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Stephen M. Gardiner [49]Stephen Mark Gardiner [4]
  1. A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - , US: Oup Usa.
    Climate change is a global problem that is predominantly an intergenerational conflict, and which takes place in a setting where our ethical impulses are weak. This "perfect moral storm" poses a profound challenge to humanity. This book explains how the "perfect storm" metaphor makes sense of our current malaise, and why a better ethics can help see our way out.
  2. Ethics and global climate change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2004 - Ethics 114 (3):555-600.
    Very few moral philosophers have written on climate change.1 This is puzzling, for several reasons. First, many politicians and policy makers claim that climate change is not only the most serious environmental problem currently facing the world, but also one of the most important international problems per se.2 Second, many of those working in other disciplines describe climate change as fundamentally an ethical issue.3.
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  3.  94
    Climate Ethics: Essential Readings.Stephen M. Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    This collection gathers a set of central papers from the emerging area of ethics and climate change.
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  4. A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Environmental Values 15 (3):397 - 413.
    The peculiar features of the climate change problem pose substantial obstacles to our ability to make the hard choices necessary to address it. Climate change involves the convergence of a set of global, intergenerational and theoretical problems. This convergence justifies calling it a 'perfect moral storm'. One consequence of this storm is that, even if the other difficult ethical questions surrounding climate change could be answered, we might still find it difficult to act. For the storm makes us extremely vulnerable (...)
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  5. A core precautionary principle.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (1):33–60.
    “[T]he Precautionary Principle still has neither a commonly accepted definition nor a set of criteria to guide its implementation. “There is”, Freestone … cogently observes, “a certain paradox in the widespread and rapid adoption of the Precautionary Principle”: While it is applauded as a “good thing”, no one is quite sure about what it really means or how it might be..
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  6.  49
    Debating Climate Ethics.Stephen Mark Gardiner & David A. Weisbach - 2016 - New York, US: Oxford University Press USA.
    In this volume, Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach present arguments for and against the relevance of ethics to global climate policy. Gardiner argues that climate change is fundamentally an ethical issue, since it is an early instance of a distinctive challenge to ethical action, and ethical concerns are at the heart of many of the decisions that need to be made. Consequently, climate policy that ignores ethics is at risk of.
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  7.  55
    Debating Climate Ethics Revisited.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2021 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 24 (2):89-111.
    ABSTRACT In Debating Climate Ethics, David Weisbach and I offer contrasting views of the importance of ethics and justice for climate policy. I argue that ethics is central. Weisbach advocates for climate policy based purely on narrow forms of self-interest. For this symposium, I summarize the major themes, and extend my basic argument. I claim that ethics gets the problem right, whereas dismissing ethics risks getting the problem dangerously wrong, and perpetuating profound injustices. One consequence is that we should reject (...)
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  8.  87
    The Tollgate Principles for the Governance of Geoengineering: Moving Beyond the Oxford Principles to an Ethically More Robust Approach.Stephen M. Gardiner & Augustin Fragnière - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (2):143-174.
    ABSTRACTThis article offers a constructive critique of the Oxford Principles for the governance of geoengineering and proposes an alternative set of principles, the Tollgate Principles, based on that critique. Our main concern is that, despite their many merits, the Oxford Principles remain largely instrumental and dominated by procedural considerations; therefore, they fail to lay the groundwork sufficiently for the more substantive ethical debate that is needed. The article aims to address this gap by making explicit many of the important ethical (...)
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  9. Climate Ethics in a Dark and Dangerous Time.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Ethics 127 (2):430-465.
    A critical study of two recent books in climate ethics by Dale Jamieson (Reason in a Dark Time, Oxford 2014), and Darrel Moellendorf (The Moral and Political Challenges of Climate Change, Cambridge 2014).
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  10. The Real Tragedy of the Commons.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2001 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (4):387-416.
    In two celebrated and widely-anthologized articles, as well as several books, the biologist Garrett Hardin claims (a) that the world population problem has a certain structure – it is a tragedy of the commons - and, (b) that, given this structure, the only tenable solutions involve either coercion or immense human suffering. In this paper, I shall argue for two claims. First, Hardin’s arguments are deeply flawed. The population problem as he conceives it does not have the structure of a (...)
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  11. Rawls and climate change: does Rawlsian political philosophy pass the global test?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (2):125-151.
    Climate change and other global environmental problems constitute a significant challenge to contemporary political philosophy, especially with respect to complacency. This paper assesses Rawls? theory, and argues for three conclusions. First, Rawls does not already solve such problems, and simple extensions of his theory are unlikely to do so. This is so despite the rich structure of Rawls? philosophy, and the appeal of some of its parts. Second, the most promising areas for extension ? the circumstances of justice, the duty (...)
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  12.  62
    A Call For A Global Constitutional Convention Focused On Future Generations.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2014 - Ethics and International Affairs 28 (3):299-315.
    The Carnegie Council's work “is rooted in the premise that the incorporation of ethical concerns into discussions of international affairs will yield more effective policies both in the United States and abroad.” In honor of the Council's centenary, we have been asked to present our views on the ethical and policy issues posed by climate change, focusing on what people need to know that they probably do not already know, and what should be done. In that spirit, this essay argues (...)
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  13. The threat of intergenerational extortion: on the temptation to become the climate mafia, masquerading as an intergenerational Robin Hood.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):368-394.
    This paper argues that extortion is a clear threat in intergenerational relations, and that the threat is manifest in some existing proposals in climate policy and latent in some background tendencies in mainstream moral and political philosophy. The paper also claims that although some central aspects of the concern about extortion might be pursued in terms of the entitlements of future generations, this approach is likely to be incomplete. In particular, intergenerational extortion raises issues about the appropriate limits to the (...)
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  14.  83
    Some Early Ethics of Geoengineering the Climate: A Commentary on the Values of the Royal Society Report.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Environmental Values 20 (2):163 - 188.
    The Royal Society's landmark report on geoengineering is predicated on a particular account of the context and rationale for intentional manipulation of the climate system, and this ethical framework probably explains many of the Society's conclusions. Critical reflection on the report's values is useful for understanding disagreements within and about geoengineering policy, and also for identifying questions for early ethical analysis. Topics discussed include the moral hazard argument, governance, the ethical status of geoengineering under different rationales, the implications of understanding (...)
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  15.  1
    Introducing Contemporary Environmental Ethics.Allen Thompson & Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - In Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Today humanity faces radical global climate change, mass species extinctions, and unprecedented transformations to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental ethics is an academic subfield of philosophy concerned with normative and evaluative propositions about the world of nature and, perhaps more generally, the moral fabric of relations between human beings and the world we occupy. This Handbook contains 45 newly commissioned essays written by leading experts and emerging voices and represent some of the best and most contemporary (...)
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  16. A Contract on Future Generations?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford, Royaume-Uni: Oxford University Press.
    Contract theories – such as contractarianism and contractualism - seek to justify (and sometimes to explain) moral and political ideals and principles through the notion of “mutually agreeable reciprocity or cooperation between equals” (Darwall 2002). This chapter argues that such theories face fundamental difficulties in the intergenerational setting. Most prominently, the standard understanding of cooperation appears not to apply, and the intergenerational setting brings on a more severe collective action problem than the traditional prisoner’s dilemma. Mainstream contract theorists (such as (...)
     
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  17. The Pure Intergenerational Problem.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2003 - The Monist 86 (3):481-500.
    The distant future poses a severe moral problem, the nature and extent of which has not yet been adequately appreciated. This paper offers a brief, initial account of this problem and its main features. It also argues (1) that the problem is the main concern of distinctively intergenerational ethics, and (2) that it occurs both in a pure, long-term form manifest across human history and global populations, and also in degenerate forms which apply to shorter time periods and to social (...)
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  18.  76
    Motivating (or Baby-Stepping Toward) a Global Constitutional Convention for Future Generation.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2019 - Environmental Ethics 41 (3):199-220.
    Recently, I have been arguing for a global constitutional convention focused on protecting future generations. This deliberative body would be akin to the American constitutional convention of 1787, which gave rise to the present structure of government in the United States. It would confront the “governance gap” that currently exists surrounding concern for future generations. In particular, contemporary institutions tend to crowd out intergenerational concern, and thereby facilitate a “tyranny of the contemporary.” They not only fail to address a basic (...)
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  19.  73
    Ethics and Geoengineering: An Overview.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2019 - In Luca Valera & Juan Carlos Castilla (eds.), Global Changes: Ethics, Politics and Environment in the Contemporary Technological World. Springer Verlag. pp. 69-78.
    There is widespread agreement that ethical concerns are central to decision-making about, and governance of, geoengineering. This is especially true of the most prominent and paradigm example of climate engineering, the spraying of sulfate particles into the stratosphere in order to block incoming sunlight and so limit global warming ). Geoengineering ethics, like geoengineering science, is still in its early, exploratory days. This chapter offers an introductory overview of the emerging discussion and some of the challenges moving forward, taking SSI (...)
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  20. Accepting Collective Responsibility for the Future.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Journal of Practical Ethics 5 (1):22-52.
    Existing institutions do not seem well-designed to address paradigmatically global, intergenerational and ecological problems, such as climate change. 1 In particular, they tend to crowd out intergenerational concern, and thereby facilitate a “tyranny of the contemporary” in which successive generations exploit the future to their own advantage in morally indefensible ways (albeit perhaps unintentionally). Overcoming such a tyranny will require both accepting responsibility for the future and meeting the institutional gap. I propose that we approach the first in terms of (...)
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  21.  66
    Why geoengineering is not a ‘global public good’, and why it is ethically misleading to frame it as one.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2013 - Climatic Change 121 (3):513-525.
    In early policy work, climate engineering is often described as a global public good. This paper argues that the paradigm example of geoengineering—stratospheric sulfate injection (hereafter ‘SSI’)—does not fit the canonical technical definition of a global public good, and that more relaxed versions are unhelpful. More importantly, it claims that, regardless of the technicalities, the public good framing is seriously misleading, in part because it arbitrarily marginalizes ethical concerns. Both points suggest that more clarity is needed about the aims of (...)
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  22.  31
    Environmentalizing Bioethics: Planetary Health in a Perfect Moral Storm.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (4):569-585.
    ABSTRACT:Many of humanity's most serious problems are global, intergenerational, and ecological, yet current institutions are poorly placed to confront such problems. In part, this institutional challenge reflects difficulties with our basic concepts and theories. Bioethics is a central area where such questions arise. Although some have argued for an environmentalized bioethics since its inception, biomedicine has thus far failed to embrace the challenge, and some accuse most bioethicists of being "asleep at the wheel" (Schenck and Churchill 2021). This paper discusses (...)
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  23. Geoengineering: Ethical Questions for Deliberate Climate Manipulators.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - In Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Ethics is highly relevant to grand technological interventions into basic planetary systems on a global scale (roughly, “geoengineering”). Focusing on climate engineering, this chapter identifies a large number of salient concerns (e.g., welfare, rights, justice, political legitimacy) but argues that early policy framings (e.g., emergency, global public good) often marginalize these and so avoid important questions of justification. It also suggests that, since it is widely held that geoengineering has become a serious option mainly because of political inertia, there are (...)
     
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  24.  27
    The Global Warming Tragedy and the Dangerous Illusion of the Kyoto Protocol.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):23-39.
    In 2001, 178 of the world's nations reached agreement on a treaty to combat global climate change brought on by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite the notable omission of the United States, representatives of the participants, and many newspapers around the world, expressed elation. Margot Wallström, the environment commissioner of the European Union, went so far as to declare, “Now we can go home and look our children in the eye and be proud of what we have done.”In this (...)
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  25.  19
    The Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press USA.
    A cutting-edge introduction to environmental ethics in a time of dramatic global environmental change, this collection contains forty-five newly commissioned articles, with contributions from well-established experts and emerging voices in the field.
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  26. The Oxford Handbook of Intergenerational Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner (ed.) - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
    This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the (...)
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  27.  64
    Virtue ethics, old and new.Stephen Mark Gardiner (ed.) - 2005 - Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
    This makes study of it paradoxical. On the one hand, there are grounds for saying that contemporary work is, if not quite in its theoretical infancy, ...
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  28. Saved by disaster? Abrupt climate change, political inertia, and the possibility of an intergenerational arms race.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (2):140-162.
    Traditional concern for the gradual, incremental effects of climate change remains; but now greater attention is being paid to the possibility of breaching major thresholds in the climate system with catastrophic consequences. It might be thought that the potential for abrupt climate change (a) undermines the usual (economic, psychological, and intergenerational) analyses of the climate change problem, and (b) in doing so helps us to act. Against this, I argue both that much of the psychological and intergenerational analyses remains in (...)
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  29.  65
    Geoengineering, Political Legitimacy and Justice.Stephen M. Gardiner & Augustin Fragnière - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (3):265-269.
    Geoengineering is commonly defined as ‘the deliberate large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change’. Technologies which...
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  30.  37
    Why ‘global public good’ is a treacherous term, especially for geoengineering.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2014 - Climatic Change.
    Recently, I argued against framing geoengineering—understood here in terms of the paradigm example of stratospheric sulfate injection ('SSI')—as a global public good. My main claim was that this framing is seriously misleading because of its neglect of central ethical concerns. I also suggested that 'global public good' is best understood as an umbrella term covering a cluster of distinct, but interrelated ideas. In an effort to be charitable, I adopted an inclusive approach, considering two general attitudes to the technical definition, (...)
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  31. Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics and the Problem of Moral Corruption.Stephen M. Gardiner - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics.
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  32.  45
    Trump and Climate Justice.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 78:14-16.
    A brief critique of President Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement.
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  33.  14
    Climate Change, Global Health, and Planetary Health.Stephen M. Gardiner & Paul Tubig - 2023 - In Pellegrino Gianfranco & Marcello Di Paola (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Climate Change. Springer Nature. pp. 799-819.
    Climate change has been called “the biggest global health threat of the 21st century.” This chapter outlines some central ethical dimensions of the challenge. It begins by reviewing a few of the major health impacts expected from climate change. It then summarizes some key issues surrounding the ethical importance of health, and of injustices connected to global health inequalities. Finally, the chapter explores a recent concept – planetary health – that aims to environmentalize public health in order to confront climate (...)
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  34. Seneca's virtuous moral rules.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2005 - In Stephen Mark Gardiner (ed.), Virtue ethics, old and new. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. pp. 30--59.
    One prominent feature of contemporary virtue ethics is its insistence on the normative priority of the virtuous person. Another is its scepticism about the place of rules or principles in moral decision-making. But the Stoics seem paradoxical on this score. On the one hand, they are great proponents of the authority and privileged position of the sage; on the other, they see moral life as structured by an elaborate system of principles and rules. In this paper, I suggest a resolution (...)
     
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  35.  26
    On the Scope of Institutions for Future Generations: Defending an Expansive Global Constitutional Convention That Protects against Squandering Generations.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2022 - Ethics and International Affairs 36 (2):157-178.
    We are in the early stages of a new “intergenerational turn” in political philosophy. This turn is largely motivated by the threat of global climate change, which makes vivid a serious governance gap surrounding concern for future generations. Unfortunately, there is a lack of fit between most proposed remedies and the nature of the underlying problem. Most notably, many seem to believe that only piecemeal, issue-specific, and predominantly national institutions are needed to fill the intergenerational governance gap. By contrast, I (...)
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  36.  43
    The Future of Environmental Philosophy.Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner & Lori Gruen - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):117-118.
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  37. Aristotle's Basic and Non-Basic Virtues.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2001 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 20:261-95.
    The structure of Aristotelian virtue ethics has been misunderstood. Conventional wisdom has it that Aristotle, as indeed all of the major philosophers of ancient Greece, believed that the virtues are reciprocally entailing (RV): a person can have one of the virtues of character if and only if she has them all. But this is false. Instead, Aristotle distinguishes between a set of basic and a set of nonbasic virtues, and claims that only the basic virtues are reciprocally entailing. Furthermore, he (...)
     
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  38. Aristotle's Basic and Non-basic Virtues.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2001 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy: Volume Xx Summer 2001. Clarendon Press.
    The structure of Aristotelian virtue ethics has been misunderstood. Conventional wisdom has it that Aristotle, as indeed all of the major philosophers of ancient Greece, believed that the virtues are reciprocally entailing (RV): a person can have one of the virtues of character if and only if she has them all. But this is false. Instead, Aristotle distinguishes between a set of basic and a set of nonbasic virtues, and claims that only the basic virtues are reciprocally entailing. Furthermore, he (...)
     
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  39.  78
    Dilbert and global warming.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2006 - Think 5 (13):65-74.
    Stephen Gardiner gets to grips with the Kyoto agreement on climate change — and asks whether our lack of commitment to seriously reducing emissions is down to the fact that the bad consequences of not reducing emissions won't affect us.
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  40.  76
    Dialogues on Climate Justice.Stephen M. Gardiner & Arthur Obst - 2022 - Routledge.
    Written both for general readers and college students, Dialogues on Climate Justice provides an engaging philosophical introduction to climate justice, and should be of interest to anyone wanting to think seriously about the climate crisis. -/- The story follows the life and conversations of Hope, a fictional protagonist whose life is shaped by a terrifyingly real problem: climate change. From the election of Donald Trump in 2016 until the 2060s, the book documents Hope’s discussions with a diverse cast of characters. (...)
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  41.  53
    Environmental midwifery and the need for an ethics of the transition: A quick riff on the future of environmental ethics.Stephen Mark Gardiner - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):122-123.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Environmental Midwifery and the Need for an Ethics of the Transition:A Quick Riff on the Future of Environmental EthicsStephen M. Gardiner (bio)It is worth remembering that in many ways environmental ethics is a very successful field. Over the course of only thirty or forty years, we have reached a point at which almost every significant philosophy program in the country offers a course in environmental ethics, there are several (...)
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  42.  15
    Future Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2013 - In Armin Grunwald (ed.), Handbuch Technikethik. Stuttgart: Metzler. pp. 203-207.
    Like it or not, technologists are increasingly being called upon to »save the world«, including from themselves. Today, science and engineering professionals stand on the front-lines both in generating severe risks to the future, and in the search for solutions. This chapter examines the ethical context of their predicament. It begins by outlining the central, characteristic threat to the future, the »tyranny of the contemporary«.
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  43.  1
    Geoengineering.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - In Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Ethics is highly relevant to grand technological interventions into basic planetary systems on a global scale. Focusing on climate engineering, this chapter identifies a large number of salient concerns but argues that early policy framings often marginalize these and so avoid important questions of justification. It also suggests that, since it is widely held that geoengineering has become a serious option mainly because of political inertia, there are important contextual issues, especially around the paradoxical question, “What should we do, ethically (...)
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  44.  47
    Geoengineering as self-defence.Stephen M. Gardiner, Ben Rabinowitz & Alicia R. Intriago - 2013 - Philosophers' Magazine 60 (-1):17 - 18.
  45.  45
    Geoengineering as self-defence.Stephen M. Gardiner & Alicia R. Intriago - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 60:17-18.
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  46.  36
    Geoengineering as self-defence.Stephen M. Gardiner & Alicia R. Intriago - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 60:17-18.
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  47.  21
    Geo-Engineering und moralische Schizophrenie: Was ist die Frage?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2015 - In Angela Kallhoff (ed.), Klimagerechtigkeit Und Klimaethik. De Gruyter. pp. 221-256.
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  48.  21
    Motivación o Primeros Pasos Hacia una Convención Constitucional Global Para las Generaciones Futuras.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2019 - Environmental Ethics 41 (9998):13-38.
    En los últimos tiempos he propuesto la necesidad de elaborar una convención constitucional global centrada en proteger a las generaciones futuras. Este cuerpo deliberativo se ría similar a la convención constitucional de Estados Unidos de 1787, que dio lugar a su estructura actual de gobierno. Se enfrentaría a la “brecha de gobernabilidad” actual respecto de la preocupación por las generaciones futuras. Las instituciones contemporáneas, en particular, tienden a desplazar la preocupación intergeneracional y, por lo tanto, facilitan una “tiranía de lo (...)
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  49. Oxford Handbook of Environmental Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner & Allen Thompson (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
  50.  14
    Should We Embrace a “New,” Expansionist Agenda for the Virtues?Stephen M. Gardiner - 2021 - In Anne Siegetsleitner, Andreas Oberprantacher, Marie-Luisa Frick & Ulrich Metschl (eds.), Crisis and Critique: Philosophical Analysis and Current Events: Proceedings of the 42nd International Wittgenstein Symposium. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 331-342.
    Abstract: Does the evolving influence of humanity on the Earth’s environment call for new virtues? How might such virtues be seen as contributing to human flourishing? In this paper, I develop Aristotle’s discussion of magnificence and magnanimity to provide a framework within which to discuss such claims. I also defend the controversial view that even if genuinely new virtues may be involved, these may be virtues to which we should not aspire (now, or perhaps ever).
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