Results for 'Stephen E. Newstead'

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  1.  17
    The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan StB. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen - 1992 - Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
  2.  18
    The Source of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Julie L. Allen - 1992 - Cognition 45 (3):257-284.
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  3.  41
    Conditional Reasoning with Realistic Material.Stephen E. Newstead - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):49 – 76.
    Four experiments are reported which investigated the types of truth tables that people associate with conditional sentences and the kinds of inferences that they will draw from them. The present studies differed from most previous ones in using different types of content in the conditionals, for example promises and warnings. It was found that the type of content had a strong and consistent effect on both truth tables and inferences. It is suggested that this is because in real life conditionals (...)
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  4.  13
    Can Natural Language Semantics Explain Syllogistic Reasoning?Stephen E. Newstead - 2003 - Cognition 90 (2):193-199.
  5.  28
    Quantifier Interpretation and Syllogistic Reasoning.Maxwell J. Roberts, Stephen E. Newstead & Richard A. Griggs - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):173 – 204.
    Many researchers have suggested that premise interpretation errors can account, at least in part, for errors on categorical syllogisms. However, although it is possible to show that people make such errors in simple inference tasks, the evidence for them is far less clear when actual syllogisms are administered. Part of the problem is due to the lack of clear predictions for the solutions that would be expected when using modified quantifiers, assuming that correct inferences are made from them. This paper (...)
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  6.  8
    Response Bias in Relational Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead, Paul Pollard & Richard A. Griggs - 1986 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (2):95-98.
  7.  22
    Are There Two Different Types of Thinking?Stephen E. Newstead - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):690-691.
    Stanovich & West's claim that there are two coherent and conceptually distinct types of thinking, System 1 and System 2, is questioned. Some authors equate System 2 with intelligence whereas other do not; and some authors regard the two types of system as distinct while others regard them as lying on a continuum.
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  8.  79
    Predicting the Difficulty of Complex Logical Reasoning Problems.Stephen E. Newstead, Peter Bradon, Simon J. Handley, Ian Dennis & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (1):62 – 90.
    The aim of the present research was to develop a difficulty model for logical reasoning problems involving complex ordered arrays used in the Graduate Record Examination. The approach used involved breaking down the problems into their basic cognitive elements such as the complexity of the rules used, the number of mental models required to represent the problem, and question type. Weightings for these different elements were derived from two experimental studies and from the reasoning literature. Based on these weights, difficulty (...)
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  9.  33
    Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes.Stephen E. Newstead, Simon J. Handley & Helen L. Neilens - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37-68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
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  10. Comments on Johnson-Laird By.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65-68.
  11. Semantics and Psychology Part 1: The Semantics of Quantification.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (3):147.
     
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  12.  54
    Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning and Mental Models.Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):65 – 67.
    (1994). Inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and mental models. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 65-67. doi: 10.1080/02698599408573483.
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  13.  16
    Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 1993 - Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
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  14.  28
    What is an Ecologically Rational Heuristic?Stephen E. Newstead - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):759-760.
    The notion of ecological rationality, although plausible, does not readily lead to testable predictions. This is illustrated with respect to heuristics in syllogistic reasoning. Several possible heuristics have been proposed but ecological rationality does not appear to offer a sensible rationale for choosing between these.
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  15.  14
    Children’s Performance on Set-Inclusion and Linear-Ordering Relationships.Stephen E. Newstead, Stephanie Keeble & Kenneth I. Manktelow - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (2):105-108.
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  16.  22
    Do Verbs Act as Implicit Quantifiers?Stephen E. Newstead - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (3):215-230.
    A number of studies suggest that verbs can act as implicit quantifiers on the subjects and objects of the sentences in which they are used; thus a sentence such as Children like animals has truth conditions which fall short of the universal. Furthermore, it has been claimed that the quantity implied varies as a function of the type of verb used, for example, whether the verb describes an observable event or a subjective state. The present research investigated this effect further (...)
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  17.  12
    Mental Models as an Explanation of Belief Bias Effects in Syllogistic Reasoning.Stephen E. Newstead & Jonathan StB. T. Evans - 1993 - Cognition 46 (1):93-97.
  18.  9
    Do Mental Models Provide an Adequate Account of Syllogistic Reasoning Performance?Stephen E. Newstead - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):359-360.
  19. Janet Cohen Sherman (Massachusetts General Hospital) and Barbara Lust (Cornell University) Children Are in Control.Gary F. Marcus, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Stephen E. Newstead, Jonathan St Bt Evans, Kimj Vicente, William F. Brewer, Jc Marshall, Karen Emmorey & Stephen M. Kosslyn - 1993 - Cognition 46:297.
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  20.  77
    Attentional Factors in a Disjunctive Reasoning Task.Richard A. Griggs, Richard D. Platt, Stephen E. Newstead & Sherri L. Jackson - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):1-14.
    Girotto and Legrenzi's 1993 facilitation effect for their SARS version of Wason s THOG problem a disjunctive reasoning task was examined. The effect was not replicated when the standard THOG problem instructions were used in Experiments 1 and 2. However, in Experiment 3 when Girotto and Legrenzi's precise instructions were used, facilitation was observed. Experiment 4 further investigated the role of the type of instructions in the observed facilitation. The results suggest that such facilitation may result from attentional factors rather (...)
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  21.  68
    Effects of Training and Instruction on Analytic and Belief-Based Reasoning Processes.Helen L. Neilens, Simon J. Handley & Stephen E. Newstead - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (1):37 – 68.
    Two studies are reported which demonstrate that analytic responding on everyday reasoning problems can be increased and bias eliminated after training on the law of large numbers. Critical thinking problems involving belief-consistent, neutral, and inconsistent conclusions were presented. Belief bias was eliminated when a written justification of argument strength was elicited. However, belief-based responding was still evident when evaluations of the arguments were elicited using rating scales. This finding demonstrates a dissociation between analytic and belief-based responding as a function of (...)
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  22. The Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological Investigations.Stephen E. Braude - 2007 - University of Chicago Press.
    For over thirty years, Stephen Braude has studied the paranormal in everyday life, from extrasensory perception and psychokinesis to mediumship and materialization. _The Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological Investigations_ is a highly readable and often amusing account of his most memorable encounters with such phenomena. Here Braude recounts in fascinating detail five particular cases—some that challenge our most fundamental scientific beliefs and others that expose our own credulousness. Braude begins with a south Florida woman who can make thin (...)
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  23. The Uses of Argument.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1958 - Cambridge University Press.
    A central theme throughout the impressive series of philosophical books and articles Stephen Toulmin has published since 1948 is the way in which assertions and opinions concerning all sorts of topics, brought up in everyday life or in academic research, can be rationally justified. Is there one universal system of norms, by which all sorts of arguments in all sorts of fields must be judged, or must each sort of argument be judged according to its own norms? In The (...)
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  24. Crimes of Reason: On Mind, Nature, and the Paranormal.Stephen E. Braude - 2014 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Crimes of Reason brings together expanded and updated versions of some of Braude’s best previously published essays, along with new essays written specifically for this book.
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  25. The Uses of Argument.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1958 - Philosophy 34 (130):244-245.
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  26.  17
    The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science.Stephen E. Braude (ed.) - 1986 - Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    The Limits of Influence is a detailed examination and defense of the evidence for largescale-psychokinesis . It examines the reasons why experimental evidence has not, and perhaps cannot, convince most skeptics that PK is genuine, and it considers why traditional experimental procedures are important to reveal interesting facts about the phenomena.
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  27.  31
    ESP and Psychokineses: A Philosophical Examination.Stephen E. Braude - 1979 - Temple University Press.
    This work was the first sustained philosophical study of psychic phenomena to follow C.D. Broad's LECTURES ON PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, written nearly twenty years ...
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  28. How to Be Dead and Not Care: A Defense of Epicurus.Stephen E. Rosenbaum - 1986 - American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (2):217 - 225.
  29. Color, Consciousness, and the Isomorphism Constraint.Stephen E. Palmer - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):923-943.
    The relations among consciousness, brain, behavior, and scientific explanation are explored in the domain of color perception. Current scientific knowledge about color similarity, color composition, dimensional structure, unique colors, and color categories is used to assess Locke.
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  30. Money as Tool, Money as Drug: The Biological Psychology of a Strong Incentive.Stephen E. G. Lea & Paul Webley - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):161-209.
    Why are people interested in money? Specifically, what could be the biological basis for the extraordinary incentive and reinforcing power of money, which seems to be unique to the human species? We identify two ways in which a commodity which is of no biological significance in itself can become a strong motivator. The first is if it is used as a tool, and by a metaphorical extension this is often applied to money: it is used instrumentally, in order to obtain (...)
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  31.  9
    Clone Being: Exploring the Psychological and Social Dimensions.Stephen E. Levick - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Marshalling psychological and sociological theory and research, and drawing upon extensive clinical experiences as a psychiatrist and psychotherapist, the author explores the various dimensions of cloning. Clone Being attempts to anticipate possible consequences for a clone, his or her 'parents' and family, and society.
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  32.  5
    A Biological Theory of Reinforcement.Stephen E. Glickman & Bernard B. Schiff - 1967 - Psychological Review 74 (2):81-109.
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  33. On the Meaning of 'Paranormal,'.Stephen E. Braude - 1978 - In Jan Ludwig (ed.), Philosophy and Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 227--44.
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  34.  75
    Brain and Language: A Commentary.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1971 - Synthese 22 (3-4):369-395.
  35. The Symmetry Argument: Lucretius Against the Fear of Death.Stephen E. Rosenbaum - 1989 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (2):353-373.
  36. Suffering and the Shape of Well-Being in Buddhist Ethics.Stephen E. Harris - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (3):242-259.
    This article explores the defense Indian Buddhist texts make in support of their conceptions of lives that are good for an individual. This defense occurs, largely, through their analysis of ordinary experience as being saturated by subtle forms of suffering . I begin by explicating the most influential of the Buddhist taxonomies of suffering: the threefold division into explicit suffering , the suffering of change , and conditioned suffering . Next, I sketch the three theories of welfare that have been (...)
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  37.  1
    The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science.Stephen E. Braude - 1996 - Upa.
    The Limits of Influence is a detailed examination and defense of the evidence for largescale-psychokinesis. It examines the reasons why experimental evidence has not, and perhaps cannot, convince most skeptics that PK is genuine, and it considers why traditional experimental procedures are important to reveal interesting facts about the phenomena.
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  38.  61
    The Evaluation of “Outcomes” of Accounting Ethics Education.Stephen E. Loeb - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (2):77 - 84.
    This article explores five important issues relating to the evaluation of ethics education in accounting. The issues that are considered include: (a) reasons for evaluating accounting ethics education (see Caplan, 1980, pp. 133–35); (b) goal setting as a prerequisite to evaluating the outcomes of accounting ethics education (see Caplan, 1980, pp. 135–37); (c) possible broad levels of outcomes of accounting ethics education that can be evaluated; (d) matters relating to accounting ethics education that are in need of evaluation (see Caplan, (...)
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  39.  35
    The Evolutionary Development of Natural Science.Stephen E. Toulmin - 2009 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy After Darwin: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Princeton University Press. pp. 177.
  40.  26
    Beyond Autotelic Play.Stephen E. Schmid - 2011 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 38 (2):149-166.
    In the Philosophy of Sport literature, play has been widely conceived, in whole or part, as an autotelic activity; that is, an activity pursued for intrinsic factors. I examine several versions of the conception of play as an autotelic activity. Given these different accounts, I raise the question whether the concept of autotelic play is tenable. I examine three possibilities: (i) accept the concept of autotelic play and reject the possibility of satisfying the conditions for play activities; (ii) accept the (...)
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  41. Demandingness, Well-Being and the Bodhisattva Path.Stephen E. Harris - 2015 - Sophia 54 (2):201-216.
    This paper reconstructs an Indian Buddhist response to the overdemandingness objection, the claim that a moral theory asks too much of its adherents. In the first section, I explain the objection and argue that some Mahāyāna Buddhists, including Śāntideva, face it. In the second section, I survey some possible ways of responding to the objection as a way of situating the Buddhist response alongside contemporary work. In the final section, I draw upon writing by Vasubandhu and Śāntideva in reconstructing a (...)
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  42. Epicurus on Pleasure and the Complete Life.Stephen E. Rosenbaum - 1990 - The Monist 73 (1):21-41.
    The popular impression of Epicurean hedonism is that it advocates a life of sensual delights. Scholars know, however, that this impression is mistaken, both because of the overall conceptual structure of Epicurus’ ethics and because Epicurus prominently and repeatedly expressed such ideas as this.
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  43.  26
    Reconsidering Autotelic Play.Stephen E. Schmid - 2009 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 36 (2):238-257.
  44.  5
    Play and Aesthetics in Ancient Greece.Stephen E. Kidd - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is art's relationship to play? Those interested in this question tend to look to modern philosophy for answers, but, as this book shows, the question was already debated in antiquity by luminaries like Plato and Aristotle. Over the course of eight chapters, this book contextualizes those debates, and demonstrates their significance for theoretical problems today. Topics include the ancient child psychology at the root of the ancient Greek word for 'play', the numerous toys that have survived from antiquity, and (...)
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  45. Bergson and the Holographic Theory of Mind.Stephen E. Robbins - 2006 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (3-4):365-394.
    Bergson’s model of time (1889) is perhaps the proto-phenomenological theory. It is part of a larger model of mind (1896) which can be seen in modern light as describing the brain as supporting a modulated wave within a holographic field, specifying the external image of the world, and wherein subject and object are differentiated not in terms of space, but of time. Bergson’s very concrete model is developed and deepened with Gibson’s ecological model of perception. It is applied to the (...)
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  46.  41
    On Time, Memory and Dynamic Form.Stephen E. Robbins - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):762-788.
    A common approach to explaining the perception of form is through the use of static features. The weakness of this approach points naturally to dynamic definitions of form. Considering dynamical form, however, leads inevitably to the need to explain how events are perceived as time-extended—a problem with primacy over that even of qualia. Optic flow models, energy models, models reliant on a rigidity constraint are examined. The reliance of these models on the instantaneous specification of form at an instant, t, (...)
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  47.  29
    Semantic Redintegration: Ecological Invariance.Stephen E. Robbins - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):726-727.
    In proposing that their model can operate in the concrete, perceptual world, Rogers & McClelland (R&M) have not done justice to the complexities of the ecological sphere and its invariance laws. The structure of concrete events forces a different framework, both for retrieval of events and concepts defined across events, than that upon which the proposed model, rooted in essence in the verbal learning tradition, implicitly rests.
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  48.  51
    Bergson, Perception and Gibson.Stephen E. Robbins - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (5):23-45.
    Bergson's 1896 theory of perception/memory assumed a framework anticipating the quantum revolution in physics, the still unrealized implications of this framework contributing to the large neglect of Bergson today. The basics of his model are explored, including the physical concepts he advanced before the crisis in classical physics, his concept of perception as ‘virtual action’ with its relativistic implications, and his unique explication of the subject/object relationship. All form the basis for his solution to the ‘hard’ problem. The relation between (...)
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  49.  3
    Freedom and Fate: An Inner Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson.Stephen E. Whicher - 1953 - University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Stephen Whicher's Freedom and Fate begins with a tribute to Ralph Rusk's monumental biography The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson, acknowledging its supremacy as a factual telling of Emerson's life that cannot be surpassed. Whicher's book aims to be a complement to the painstakingly researched outer life of Emerson by focusing on the great sage's inner life—not just his intellectual biography but the very nature of his thinking. Whicher stresses the life of "spectator-ship" that the young Emerson, perpetually ill (...)
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  50.  42
    The Cost of Explicit Memory.Stephen E. Robbins - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):33-66.
    Within Piaget there is an implicit theory of the development of explicit memory. It rests in the dynamical trajectory underlying the development of causality, object, space and time – a complex (COST) supporting a symbolic relationship integral to the explicit. Cassirer noted the same dependency in the phenomena of aphasias, insisting that a symbolic function is being undermined in these deficits. This is particularly critical given the reassessment of Piaget’s stages as the natural bifurcations of a self-organizing dynamic system. The (...)
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