Results for 'Stephen M. Puryear'

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  1. Was Leibniz Confused about Confusion?Stephen M. Puryear - 2005 - The Leibniz Review 15:95-124.
    Leibniz’s mechanistic reduction of colors and other sensible qualities commits him to two theses about our knowledge of those qualities: first, that we can acquire ideas of sensible qualities apart from any direct acquaintance with the qualities themselves; second, that we can acquire distinct (i.e., non-confused) ideas of such qualities through the development of physical-theoretical accounts. According to some commentators, however, Leibniz frequently denies both claims. His views on the subject are muddled and incoherent, they say, both because he is (...)
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  2.  66
    Metrics for Assessing Overall Performance of Inland Waterway Ports: A Bayesian Network Based Approach.Niamat Ullah Ibne Hossain, Farjana Nur, Raed Jaradat, Seyedmohsen Hosseini, Mohammad Marufuzzaman, Stephen M. Puryear & Randy K. Buchanan - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-17.
    Because ports are considered to be the heart of the maritime transportation system, thereby assessing port performance is necessary for a nation’s development and economic success. This study proposes a novel metric, namely, “_port performance index (PPI)_”, to determine the overall performance and utilization of inland waterway ports based on six criteria,_ port facility, port availability, port economics, port service, port connectivity, and port environment_. Unlike existing literature, which mainly ranks ports based on quantitative factors, this study utilizes a Bayesian (...)
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  3.  51
    Constitutional Rights and Democracy in the U.S.A.: The Issue -of Judicial Review.Rex Martin & Stephen M. Griffin - 1995 - Ratio Juris 8 (2):180-198.
    The first section takes up some main details of American constitutional history. At the end of that section and in section two, we concentrate on one constitutional doctrine in particular, judicial review. We argue that this doctrine rests, traditionally, on the foundational idea of a permanent tension between democratic institutions and basic rights. In section three, we deal with the problem just raised, by suggesting an alternative view of the relationship that exists between these fundamental constitutional elements. Here we attempt (...)
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  4.  76
    The unfinished revolution: social movement theory and the gay and lesbian movement.Stephen M. Engel - 2001 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The Unfinished Revolution compares the post-Second World War histories of the American and British gay and lesbian movements with an eye toward understanding how distinct political institutional environments affect the development, strategies, goals, and outcomes of a social movement. Stephen M. Engel utilizes an electic mix of source materials ranging from the theories of Mancur Olson and Michel Foucault to Supreme Court rulings and film and television dialogue. The two case study chapters function as brief historical sketches to elucidate (...)
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  5.  97
    Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1994 - MIT Press.
    This long-awaited work by prominent Harvard psychologist Stephen Kosslyn integrates a twenty-year research program on the nature of high-level vision and mental ...
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  6. A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - , US: Oup Usa.
    Climate change is a global problem that is predominantly an intergenerational conflict, and which takes place in a setting where our ethical impulses are weak. This "perfect moral storm" poses a profound challenge to humanity. This book explains how the "perfect storm" metaphor makes sense of our current malaise, and why a better ethics can help see our way out.
  7. The Importance of Models in Theorizing: A Deflationary Semantic View.Stephen M. Downes - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:142 - 153.
    I critically examine the semantic view of theories to reveal the following results. First, models in science are not the same as models in mathematics, as holders of the semantic view claim. Second, when several examples of the semantic approach are examined in detail no common thread is found between them, except their close attention to the details of model building in each particular science. These results lead me to propose a deflationary semantic view, which is simply that model construction (...)
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  8.  57
    A More "Inclusive" Approach to Enhancement and Disability.David Wasserman & Stephen M. Campbell - 2017 - In Jessica Flanigan & Terry Price (eds.), The Ethics of Ability and Enhancement. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 25-38.
  9. On the demystification of mental imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Steven Pinker, Sophie Schwartz & G. Smith - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):535-81.
    What might a theory of mental imagery look like, and how might one begin formulating such a theory? These are the central questions addressed in the present paper. The first section outlines the general research direction taken here and provides an overview of the empirical foundations of our theory of image representation and processing. Four issues are considered in succession, and the relevant results of experiments are presented and discussed. The second section begins with a discussion of the proper form (...)
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  10.  41
    On the demystification of mental imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Steven Pinker, George E. Smith & Steven P. Shwartz - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (4):535-548.
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  11.  65
    An Early History of the Heritability Coefficient Applied to Humans.Stephen M. Downes & Eric Turkheimer - 2022 - Biological Theory 17 (2):126-137.
    Fisher’s 1918 paper accomplished two distinct goals: unifying discrete Mendelian genetics with continuous biometric phenotypes and quantifying the variance components of variation in complex human characteristics. The former contributed to the foundation of modern quantitative genetics; the latter was adopted by social scientists interested in the pursuit of Galtonian nature-nurture questions about the biological and social origins of human behavior, especially human intelligence. This historical divergence has produced competing notions of the estimation of variance ratios referred to as heritability. Jay (...)
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  12. The Complicated Relationship of Disability and Well-Being.Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):151-184.
    It is widely assumed that disability is typically a bad thing for those who are disabled. Our purpose in this essay is to critique this view and defend a more nuanced picture of the relationship between disability and well-being. We first examine four interpretations of the above view and argue that it is false on each interpretation. We then ask whether disability is thereby a neutral trait. Our view is that most disabilities are neutral in one sense, though we cannot (...)
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  13. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2016 - In Lee C. McIntyre & Alexander Rosenberg (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. New York: Routledge. pp. 330-339.
  14.  62
    Heritability.Stephen M. Downes & Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Lucas Matthews and I substantially revised my SEP entry on Heritability. This version includes discussion of the missing heritability problem and other issues that arise from the use of Genome Wide Association Studies by Behavioral Geneticists.
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  15.  90
    Climate Ethics: Essential Readings.Stephen M. Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    This collection gathers a set of central papers from the emerging area of ethics and climate change.
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  16.  27
    Components of high-level vision: A cognitive neuroscience analysis and accounts of neurological syndromes.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Rex A. Flynn, Jonathan B. Amsterdam & Gretchen Wang - 1990 - Cognition 34 (3):203-277.
  17. Evolutionary psychology, adaptation and design.Stephen M. Downes - 2015 - In Thomas Heams, Philippe Huneman, Guillaume Lecointre & Marc Silberstein (eds.), Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 659-673.
    I argue that Evolutionary Psychologists’ notion of adaptationism is closest to what Peter Godfrey-Smith (2001) calls explanatory adaptationism and as a result, is not a good organizing principle for research in the biology of human behavior. I also argue that adopting an alternate notion of adaptationism presents much more explanatory resources to the biology of human behavior. I proceed by introducing Evolutionary Psychology and giving some examples of alternative approaches to the biological explanation of human behavior. Next I characterize adaptation (...)
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  18. Heritability.Stephen M. Downes - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  19.  30
    A Simulation of Visual Imagery.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Steven P. Shwartz - 1977 - Cognitive Science 1 (3):265-295.
    This paper describes an operational computer simulation of visual mental imagery in humans. The structure of the simulation was motivated by results of experiments on how people represent information in, and access information from, visual images. The simulation includes a “surface representation,” which is spatial and quasi‐pictorial, and an underlying “deep representation,” which contains “perceptual” information encoding appearance plus “propositional” information describing facts about an object. The simulation embodies a theory of how surface images are generated from deep representations, and (...)
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  20. The Concept of Well-Being.Stephen M. Campbell - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
  21. Evolutionary Psychology.Stephen M. Downes - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an updated version of my Stanford Encyclopedia entry on Evolutionary Psychology. The 2018 version contains a new section on Human Nature as well as some new material on recent developments in Evolutionary Psychology.
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  22. Hegel on War.Stephen M. Walt - 1989 - History of Political Thought 40 (1):113.
  23.  38
    Variability of Aggression.Stephen M. Downes & James Tabery - 2021 - In T. Shackleford & V. Weekes-Shackleford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
    Variability of aggression: human aggressive behavior varies on a number of dimensions. We argue that this variability is best understood through an interdisciplinary evolutionary approach.
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  24. Modern Physics and Ancient Faith.Stephen M. Barr - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
  25.  55
    Heredity and heritability.Stephen M. Downes - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  26.  57
    Representation without symbol systems.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Gary Hatfield - 1984 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 51 (4):1019-1045.
    The concept of representation has become almost inextricably bound to the concept of symbol systems. the concepts is nowhere more prevalent than in descriptions of "internal representations." These representations are thought to occur in an internal symbol system that allows the brain to store and use information. In this paper we explore a different approach to understanding psychological processes, one that retains a commitment to representations and computations but that is not based on the idea that information must be stored (...)
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  27. Imagery, propositions and the form of internal representations.Stephen M. Kosslyn & J. Pomerantz - 1977 - Cognitive Psychology 9:52-76.
     
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  28. The medium and the message in mental imagery: A theory.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1981 - In Ned Block (ed.), Imagery. MIT Press.
     
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  29. Climate Ethics in a Dark and Dangerous Time.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Ethics 127 (2):430-465.
    A critical study of two recent books in climate ethics by Dale Jamieson (Reason in a Dark Time, Oxford 2014), and Darrel Moellendorf (The Moral and Political Challenges of Climate Change, Cambridge 2014).
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  30. A Symmetrical View of Disability and Enhancement.Stephen M. Campbell & David Wasserman - 2020 - In Adam Cureton & David Wasserman (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 561-79.
    Disability and enhancement are often treated as opposing concepts. To become disabled in some respect is to move away from those who are enhanced in that same respect; to become enhanced is to move away from the corresponding state of disability. This chapter examines how best to understand the concepts of disability and enhancement in this symmetrical way. After considering various candidates, two types of accounts are identified as the most promising: welfarist accounts and typical-functioning accounts. The authors ultimately defend (...)
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  31. Ethics and global climate change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2004 - Ethics 114 (3):555-600.
    Very few moral philosophers have written on climate change.1 This is puzzling, for several reasons. First, many politicians and policy makers claim that climate change is not only the most serious environmental problem currently facing the world, but also one of the most important international problems per se.2 Second, many of those working in other disciplines describe climate change as fundamentally an ethical issue.3.
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  32.  56
    How to measure metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  33. Biological information.Stephen M. Downes - 2015 - In Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.), Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.
    This paper discussses various concepts of biological information with particular attention being paid to genetic information.
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  34.  38
    The medium and the message in mental imagery: A theory.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1981 - Psychological Review 88 (1):46-66.
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  35. Scientific Imperialism and explanatory appeals to evolution in the social sciences.Stephen M. Downes - 2018 - In Uskali Mäki, Adrian Walsh & Manuela Fernández Pinto (eds.), Scientific Imperialism: Exploring the Boundaries of Interdisciplinarity. New York, NY, USA: pp. 224-236.
  36.  14
    Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres: A computational approach.Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1987 - Psychological Review 94 (2):148-175.
  37. A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (3):397 - 413.
    The peculiar features of the climate change problem pose substantial obstacles to our ability to make the hard choices necessary to address it. Climate change involves the convergence of a set of global, intergenerational and theoretical problems. This convergence justifies calling it a 'perfect moral storm'. One consequence of this storm is that, even if the other difficult ethical questions surrounding climate change could be answered, we might still find it difficult to act. For the storm makes us extremely vulnerable (...)
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  38.  45
    A computational analysis of mental image generation: Evidence from functional dissociations in split-brain patients.Stephen M. Kosslyn, Jeffrey D. Holtzman, Martha J. Farah & Michael S. Gazzaniga - 1985 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 114 (3):311-341.
  39.  40
    Agents and norms in the new economics of science.Stephen M. Downes - 2001 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 31 (2):224-238.
    In this article, the author focuses on Philip Kitcher's and Alvin Goldman's economic models of the social character of scientific knowledge production. After introducing some relevant methodological issues in the social sciences and characterizing Kitcher's and Goldman's models, the author goes on to show that special problems arise directly from the concept of an agent invoked in the models. The author argues that the two distinct concepts of agents, borrowed from economics and cognitive psychology, are inconsistent. Finally, the author discusses (...)
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  40.  39
    Self-evaluation of decision-making: A general Bayesian framework for metacognitive computation.Stephen M. Fleming & Nathaniel D. Daw - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):91-114.
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  41. Rawls and climate change: does Rawlsian political philosophy pass the global test?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):125-151.
    Climate change and other global environmental problems constitute a significant challenge to contemporary political philosophy, especially with respect to complacency. This paper assesses Rawls? theory, and argues for three conclusions. First, Rawls does not already solve such problems, and simple extensions of his theory are unlikely to do so. This is so despite the rich structure of Rawls? philosophy, and the appeal of some of its parts. Second, the most promising areas for extension ? the circumstances of justice, the duty (...)
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  42. A Broader Understanding of Moral Distress.Stephen M. Campbell, Connie M. Ulrich & Christine Grady - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):2-9.
    On the traditional view, moral distress arises only in cases where an individual believes she knows the morally right thing to do but fails to perform that action due to various constraints. We seek to motivate a broader understanding of moral distress. We begin by presenting six types of distress that fall outside the bounds of the traditional definition and explaining why they should be recognized as forms of moral distress. We then propose and defend a new and more expansive (...)
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  43. A core precautionary principle.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (1):33–60.
    “[T]he Precautionary Principle still has neither a commonly accepted definition nor a set of criteria to guide its implementation. “There is”, Freestone … cogently observes, “a certain paradox in the widespread and rapid adoption of the Precautionary Principle”: While it is applauded as a “good thing”, no one is quite sure about what it really means or how it might be..
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  44.  81
    Some Early Ethics of Geoengineering the Climate: A Commentary on the Values of the Royal Society Report.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (2):163 - 188.
    The Royal Society's landmark report on geoengineering is predicated on a particular account of the context and rationale for intentional manipulation of the climate system, and this ethical framework probably explains many of the Society's conclusions. Critical reflection on the report's values is useful for understanding disagreements within and about geoengineering policy, and also for identifying questions for early ethical analysis. Topics discussed include the moral hazard argument, governance, the ethical status of geoengineering under different rationales, the implications of understanding (...)
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  45. The Formal Mechanics Of Mind.Stephen M. Thomas - 1978 - Ithaca, N.Y.: Harvester Press.
  46. A Contract on Future Generations?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
    Contract theories – such as contractarianism and contractualism - seek to justify (and sometimes to explain) moral and political ideals and principles through the notion of “mutually agreeable reciprocity or cooperation between equals” (Darwall 2002). This chapter argues that such theories face fundamental difficulties in the intergenerational setting. Most prominently, the standard understanding of cooperation appears not to apply, and the intergenerational setting brings on a more severe collective action problem than the traditional prisoner’s dilemma. Mainstream contract theorists (such as (...)
     
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  47.  68
    Functional connectomics from resting-state fMRI.Stephen M. Smith, Diego Vidaurre, Christian F. Beckmann, Matthew F. Glasser, Mark Jenkinson, Karla L. Miller, Thomas E. Nichols, Emma C. Robinson, Gholamreza Salimi-Khorshidi & Mark W. Woolrich - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (12):666-682.
  48.  8
    War and the American Difference: Theological Reflections on Violence and National Identity by Stanley Hauerwas.Stephen M. Vantassel - 2014 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 34 (1):243-244.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:War and the American Difference: Theological Reflections on Violence and National Identity by Stanley HauerwasStephen M. VantasselWar and the American Difference: Theological Reflections on Violence and National Identity STANLEY HAUERWAS Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011. 188 pp. $19.99Stanley Hauerwas continues his prodigious publishing schedule with a book exploring the complex idea of war and the formation of American identity. In his introduction, Hauerwas makes three claims: (1) (...)
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  49. Evolutionary psychology is not the only productive evolutionary approach to understanding consumer behavior.Stephen M. Downes - 2013 - Journal of Consumer Psychology 23 (3):400-403.
    I respond to Vladas Griskevicius and Douglas T. Kendrick (G&K) and Gad Saad's (S) defenses of the view that Consumer Studies would benefit from the appeal to evolution in all work aimed at understanding consumer behavior. I argue that G&K and S's reliance on one theoretical perspective, that of evolutionary psychology, limits their options. Further, I point out some specific problems with the theoretical perspective of evolutionary psychology. Finally, I introduce some alternative evolutionary approaches to studying human behavior that could (...)
     
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  50. Roles of imagery in perception: Or, there is no such thing as immaculate perception.Stephen M. Kosslyn & Amy L. Sussman - 1995 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press. pp. 1035--1042.
     
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