77 found
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  1.  55
    Why Equality and Which Inequalities?: A Modern Confucian Approach to Democracy.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (2):488-514.
    Those who see Confucianism as a premodern imperial ideology or a traditional religion have no problem characterizing its social ideal as inherently hierarchical, as this is fairly typical of such systems of thought. From this perspective, rather than valuing equality Confucianism takes for granted inequalities among people, and justifies social hierarchies and unequal distribution of power, resources, prestige, and other goods as part of its ethics and its ideal of good government by sagely kings, the justification sometimes involving metaphysical claims (...)
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  2.  65
    Authoritative master Kong (confucius) in an authoritarian age.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2010 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (2):137-149.
    Employing the distinction between the authoritarian (based on coercion) and the authoritative (based on excellence), this study of the understanding of authority in the Analects argues against interpretations of Confucianism which cast Confucius himself as advocating authoritarianism. Passages with key notions such as shang 上 and xia 下; fu 服 and cong 從; quan 權 and wei 威, are analyzed to illuminate ideas of hierarchy, obedience, and the nature of authority itself in the text. The evidence pieced together reveals the (...)
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  3. Democracy in Confucianism.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (5):293-303.
    Confucianism’s long historical association with despotism has cast doubts on its compatibility with democracy, and raise questions about its relevance in contemporary societies increasingly dominated by democratic aspirations. “Confucian democracy” has been described as a “contradiction in terms” and Asian politicians have appropriated Confucianism to justify resistance to liberalization and democratization. There has been a lively debate over the question of whether democracy can be found in Confucianism, from ancient texts such as the Analects and Mencius, to Confucian institutions such (...)
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  4. Merit and Inequality: Confucian and Communitarian Perspectives on Singapore’s Meritocracy.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2024 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 41:29-64.
    This paper compares criticisms of Singapore’s meritocracy, especially against its impact on income disparities and class divisions, with Michael Sandel’s critique of the meritocratic ethic in the United States. Despite significant differences in their history and politics, meritocracy has similar dysfunctions in both societies, allowing us to draw theoretical conclusions about meritocracy as an ideal of governance. It then contrasts Sandel’s communitarian critique of meritocracy with recent Confucian promotion of political meritocracy and meritocratic justice and argues that the Confucian principle (...)
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  5.  18
    The Crisis of Liberal Democracy and the Confucian Challenge: A Pragmatist Response.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2022 - Journal of Social and Political Philosophy 1 (1):14-29.
    In the current crisis of liberal democracy, Confucianism has been cited as offering superior alternative models of government. With the resources from Dewey’s Pragmatism, this paper defends democracy, which should not be equated to de facto liberal democracies, as desirable for Confucian societies. It examines the affinities between Confucian and Dewey’s conception of the person and community and argues for an understanding of democratic values that brings together Dewey’s democratic values and Confucian ideals of personal cultivation and virtuous governance.
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  6.  74
    The dao of politics: Li (rituals/rites) and laws as pragmatic tools of government.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (3):468-491.
    American philosopher John Dewey spent more than two years in China (1919–1921). During and after his visit, he wrote some fairly perceptive and insightful commentaries on China. These were published in periodicals such as the New Republic, Asia, and the China Review, and sometimes in newspapers such as the Baltimore Sun. However, there is hardly any discussion of Chinese philosophy in Dewey’s published works or even his papers and correspondence. Among his rare mentions of Chinese philosophy was an article published (...)
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  7.  64
    The Concept of Yi (义) in the Mencius and Problems of Distributive Justice.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):489-505.
    This paper examines attempts to find a conception of justice in early Confucian contexts, focusing on the concept of yi (translated as ?appropriateness?, ?right?, ?rightness?, even ?justice?) in the Mencius. It argues against the approach of deriving principles of dividing burdens and benefits from the discussions of concrete cases employing the concept of yi and instead shows that Confucian ethical concerns are more attentive to what kinds of interpersonal relations are appropriate in specific circumstances. It questions the exclusive emphasis in (...)
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  8.  22
    Confucian family ideal and same-sex marriage: A feminist Confucian perspective.Sor-Hoon Tan - unknown
    This article engages the views of PRC Confucian scholars who responded to the United States Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy's citing of Confucius in his majority opinion on same-sex marriage in 2015. It questions their separation of tolerance for homosexuality from legalization of same-sex marriage and argue that tolerance is not enough. The arguments in the mainland Confucian discourse about same-sex marriage highlights the historical and persistent entanglement of Confucianism with patriarchy. Instead of reviving traditional patriarchal society, further entrenching and (...)
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  9. How can a Chinese Democracy be Pragmatic?Sor-Hoon Tan - 2011 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 47 (2):196-225.
    Whether the Pragmatic conception of democracy is applicable outside the United States of America is a question that had already been raised even during Dewey’s life time. His visit to China, in particular, has been seen as proof that “the Pragmatic method” for bringing about democracy is inherently flawed.3 However, even if it was a failed experiment, China’s past encounter with Dewey’s Pragmatism should not be seen as absolute proof that Chinese democracy can never be Pragmatic. When an experiment fails, (...)
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  10.  12
    11 The Intrinsic Values of Confucian Democracy and Dewey’s Pragmatist Method.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2021 - In Roger T. Ames, Chen Yajun & Peter D. Hershock (eds.), Confucianism and Deweyan pragmatism: resources for a new geopolitics of interdependence. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 190-199.
  11.  57
    China's Pragmatist Experiment in Democracy: Hu Shih's pragmatism and Dewey's Influence in China.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2004 - Metaphilosophy 35 (1‐2):44-64.
    In the 1920s, John Dewey's followers in China, led by his student Hu Shih, attempted to put his pragmatism into practice in their quest for democracy. This essay compares Hu Shih's thought, especially his emphasis on pragmatism as method, with Dewey's philosophical positions and evaluates Hu's achievement as a pragmatist in the context of the tumultuous times he lived in. It assesses Hu's claim that the means to democracy lies in education rather than politics, since democracy as a way of (...)
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  12.  39
    Beyond Elitism: A Community Ideal for a Modern East Asia.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (4):537-553.
    It is often remarked that East Asian polities have been hierarchical and the “elite” category continues to figure prominently in works on Chinese society and politics. Many scholars believe that hierarchy and elitism are deeply rooted in Confucianism, which served as the state orthodoxy in imperial China and provided the “psycho-cultural construct” of the way of life in other East Asian cultural communities as well. It is therefore not surprising that some should believe that if modern Confucian societies are to (...)
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  13.  37
    Xunzi and Naturalistic Ethics.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):247-265.
    The ascendency of science in modern times makes it commonplace to accept that science presents the only true and correct image of reality. This has led to naturalization attempts in various domains, from epistemology, metaphysics, to philosophy of mind, and ethics. Naturalistic ethics may mean different things depending on what we consider natural. David Copp equates it with the empirical – emphasizing the relevance of empirical evidence to justification – while admitting that what is empirical is itself problematic.David Copp, Morality (...)
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  14.  11
    Confucian Democracy: A Deweyan Reconstruction.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2012 - SUNY Press.
    Using both Confucian texts and the work of American pragmatist John Dewey, this book offers a distinctly Confucian model of democracy.
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  15.  21
    The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies.Sor-Hoon Tan (ed.) - 2016 - New York: Institutional Knowledge at Singapore Management University.
    The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy Methodologies presents a new understanding of the changing methods used to study Chinese philosophy. By identifying the various different approaches and discussing the role, and significance of philosophical methods in the Chinese tradition, this collection identifies difficulties and exciting developments for scholars of Asian philosophy.
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  16.  48
    Imagining confucius: Paradigmatic characters and virtue ethics.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):409-426.
  17. Can there be a confucian civil society?Sor-Hoon Tan - 2003 - In Kim Chong Chong, Sor-Hoon Tan & C. L. Ten (eds.), The Moral Circle and the Self: Chinese and Western Approaches. Open Court.
  18.  46
    From cannibalism to empowerment: An analects-inspired attempt to balance community and liberty.Sor-hoon Tan - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (1):52-70.
    Developed here is a Confucian balance between two key democratic ideals, liberty and community, by focusing on the Confucian notion of li (ritual), which has often been considered hostile to liberty. By adopting a semiotic approach to li and relating it to recent studies of ritual in various Western disciplines, li's contribution to communication and its aesthetic dimension are explored to show how emphasizing harmony without sacrificing reflective experience and personal fulfillment renders li a concept of moral empowerment of free (...)
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  19.  42
    The pragmatic confucian approach to tradition in modernizing china.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2012 - History and Theory 51 (4):23-44.
    This paper explores the Confucian veneration of the past and its commitment to transmitting the tradition of the sages. It does so by placing it in the context of the historical trajectory from the May Fourth attacks on Confucianism and its scientistic, iconoclastic approach to “saving China,” to similar approaches to China’s modernization in later decades, through the market reforms that launched China into global capitalism, to the revival of Confucianism in recent years. It reexamines the association of the Pragmatism (...)
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  20.  38
    The Concept of Yi (义) in the Mencius and Problems of Distributive Justice.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):489-505.
    This paper examines attempts to find a conception of justice in early Confucian contexts, focusing on the concept of yi in the Mencius. It argues against the approach of deriving principles of dividing burdens and benefits from the discussions of concrete cases employing the concept of yi and instead shows that Confucian ethical concerns are more attentive to what kinds of interpersonal relations are appropriate in specific circumstances. It questions the exclusive emphasis in justice-centred ethical discourse on assessing actions, and (...)
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  21.  67
    Confucian democracy as pragmatic experiment: Uniting love of learning and love of antiquity.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (2):141 – 166.
    This paper argues for the pragmatic construction of Confucian democracy by showing that Chinese philosophers who wish to see Confucianism flourish again as a positive dimension of Chinese civilization need to approach it pragmatically and democratically, otherwise their love of the past is at the expense of something else Confucius held in equal esteem, love of learning. Chinese philosophers who desire democracy for China would do well to learn from the earlier failures of the iconoclastic Westernizers, and realize that a (...)
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  22.  70
    The moral circle and the self: Chinese and Western approaches.Kim Chong Chong, Sor-Hoon Tan & C. L. Ten (eds.) - 2003 - Chicago, Ill.: Open Court.
    This question is the theme uniting all these essays by lead Chinese and Western philosophers.
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  23. Beyond Liberal Democracy: A Debate on Democracy and Confucian Meritocracy.Fred Dallmayr, Chenyang Li, Sor-Hoon Tan & Daniel A. Bell - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (4):523-523.
  24.  24
    Mentor or Friend?Sor-Hoon Tan - 2001 - International Studies in Philosophy 33 (4):99-121.
    In Thinking from the Han, David Hall and Roger Ames compare Plato's - and Confucius's views of friendship in relation to the question of transcendence and arrive at the sad conclusion that Socrates and Confucius could not be friends. "Socratic irony would not allow the inequality Confucius requires as a means of self-betterment. Confucius would not permit he and Socrates to hold all things in common." Along the way, they articulate an understanding of Confucius’ view of friendship as "a one-directional (...)
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  25.  45
    Responses to James Tully’s “Deparochializing Political Theory and Beyond”.Garrick Cooper, Charles W. Mills, Sudipta Kaviraj & Sor-Hoon Tan - 2017 - Journal of World Philosophies 2 (1):156-173.
    In their responses to James Tully’s article “Deparochializing Political Theory and Beyond,” Garrick Cooper, Charles W. Mills, Sudipta Kaviraj and Sor-hoon Tan engage with different aspects of Tully’s “genuine dialogue.” While they seem to concur with Tully on the urgency of deparochializing political theory, their responses bring to light salient issues which would have to be thought through in taking this project forward.
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  26.  32
    Feminist Encounters with Confucius.Mathew Foust & Sor-Hoon Tan (eds.) - 2016 - Boston, USA: Brill.
    This collection contributes to current debates and explores new topics of engagement between Feminism and Confucius’s teachings, variously interpreted. Besides care ethics and role ethics, questions of gender oppression and education, it includes essays on epistemology and environmental ethics.
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  27.  17
    The Confucian Philosophy of Harmony by Chenyang Li.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (2):620-622.
  28.  43
    Political implications of confucian familism.Antonio Rappa & Sor-Hoon Tan - 2003 - Asian Philosophy 13 (2 & 3):87 – 102.
    The family could be mobilized as a political resource for economic 'development'. What kind of family would be compatible with a knowledge-based economy? We argue that authoritarian Confucian familism is incompatible with the knowledge-based economy; but it is possible to construct a different model of the ideal Confucian family which will be compatible with such an economy: a family ideal that emphasizes internal strengths of relationships rather than building barriers to keep out 'undesirable influences', that advocates a respect for authority (...)
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  29.  6
    8. Between Family and State: Relational Tensions in Confucian Ethics.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2002 - In Alan K. L. Chan (ed.), Mencius: Contexts and Interpretations. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 169-188.
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  30.  27
    Mentor or Friend?Sor-Hoon Tan - 2001 - International Studies in Philosophy 33 (4):99-121.
  31.  25
    Humanities education in the age of AI: Reflections from Deweyan and Confucian perspectives.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2022 - In Huajun Zhang & James W. Garrison (eds.), John Dewey and Chinese Education: A Centennial Reflection. Boston: BRILL.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is transforming our world: today machines not only can mimic human actions but out-perform human agents in many activities, including learning and thinking. AI offers revolutionary solutions and new possibilities in transportation, business, communication, medicine, law, and other domains. While some welcome this brave new world, others fear the threats AI pose to people’s livelihoods, social relations, individuality, freedom, and perhaps even the very survival of the human species. No doubt some of this existential angst is exaggerated, (...)
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  32.  21
    Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (1):105-108.
  33.  6
    John Dewey and Confucian Thought: Experiments in Intra-Cultural Philosophy, written by Jim Behuniak.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2023 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 50 (3):333-335.
  34.  30
    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Democracy in Confucianism.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):665-668.
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  35.  12
    Tianxia in comparative perspectives: alternative models for a possible planetary order.Roger T. Ames, Sor-Hoon Tan & Steven Y. H. Yang (eds.) - 2023 - Honolulu: East-West Center.
    Tianxia--conventionally translated as "all-under-Heaven"--in everyday Chinese parlance simply means "the world." But tianxia is also a geopolitical term found in canonical writings that has a deeper historical and philosophical significance. Although there are many understandings of tianxia in this literature, interpretations within the Chinese process cosmology generally begin with an ecological understanding of intra-national relations that acknowledge the mutuality and interdependence of all economic and political activity. This volume contextualizes the tianxia vision of geopolitical order within a variety of strategies (...)
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  36.  15
    Ancient Chinese political thought.Sor-Hoon Tan - unknown
    “Ancient Chinese political thought” refers to the reflections and discussions about politics during the period before the First Emperor established the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE. Although one could also infer some political thought of that period from the other archeological evidence, the main sources of such reflections and discussions are texts believed to date back to that period, some of which became the foundation of Chinese education that began in the Han dynasty and lasted till the beginning of the (...)
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  37.  16
    Against Political Equality: The Confucian Case written by Bai Tongdong [Book Review].Sor-Hoon Tan - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Humanities 6.
  38.  42
    Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context – By Daniel A. Bell.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (1):157-161.
  39. Confucianism as Transformative Practice: Ethical Impact and Political Pitfalls.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2021 - In Ian M. Sullivan & Joshua Mason (eds.), One corner of the square: essays on the philosophy of Roger T. Ames. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press.
  40.  38
    Cultural Crossings Against Ethnocentric Currents: Toward a Confucian Ethics of Communicative Virtues.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2005 - International Philosophical Quarterly 45 (4):433-445.
    Despite contemporary Confucianism’s aspirations to be a world philosophy, there is an ethnocentric strand within the Confucian tradition, most glaringly exemplified in Han Yu’s attacks on Buddhism. This paper re-assesses Confucian ethnocentrism in the context of contrary practices that indicate a more pragmatic attitude among Confucians toward cross-cultural interactions. It argues that while the ethnocentric tendency serves as constant reminder of the need for vigilance, and recognition of the difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries, there are nevertheless resources within Confucianism for (...)
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  41. Contemporary neo-Confucian philosophy.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2009 - In Bo Mou (ed.), History of Chinese philosophy. New York: Routledge.
     
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  42.  7
    Democracy as Culture: Deweyan Pragmatism in a Globalizing World.Sor-Hoon Tan & John Whalen-Bridge (eds.) - 2008 - State University of New York Press.
    Explores the significance of Dewey’s thought on democracy for the contemporary world.
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  43.  5
    Democracy as Culture: Deweyan Pragmatism in a Globalizing World.Sor-Hoon Tan & John Whalen-Bridge (eds.) - 2009 - State University of New York Press.
    _Explores the significance of Dewey’s thought on democracy for the contemporary world._.
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  44.  13
    Democracy and the Intersection of Religion and Traditions.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2013 - Education and Culture 29 (2):187-190.
  45.  12
    Does Xunzi’s ethics of ritual need a metaphysics?Sor-Hoon Tan - 2016 - Journal of Religious Philosophy 75.
    Contemporary philosophers working on Chinese Philosophy, Confucianism in particular, disagree about the status of metaphysics in early Confucianism. Some maintain that metaphysics are absent by pointing to the overwhelming emphasis on practical concerns – ethical and political – in the early Confucian texts. Others insist that even if there were no explicit metaphysical discussion or theorizing, metaphysical assumptions are inevitable. However do these assumptions point to one definite metaphysical system, or are they so vague and ambiguous that different mutually incompatible (...)
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  46.  65
    Experience as art.Sor-Hoon Tan - 1999 - Asian Philosophy 9 (2):107 – 122.
    Chinese philosophy views experience as intrinsically aesthetic. This world view could be elucidated through a consideration of John Dewey's aesthetics and features of Chinese art. Dewey's philosophy of art starts with an understanding of experience as 'live processes' of living creatures interacting with their environment. Such processes are autopoietic in being self-sustaining, ever-changing, capable of increasing complexity, capable of generating novelty, direction and progress on its own. Its autopoietic character is a precondition of the aesthetic in the process of experience. (...)
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  47.  24
    Early Confucian Concept of Yi (议)and Deliberative Democracy.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2014 - Political Theory 42 (1):82-105.
    Contributors to the debates about the compatibility of Confucianism and democracy and its implications for China’s democratization often adopt definitions of democracy that theories of deliberative democracy are critical of. Attention to deliberative democracy is timely given its importance in democratic discourses and recent experiments in “deliberative” or “consultative” democracy in China. Would Confucian understanding of political deliberation help or hinder deliberative democracy? This essay compares the concept of yi in the early Confucian texts with a contemporary concept of democratic (...)
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  48.  40
    Experimental democracy for China: Dewey’s method.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2019 - In Steven Fesmire (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Dewey [Intro available free from OUP]. Oxford, UK and New York: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter explores the relevance of Dewey’s philosophy of democracy for China within the context of Dewey’s historical visit to China and continuing debates about his influence among the Chinese. Dewey’s pragmatism illuminates certain problems in the contemporary discourses about China’s democratization, including questions whether Chinese culture is an obstacle to democratization and the strengths of a Deweyan approach to articulating a Confucian democracy that could work in China. Dewey’s emphasis on experimentation in social reforms and his fallibilism regarding the (...)
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  49.  23
    From cannibalism to empowerment: An.Sor-hoon Tan - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (1).
    : Developed here is a Confucian balance between two key democratic ideals, liberty and community, by focusing on the Confucian notion of li (ritual), which has often been considered hostile to liberty. By adopting a semiotic approach to li and relating it to recent studies of ritual in various Western disciplines, li's contribution to communication and its aesthetic dimension are explored to show how emphasizing harmony without sacrificing reflective experience and personal fulfillment renders li a concept of moral empowerment of (...)
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  50. From women's learning (fuxue) to gender education : feminist challenges to modern Confucianism.Sor-Hoon Tan - 2021 - In Peter D. Hershock & Roger T. Ames (eds.), Human beings or human becomings?: a conversation with Confucianism on the concept of person. Albany: State University of New York Press.
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