Results for 'Stakeholder theory'

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  1.  3
    Stakeholder Theory: A Model for Strategic Management.Maria Bonnafous-Boucher - 2016 - Cham: Imprint: Springer. Edited by Jacob Dahl Rendtorff.
    This book presents an academic introduction, presentation and argument of stakeholder theory as as a model for strategic management of business firms and corporations and public organizations and institutions. The concept of stakeholder is generally used for the parties that affect or are affected by the activities of private or public organizations. Stakeholders are those interested parties who, other than shareholders, have a connection with the activities of a corporation, a firm or an organization. The reference to (...)
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  2. Stakeholder Theory and A Principle of Fairness.Robert A. Phillips - 1997 - Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (1):51-66.
    Stakeholder theory has become a central issue in the literature on business ethics / business and society. There are, however, a number of problems with stakeholder theory as currently understood. Among these are: 1) the lack of a coherent justificatory framework, 2) the problem of adjudicating between stakeholders, and 3) the problem of stakeholder identification. In this essay, I propose that a possible source of obligations to stakeholders is the principle of fairness (or fair play) (...)
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  3. Investigating Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital: CSR in Large Firms and SMEs.Angeloantonio Russo & Francesco Perrini - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):207-221.
    The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been widely investigated, but a generally accepted theoretical framework does not yet exist. This paper argues that the idiosyncrasies of large firms and SMEs explains the different approaches to CSR, and that the notion of social capital is a more useful way of understanding the CSR approach of SMEs, whereas stakeholder theory more closely addresses the CSR approach of large firms. Based on the extant literature, we present a comparison of (...)
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  4. Whither Stakeholder Theory? A Guide for the Perplexed Revisited.John Hasnas - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):47-57.
    The nature of stakeholder theory and its fundamental normative prescriptions are the subject of much confusion and academic debate. This article attempts to provide an account of both the fundamental normative implications of stakeholder theory and the theory’s range of application that both stakeholder advocates and critics can agree upon. Using exclusively the language of leading stakeholder theorists, the article identifies the essential prescriptions of the theory and the type of organizations to (...)
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  5. Stakeholder Theory and Managerial Decision-Making: Constraints and Implications of Balancing Stakeholder Interests.Scott J. Reynolds, Frank C. Schultz & David R. Hekman - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):285-301.
    Stakeholder theory is widely recognized as a management theory, yet very little research has considered its implications for individual managerial decision-making. In the two studies reported here, we used stakeholder theory to examine managerial decisions about balancing stakeholder interests. Results of Study 1 suggest that indivisible resources and unequal levels of stakeholder saliency constrain managers’ efforts to balance stakeholder interests. Resource divisibility also influenced whether managers used a within-decision or an across-decision approach (...)
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  6. What Stakeholder Theory is Not.Andrew C. Wicks - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4):479-502.
    Abstract:The term stakeholder is a powerful one. This is due, to a significant degree, to its conceptual breadth. The term means different things to different people and hence evokes praise or scorn from a wide variety of scholars and practitioners. Such breadth of interpretation, though one of stakeholder theory’s greatest strengths, is also one of its most prominent theoretical liabilities. The goal of the current paper is like that of a controlled burn that clears away some of (...)
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  7. Differentiating stakeholder theories.John Kaler - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 46 (1):71 - 83.
    Following on from work on stakeholder identification, this paper constructs a typology of stakeholder theories based on the extent to which serving the interests of non-shareholders relative to those of shareholders is accepted as a responsibility of companies. A typology based on the division of stakeholder theories into normative, descriptive, and instrumental is rejected on the grounds that the latter two designations refer to second order theories rather than divisions within stakeholder theory and the first (...)
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  8. Stakeholder Theory, Value, and Firm Performance.Jeffrey S. Harrison & Andrew C. Wicks - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (1):97-124.
    This paper argues that the notion of value has been overly simplified and narrowed to focus on economic returns. Stakeholder theory provides an appropriate lens for considering a more complex perspective of the value that stakeholders seek as well as new ways to measure it. We develop a four-factor perspective for defining value that includes, but extends beyond, the economic value stakeholders seek. To highlight its distinctiveness, we compare this perspective to three other popular performance perspectives. Recommendations are (...)
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  9. The stakeholder theory and the common good.Antonio Argandoña - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9-10):1093-1102.
    The theory of the social responsibility of the firm oscillates between two extremes: one that reduces the firm's responsibility to the obtainment of (the greatest possible) profit for its shareholders, and another that extends the firm's responsibility to include a wide range of actors with an interest or "stake" in the firm. The stakeholder theory of the social responsibility of business is more appealing from an ethical point of view, and yet it lacks a solid foundation that (...)
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  10.  14
    Stakeholder Theory and Managerial Decision-Making: Constraints and Implications of Balancing Stakeholder Interests.S. J. Reynolds, F. C. Schultz & D. R. Hekman - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):285-301.
    Stakeholder theory is widely recognized as a management theory, yet very little research has considered its implications for individual managerial decision-making. In the two studies reported here, we used stakeholder theory to examine managerial decisions about balancing stakeholder interests. Results of Study 1 suggest that indivisible resources and unequal levels of stakeholder saliency constrain managers’ efforts to balance stakeholder interests. Resource divisibility also influenced whether managers used a within-decision or an across-decision approach (...)
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  11. Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense.R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-349.
    Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions (...)
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  12. Stakeholder Theory Classification: A Theoretical and Empirical Evaluation of Definitions.Samantha Miles - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (3):437-459.
    Stakeholder theory is widely accepted but elementary aspects remain indeterminate as the term ‘stakeholder’ is an essentially contested concept, being variously describable, internally complex and open in character. Such contestability is highly problematic for theory development and empirical testing. The extent of essential contestability, previously unknown, is demonstrated in this paper through a bounded systematic review of 593 different stakeholder theory definitions. As an essentially contested concept, the solution does not lie in a universal (...)
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  13.  53
    Stakeholder theory: A deliberative perspective.Ulf Henning Richter & Kevin E. Dow - 2017 - Business Ethics: A European Review 26 (4):428-442.
    Organizations routinely make choices when addressing conflicting stakes of their stakeholders. As stakeholder theory continues to mature, scholars continue to seek ways to make it more usable, yet proponents continue to debate its legitimacy. Various scholarly attempts to ground stakeholder theory have not narrowed down this debate. We draw from the work of Juergen Habermas to theoretically advance stakeholder theory, and to provide practical examples to illustrate our approach. Specifically, we apply Habermas’ language-pragmatic approach (...)
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  14.  17
    Stakeholder Theory Through the Lenses of Catholic Social Thought.Jose Luis Retolaza, Ricardo Aguado & Leire Alcaniz - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (4):969-980.
    Beyond different starting points, stakeholder theory and Catholic Social Thought share many compatible perspectives when analyzing the role of the firm in economic activity, especially regarding the attention of the firm to different social and economic actors. Additionally, ST bears limitations regarding its ethical and anthropological foundation, and also about the legitimation of the different stakeholders’ interests. Therefore, ST lacks clear criteria to solve possible conflicts of interest between stakeholders. This paper analyzes the potentiality of ST, widely accepted (...)
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  15.  20
    Stakeholder Theory: Seeing the Field Through the Forest.Michael E. Johnson-Cramer & Shawn L. Berman - 2019 - Business and Society 58 (7):1358-1375.
    Does stakeholder theory constitute an established academic field? Our answer is both “yes” and “no.” In the more than quarter-century since Freeman’s seminal contribution in 1984, this domain has acquired some of the administrative, social, and disciplinary trappings of an established field. Stakeholder research has coalesced around a unique intellectual position: that corporations must be understood within the context of their stakeholder relationships and that this understanding must grow out of the interplay between normative and social (...)
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  16.  61
    Stakeholder Theory at the Crossroads.Jeffrey S. Harrison & Jay B. Barney - 2020 - Business and Society 59 (2):203-212.
    The stakeholder perspective has provided a rich forum for a variety of debates at the intersection of business and society. Scholars gathered for two consecutive years, first in North America, and then in Europe, to discuss the major issues surrounding what has come to be known as stakeholder theory, to attempt to find common ground, and to uncover areas in need of further inquiry. Those meetings led to a list of “tensions” and a call for papers for (...)
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  17.  64
    A Stakeholder Theory Perspective on Business Models: Value Creation for Sustainability.Birte Freudenreich, Florian Lüdeke-Freund & Stefan Schaltegger - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 166 (1):3-18.
    Business models are developed and managed to create value. While most business model frameworks envision value creation as a uni-directional flow between the focal business and its customers, this article presents a broader view based on a stringent application of stakeholder theory. It provides a stakeholder value creation framework derived from key characteristics of stakeholder theory. This article highlights mutual stakeholder relationships in which stakeholders are both recipients and creators of value in joint value (...)
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  18.  84
    Evaluating Stakeholder Theory.J. Kaler - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (3):249-268.
    This paper is the third in a series of four that is directed at understanding and assessing stakeholder theory for the purposes of business ethics. It addresses the suitability and viability of the theory, rejecting objections of a moral and efficiency sort based (respectively) on claims about property rights and the economic superiority of the alternative stockholder approach, but accepting that implementation problems require limiting both the number of groupings admitted to stakeholder status and the degree (...)
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  19. A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation.R. Edward Freeman - 2001 - Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie 3:144.
  20.  10
    Stakeholder theory: A process-ontological perspective.Vladislav Valentinov & Robert Chia - 2022 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 31 (3):762-776.
    Business Ethics, the Environment &Responsibility, Volume 31, Issue 3, Page 762-776, July 2022.
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  21. Stakeholder Theory: 25 Years Later.R. Edward Freeman - 2009 - Philosophy of Management 8 (3):97-107.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions (...)
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  22.  83
    Stakeholder Theory, Fact/Value Dichotomy, and the Normative Core: How Wall Street Stops the Ethics Conversation. [REVIEW]Lauren S. Purnell & R. Edward Freeman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):109-116.
    A review of the stakeholder literature reveals that the concept of "normative core" can be applied in three main ways: philosophical justification of stakeholder theory, theoretical governing principles of a firm, and managerial beliefs/values influencing the underlying narrative of business. When considering the case of Wall Street, we argue that the managerial application of normative core reveals the imbedded nature of the fact/value dichotomy. Problems arise when the work of the fact/value dichotomy contributes to a closed-core institution. (...)
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  23. The Stakeholder Theory of the Firm.Steven N. Brenner - 1992 - Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (2):99-119.
    Various authors advocate consideration of stakeholder value concerns in organizational decision making. Brenner and Cochran (1990, 1991) propose a stakeholder theory of the firm which contains several propositions and a stakeholder value matrix. In order to begin any stakeholder rnodel validation, an approach is needed to measure stakeholder value and influence weights. We propose a multicriteria decision modeling approach, utilizing the analytic hierarchy process, to estimate stakeholder value matrix weights. This approach is illustrated (...)
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  24. Stakeholder theory, corporate governance and public management: What can the history of state-run enterprises teach us in the post-enron era?Joseph Heath & Wayne Norman - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (3):247-265.
    This paper raises a challenge for those who assume that corporate social responsibility and good corporate governance naturally go hand-in-hand. The recent spate of corporate scandals in the United States and elsewhere has dramatized, once again, the severity of the agency problems that may arise between managers and shareholders. These scandals remind us that even if we adopt an extremely narrow concept of managerial responsibility – such that we recognize no social responsibility beyond the obligation to maximize shareholder value – (...)
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  25. Stakeholder theory: The state of the art.T. Jones, A. Wicks & R. Edward Freeman - 2002 - In Norman E. Bowie (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics. Blackwell. pp. 19--37.
     
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  26.  6
    Evolutionary stakeholder theory in action: Adaptation of public utility regulation in the post‐OPEC world.Karl A. McDermott - 2020 - Business and Society Review 125 (2):203-223.
    This article extends the Humean example of evolutionary stakeholder theory introduced in Kline and McDermott (2019). In that article, it was established that the Cost of Service Regulation (COSR) rules created by regulatory commissions, courts, and legislation was an example of evolutionary stakeholder theory. Ultimately, the Supreme Court decision in the Hope Natural Gas case established that it was not the method, but the result reach that was important. If the result reach balanced the interests of (...)
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    Evolutionary stakeholder theory and public utility regulation.William Kline & Karl McDermott - 2019 - Business and Society Review 124 (2):283-298.
    Public utility regulation is one example of how stakeholder theory has actually evolved in practice. Through trial and error, court cases, statutory law and economic realities, stakeholder theory has its origins almost a century before R Edward Freeman published his seminal work Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. This wealth of historical data is largely overlooked by the stakeholder literature. We will show in this article how the specific history of public utility regulation provides at (...)
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  28. Stakeholder theory.D. Bevan & P. H. Werhane - 2011 - In Mollie Painter-Morland & René ten Bos (eds.), Business ethics and continental philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37--60.
     
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  29. Stakeholder Theory and Social Identity: Rethinking Stakeholder Identification. [REVIEW]Andrew Crane & Trish Ruebottom - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):77-87.
    In this article, we propose an adaption to stakeholder theory whereby stakeholders are conceptualized on the basis of their social identity. We begin by offering a critical review of both traditional and more recent developments in stakeholder theory, focusing in particular on the way in which stakeholder categories are identified. By identifying critical weaknesses in the existing approach, as well as important points of strength, we outline an alternative approach that refines our understanding of stakeholders (...)
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  30.  12
    Operationalizing stakeholder theory and prioritizing ethics in MBA programs: The utility of a trust approach.S. Duane Hansen, Matthew Mouritsen, James H. Davis & David Noack - 2019 - Business and Society Review 124 (4):523-541.
    At a time when some are questioning the relevancy of business education in general, others are now asking whether MBA programs should be blamed for society’s declining trust in business and the numerous corporate ethical failures of recent decades. Whether the full blame lies with business schools or not, MBA instructors are actively seeking more effective ways to help students adopt more practical and ethical managerial paradigms. Because trust theory is simple and robust and outlines the basic mental processes (...)
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  31. Dialogue: Toward Superior Stakeholder Theory.Bradley R. Agle, Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
    A quick look at what is happening in the corporate world makes it clear that the stakeholder idea is alive, well, and flourishing; and the question now is not “if ” but “how” stakeholder theory will meet the challenges of its success. Does stakeholder theory’s “arrival” mean continued dynamism, refinement, and relevance, or stasis? How will superior stakeholder theory continue to develop? In light of these and related questions, the authors of these essays (...)
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  32. The Politics of Stakeholder Theory.R. Edward Freeman - 1994 - Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):409-421.
    The purpose of this paper is to enter the conversation about stakeholder theory with the goal of clarifying certain foundational issues. I want to show, along with Boatright, that there is no stakeholder paradox, and that the principle on which such a paradox is built, the Separation Thesis, is nicely self-serving to business and ethics academics. If we give up such a thesis we find there is no stakeholder theory but that stakeholder theory (...)
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  33.  28
    Political Stakeholder Theory: The State, Legitimacy, and the Ethics of Microfinance in Emerging Economies.Tricia D. Olsen - 2017 - Business Ethics Quarterly 27 (1):71-98.
    ABSTRACT:How does the state influence stakeholder legitimacy? And how does this process affect an industry’s ethical challenges? Stakeholder theory adopts a forward-looking perspective and seeks to understand how managers can address stakeholders’ claims to improve the firm’s ability to create value. Yet, existing work does not adequately address the role of the state in defining the stakeholder universe nor the implications this may have for subsequent ethical challenges managers face. This article develops a political stakeholder (...)
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  34. Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function.Michael C. Jensen - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2):235-256.
    Abstract: In this article, I offer a proposal to clarify what I believe is the proper relation between value maximization and stakeholder theory, which I call enlightened value maximization. Enlightened value maximization utilizes much of the structure of stakeholder theory but accepts maximization of the long-run value of the firm as the criterion for making the requisite tradeoffs among its stakeholders, and specifies long-term value maximization or value seeking as the firm’s objective. This proposal therefore solves (...)
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  35.  32
    Altruism (Stakeholder Theory) Versus Business Ethics.Tibor R. Machan - 2007 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:453-456.
    Stakeholder theory is now nearly mainstream among business ethics and business and society scholars but it has serious problems. One is well communicated by a quote from W. H. Auden: "We are here on earth to do good for others. What the others are here for, I don't know." More to the point, stakeholder theory violates private property rights and freedom of association. It makes of people in business involuntary servants of "society," mainly of self-appointed moralists. (...)
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  36.  44
    The Connection Between Stakeholder Theory and Stakeholder Democracy: An Excavation and Defense.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2014 - Business and Society 53 (6):820-852.
    In early writings, stakeholder theorists supported giving all stakeholders formal, binding control over the corporation, in particular, over its board of directors. In recent writings, however, they claim that stakeholder theory does not require changing the current structure of corporate governance and further claim to be “agnostic” about the value of doing so. This article’s purpose is to highlight this shift and to argue that it is a mistake. It argues that, for instrumental reasons, stakeholder theorists (...)
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  37.  23
    Building stakeholder theory with a decision modeling methodology.Monika I. Winn - 2001 - Business and Society 40 (2):133-166.
  38.  36
    Dialogue: Toward Superior Stakeholder Theory.Bradley R. Agle & Ronald K. Mitchell - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
    A quick look at what is happening in the corporate world makes it clear that the stakeholder idea is alive, well, and flourishing; and the question now is not “if ” but “how” stakeholder theory will meet the challenges of its success. Does stakeholder theory’s “arrival” mean continued dynamism, refinement, and relevance, or stasis? How will superior stakeholder theory continue to develop? In light of these and related questions, the authors of these essays (...)
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  39. Putting a Stake in Stakeholder Theory.Eric W. Orts & Alan Strudler - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):605 - 615.
    The primary appeal of stakeholder theory in business ethics derives from its promise to help solve two large and often morally difficult problems: (1) how to manage people fairly and efficiently and (2) how to determine the extent of a firm's moral responsibilities beyond its obligations to enhance its profits and economic value. This article investigates a variety of conceptual quandaries that stakeholder theory faces in addressing these two general problems. It argues that these quandaries pose (...)
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  40. Stakeholder Theory and the Ethics of HRM.Michelle Greenwood & Helen De Cieri - 2007 - In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oxford University Press.
     
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  41. Assessing Freeman’s Stakeholder Theory.James A. Stieb - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):401 - 414.
    At least since the publication of the monumental Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach (1984), the “stakeholder theory” originated by R. E. Freeman has engrossed much of the business ethics literature. Subsequently, some advocates have moved a bit too quickly and without proper definition or argument. They have exceeded Freeman’s intentions which are more libertarian and free-market than is often thought. This essay focuses on the versions of stakeholder theory directly authored or coauthored by Freeman in (...)
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  42.  43
    Stakeholder Theory, Meet Communications Theory: Media Systems Dependency and Community Infrastructure Theory, with an Application to California’s Cannabis/Marijuana Industry.Karen Paul - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (3):705-720.
    The object of this article is to demonstrate how stakeholder theory can be enlarged and enhanced by two communications theories, media systems dependency and community infrastructure theory. The stakeholder perspective is often represented by a diagram in which a firm is centrally positioned, surrounded by stakeholders. However, relationships between stakeholders are given relatively little attention, the various groups theoretically encompassed by the term “community” remain relatively undefined, and other marginalized stakeholders often go unrecognized. MSD and CIT (...)
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  43. Stakeholder theory and media management: Ethical framework for news company executives.Reuben J. Stern - 2008 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (1):51 – 65.
    Contrary to stockholder theories that place the interests of profit-seeking owners above all else, stakeholder theorists argue that corporate executives have moral and ethical obligations to consider equally the interests of a wide range of stakeholders affected by the actions of a corporation. This paper argues that the stakeholder approach is particularly appropriate for the governance of news media companies and outlines an ethical framework to guide news company executives.
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  44.  30
    Decentered Stakeholder Theory: Toward a Research Agenda.Dominic Kaeslin, Ruth Schmitt & Jerry Calton - 2007 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 18:448-452.
    In this workshop, a decentered approach to stakeholder theory is proposed, where a shared network problem, rather than a firm, frames stakeholder interactions. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the potential usefulness of adopting a decentered perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. Multi-stakeholder learning dialogues and actor-network theory are introduced as examples of possible theoretical frameworks that allow the adoption of a decentered perspective.
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  45.  78
    Normative stakeholder theory and Aristotle: The link between ethics and politics. [REVIEW]Nachoem M. Wijnberg - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 25 (4):329 - 342.
    Stakeholder theory is an important part of modern business ethics. Many scholars argue for a normative instead of an instrumental approach to stakeholder theory. Recent examples of such an approach show that problems appear with respect to the ethical foundation as well as the specification of the norms and the relation between corporate and individual responsibilities. This paper argues for the relevance of Aristotle's ideas on ethics and politics, and especially the link between them, for (...) theory. An Aristotelian approach suggests that the corporation should be considered as existing to allow the decision maker, who normally is a manager, to live a complete and good life and to make decisions that involve the interests of different stakeholders. This approach leads to a number of implications regarding the role of organizational politics and the managerial function. (shrink)
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  46.  13
    Stakeholder Theory: Toward a Classical Institutional Economics Perspective.Vladislav Valentinov - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.
    Stakeholder theorists have traditionally objected to the neoclassical conception of the firm as a vehicle for maximizing profit or shareholder wealth, thus opening up space for controversial engagement with neoclassical economics. The present paper fills some of this space by elaborating the parallels between stakeholder theory and classical institutional economics, a heterodox school of economic thought that has long been critical of a broad range of neoclassical ideas. Rooted in the writings of Veblen and Commons, classical institutional (...)
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  47.  60
    Stakeholder Theory and the ‘Black Box Problem’: Internal Clarity or Confusion?Magnus Frostenson - 2009 - Philosophy of Management 8 (3):37-46.
    Portraying the firm as a ‘black box’, as traditional conceptions of the firm tend to do, has been strongly criticised by stakeholder theorists. This article claims, however, that the ‘black box problem’ has not been satisfactorily resolved by stakeholder theory itself. The failure to bring clarity to the internal realities of the firm has led to unacceptable conceptions of the firm from a moral agency point of view. For example, stakeholder theory tends to portray the (...)
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  48. A Fiduciary Argument Against Stakeholder Theory.Alexei M. Marcoux - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):1-24.
    Critics attack normative ethical stakeholder theory for failing to recognize the special moral status of shareholders that justifiesthe fiduciary duties owed to them at law by managers. Stakeholder theorists reply that there is nothing morally significant about shareholders that can underwrite those fiduciary duties. I advance an argument that seeks to demonstrate both the special moral status of shareholders in a firm and the concomitant moral inadequacy of stakeholder theory. I argue that (i) if some (...)
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  49.  51
    The Relevance of Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital Theory in the Context of CSR in SMEs: An Australian Perspective.Suman Sen & James Cowley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):413-427.
    The concept of business responsibility, usually termed as corporate social responsibility (CSR), originated in the early 1930s after the Wall Street crash of 1929 exposed corporate irresponsibility in large organisations. The understanding of CSR has evolved since then and its scope has now broadened from mere compliance to corporate laws to active alignment of internal business goals with externally set societal aspirations. Unfortunately, the significance of this multidimensional concept within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector has continued to be (...)
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  50.  51
    Is stakeholder theory really ethical?Okechukwu Enyinna - 2013 - African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):79.
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