make mental activity legible, through sophisticated processing of signals recorded from the brain. This can include (...)
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  20.  22
    Return to Status Quo Ante: The Need for Robust and Reversible Pandemic Emergency Measures.Stephen Rainey & Alberto Giubilini - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):222-233.
    This paper presents a normative analysis of restrictive measures in response to a pandemic emergency. It applies to the context presented by the Corona virus disease 2019 global outbreak of 2019, as well as to future pandemics. First, a Millian-liberal argument justifies lockdown measures in order to protect liberty under pandemic conditions, consistent with commonly accepted principles of public health ethics. Second, a wider argument contextualizes specific issues that attend acting on the justified lockdown for western liberal democratic states, as (...)
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  21.  8
    The body trade.Stephen Rainey - 2019 - Think 18 (51):107-115.
    What happens after we die? This might be taken as an eschatological question, seeking some explanation or reassurance around the destiny of an immortal soul or some such vital element of our very being. But there is another sense that has at least as much importance. What should we do with dead bodies?Export citation.
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  22.  56
    The Method of Levels of Abstraction in Pluralism and Governance of Dialogical Interaction.Stephen Rainey - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):191-201.
    This paper deploys elements of the philosophy of information in order to explore ideas of dialogical governance. Dialogue in the governance of contentious issues is at least partly a response to the recognition of pluralism among perspectives on various issues. This recognition is prevalent in the context of European governance. However, it is a first step to a better understanding of diverging opinion, rather than an end point. This paper argues that the PoI offers a fruitful path to follow up (...)
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