Results for 'Skowron Bart��omiej'

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  1. Subiectum Ad Fontes. René Descartes I Odkrycie Podmiotu.BARTŁOMIEJ SIPIŃSKI - 2013 - Ruch Filozoficzny 70 (2).
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  2. Unbelievable Errors: An Error Theory About All Normative Judgments.Bart Streumer - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Unbelievable Errors defends an error theory about all normative judgements: not just moral judgements, but also judgements about reasons for action, judgements about reasons for belief, and instrumental normative judgements. This theory states that normative judgements are beliefs that ascribe normative properties, but that normative properties do not exist. It therefore entails that all normative judgements are false. -/- Bart Streumer also argues, however, that we cannot believe this error theory. This may seem to be a problem for the theory. (...)
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  3.  56
    Eye of the Universe: Henry Sidgwick and the Problem Public: Bart Schultz.Bart Schultz - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (2):155-188.
    Henry Sidgwick has gone down in the history of philosophy as both the great, classical utilitarian moral theorist who authored The Methods of Ethics, and an outstanding exemplar of intellectual honesty and integrity, one whose personal virtues were inseparable from his philosophical strengths and method. Yet this construction of Sidgwick the philosopher has been based on a too limited understanding of Sidgwick's casuistry and leading practical ethical concerns. As his friendship with John Addington Symonds reveals, Sidgwick was deeply entangled in (...)
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  4.  44
    Quantity Implicatures.Bart Geurts - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Gricean pragmatics. Saying vs. implicating ; Discourse and cooperation ; Conversational implicatures ; Generalised vs. particularised ; Cancellability ; Gricean reasoning and the pragmatics of what is said -- The standard recipe for Q-implicatures. The standard recipe ; Inference to the best explanation ; Weak implicatures and competence ; Relevance ; Conclusion -- Scalar implicatures. Horn scales and the generative view ; Implicatures and downward entailing environments ; Disjunction : exclusivity and ignorance ; Conclusion -- Psychological plausibility. Charges of psychological (...)
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  5.  13
    Presuppositions and Pronouns.Bart Geurts - 1999 - Elsevier.
    In this volume, Geurts takes discourse representation theory (DRT), and turns it into a unified account of anaphora and presupposition, which he applies not only to the standard problem cases but also to the interpretation of modal expressions, attitude reports, and proper names. The resulting theory, for all its simplicity, is without doubt the most comprehensive of its kind to date. The central idea underlying Geurts' 'binding theory' of presupposition is that anaphora is just a special case of presupposition projection. (...)
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  6. Can We Believe the Error Theory?Bart Streumer - 2013 - Journal of Philosophy 110 (4):194-212.
    According to the error theory, normative judgements are beliefs that ascribe normative properties, even though such properties do not exist. In this paper, I argue that we cannot believe the error theory, and that this means that there is no reason for us to believe this theory. It may be thought that this is a problem for the error theory, but I argue that it is not. Instead, I argue, our inability to believe the error theory undermines many objections that (...)
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  7.  18
    Analyzing the Simonshaven Case With and Without Probabilities.Bart Verheij - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1175-1199.
  8.  28
    Ethical Criteria for Health-Promoting Nudges: A Case-by-Case Analysis.Bart Engelen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):48-59.
    Health-promoting nudges have been put into practice by different agents, in different contexts and with different aims. This article formulates a set of criteria that enables a thorough ethical evaluation of such nudges. As such, it bridges the gap between the abstract, theoretical debates among academics and the actual behavioral interventions being implemented in practice. The criteria are derived from arguments against nudges, which allegedly disrespect nudgees, as these would impose values on nudgees and/or violate their rationality and autonomy. Instead (...)
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  9.  3
    Genomics and the Intrinsic Value of Plants.Bart Gremmen - 2005 - Genomics, Society and Policy 1 (3):1-7.
    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question whether the intrinsic value of plants could also be used as an argument against plant genomics. We will discuss three reasons why plant genomics could violate the intrinsic value of plants: 1. genomics (...)
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  10. At the Center.Bart Collopy - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (2).
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  11. Reasons and Impossibility.Bart Streumer - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (3):351-384.
    Many philosophers claim that it cannot be the case that a person ought to perform an action if this person cannot perform this action. However, most of these philosophers do not give arguments for the truth of this claim. In this paper, I argue that it is plausible to interpret this claim in such a way that it is entailed by the claim that there cannot be a reason for a person to perform an action if it is impossible that (...)
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  12. Good News About the Description Theory of Names.Bart Geurts - 1997 - Journal of Semantics 14 (4):319-348.
    This is an attempt at reviving Kneale's version of the description theory of names, which says that a proper name is synonymous with a definite description of the form ‘the individual named so-and-so’. To begin with, I adduce a wide range of observations to show that names and overt definites are alike in all relevant respects. I then turn to Kripke's main objection against Kneale's proposal, and endeavour to refute it. In the remainder of the paper I elaborate on Kneale's (...)
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  13.  2
    The Property Species: Mine, Yours, and the Human Mind.Bart J. Wilson - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    What is property, and why does our species happen to have it? In The Property Species, the economist Bart Wilson explores how we acquire, perceive, and know the custom of property, and why this might be relevant to social scientists, philosophers, and legal scholars for understanding how property works in the twenty-first century.
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  14.  49
    Exemplars and Nudges: Combining Two Strategies for Moral Education.Engelen Bart, Thomas Alan, Alfred Archer & van de Ven Niels - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):346-365.
    This article defends the use of narratives about morally exemplary individuals in moral education and appraises the role that ‘nudge’ strategies can play in combination with such an appeal to exemplars. It presents a general conception of the aims of moral education and explains how the proposed combination of both moral strategies serves these aims. An important aim of moral education is to make the ethical perspective of the subject—the person being educated—more structured, more salient and therefore more ‘navigable’. This (...)
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  15.  14
    About the Distinction Between Working Memory and Short-Term Memory.Bart Aben, Sven Stapert & Arjan Blokland - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  16.  62
    Entertaining Alternatives: Disjunctions as Modals.Bart Geurts - 2005 - Natural Language Semantics 13 (4):383-410.
  17.  15
    Special Supplement: The Ethics of Home Care: Autonomy and Accommodation.Bart Collopy, Nancy Dubler, Connie Zuckerman, Bette-Jane Crigger & Courtney S. Campbell - 1990 - Hastings Center Report 20 (2):1.
  18.  23
    A Pragma-Dialectical Response to Objectivist Epistemic Challenges.Bart Garssen & Jan Albert van Laar - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (2):122-141.
    The epistemologists Biro and Siegel have raised two objections against the pragma-dialectical approach to argumentation. According to the first objection the pragma-dialectical theory is not genuinely normative. According to the second objection the rejection of justificationism by pragma-dialecticians is unwarranted: they reject justificationism prematurely and they are not consistent in accepting some arguments (‘justifications’) as sound. The first objection is based on what we regard as the misconception that the goal of resolving differences of opinion cannot provide a normative approach. (...)
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  19. Model-Preference Default Theories.Bart Selman & Henry A. Kautz - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 45 (3):287-322.
  20.  75
    Why Formal Objections to the Error Theory Fail.Bart Streumer & Daniel Wodak - 2021 - Analysis 81 (2):254-262.
    Many philosophers argue that the error theory should be rejected because it is incompatible with standard deontic logic and semantics. We argue that such formal objections to the theory fail. Our discussion has two upshots. First, it increases the dialectical weight that must be borne by objections to the error theory that target its content rather than its form. Second, it shows that standard deontic logic and semantics should be revised.
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  21. Scalar Implicature and Local Pragmatics.Bart Geurts - 2009 - Mind and Language 24 (1):51-79.
    Abstract: The Gricean theory of conversational implicature has always been plagued by data suggesting that what would seem to be conversational inferences may occur within the scope of operators like believe , for example; which for bona fide implicatures should be an impossibility. Concentrating my attention on scalar implicatures, I argue that, for the most part, such observations can be accounted for within a Gricean framework, and without resorting to local pragmatic inferences of any kin d. However, there remains a (...)
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  22. Are There Irreducibly Normative Properties?Bart Streumer - 2008 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (4):537-561.
    Frank Jackson has argued that, given plausible claims about supervenience, descriptive predicates and property identity, there are no irreducibly normative properties. Philosophers who think that there are such properties have made several objections to this argument. In this paper, I argue that all of these objections fail. I conclude that Jackson's argument shows that there are no irreducibly normative properties.
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  23.  27
    Special Supplement: New Directions in Nursing Home Ethics.Bart Collopy, Philip Boyle & Bruce Jennings - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (2):1.
  24.  40
    Making Sense of Self Talk.Bart Geurts - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (2):271-285.
    People talk not only to others but also to themselves. The self talk we engage in may be overt or covert, and is associated with a variety of higher mental functions, including reasoning, problem solving, planning and plan execution, attention, and motivation. When talking to herself, a speaker takes devices from her mother tongue, originally designed for interpersonal communication, and employs them to communicate with herself. But what could it even mean to communicate with oneself? To answer that question, we (...)
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  25.  54
    I Ought to Reply, So I Can.Bart Streumer - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (5):1547-1554.
    I have elsewhere given three arguments for the claim that there can be a reason for a person to perform an action only if this person can perform this action. Henne, Semler, Chituc, De Brigard, and Sinnott-Armstrong make several objections to my arguments. I here respond to their objections.
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  26.  43
    Pragmatics and Processing.Bart Geurts & Paula Rubio-Fernández - 2015 - Ratio 28 (4):446-469.
    Gricean pragmatics has often been criticised for being implausible from a psychological point of view. This line of criticism is never backed up by empirical evidence, but more importantly, it ignores the fact that Grice never meant to advance a processing theory, in the first place. Taking our lead from Marr, we distinguish between two levels of explanation: at the W-level, we are concerned with what agents do and why; at the H-level, we ask how agents do whatever it is (...)
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  27.  89
    Convention and Common Ground.Bart Geurts - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (2):115-129.
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  28.  10
    „Menschenwürde“ Und/Oder Menschenwürde? Rezension Zu: Stefan Lorenz Sorgner. Menschenwürde Nach Nietzsche.Michael Skowron - 2015 - Nietzscheforschung 22 (1).
  29.  9
    Nietzsches Dionysische Gegenlehre Und Gegenwertung.Michael Skowron - 2015 - Nietzscheforschung 22 (1).
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  30.  77
    Children’s First and Second-Order False-Belief Reasoning in a Verbal and a Low-Verbal Task.Bart Hollebrandse, Angeliek van Hout & Petra Hendriks - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    We can understand and act upon the beliefs of other people, even when these conflict with our own beliefs. Children’s development of this ability, known as Theory of Mind, typically happens around age 4. Research using a looking-time paradigm, however, established that toddlers at the age of 15 months old pass a non-verbal false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon in Science 308:255–258, 2005). This is well before the age at which children pass any of the verbal false-belief tasks. In this study (...)
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  31. Why There Really Are No Irreducibly Normative Properties.Bart Streumer - 2013 - In David Bakhurst, Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.), Thinking about Reasons: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Dancy. Oxford University Press. pp. 310-336.
    Jonathan Dancy thinks that there are irreducibly normative properties. Frank Jackson has given a well-known argument against this view, and I have elsewhere defended this argument against many objections, including one made by Dancy. But Dancy remains unconvinced. In this chapter, I hope to convince him.
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  32. Does 'Ought' Conversationally Implicate 'Can'?Bart Streumer - 2003 - European Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):219–228.
    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argues that 'ought' does not entail 'can', but instead conversationally implicates it. I argue that Sinnott-Armstrong is actually committed to a hybrid view about the relation between 'ought' and 'can'. I then give a tensed formulation of the view that 'ought' entails 'can' that deals with Sinnott-Armstrong's argument and that is more unified than Sinnott-Armstrong's view.
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  33.  43
    Modeling Co‐Evolution of Speech and Biology.Bart Boer - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):459-468.
    Two computer simulations are investigated that model interaction of cultural evolution of language and biological evolution of adaptations to language. Both are agent-based models in which a population of agents imitates each other using realistic vowels. The agents evolve under selective pressure for good imitation. In one model, the evolution of the vocal tract is modeled; in the other, a cognitive mechanism for perceiving speech accurately is modeled. In both cases, biological adaptations to using and learning speech evolve, even though (...)
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  34.  7
    From Argument Schemes to Argumentative Relations in the Wild: A Variety of Contributions to Argumentation Theory.Bart Garssen & Frans van Eemeren (eds.) - 2019 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag.
    This volume comprises a selection of contributions to the theorizing about argumentation that have been presented at the 9th conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation, held in Amsterdam in July 2018. The chapters included provide a general theoretical perspective on central topics in argumentation theory, such as argument schemes and the fallacies. Some contributions concentrate on the treatment of the concept of conductive argument. Other contributions are dedicated to specific issues such as the justification of questions, (...)
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  35. Why Jonas Olson Cannot Believe the Error Theory Either.Bart Streumer - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (4):419-436.
    Jonas Olson writes that "a plausible moral error theory must be an error theory about all irreducible normativity". I agree. But unlike Olson, I think we cannot believe this error theory. I first argue that Olson should say that reasons for belief are irreducibly normative. I then argue that if reasons for belief are irreducibly normative, we cannot believe an error theory about all irreducible normativity. I then explain why I think Olson's objections to this argument fail. I end by (...)
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  36.  1
    Hegel and Resistance: History, Politics and Dialectics.Bart Zantvoort & Rebecca Comay (eds.) - 2018 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    The concept of resistance has always been central to the reception of Hegel's philosophy. The prevalent image of Hegel's system, which continues to influence the scholarship to this day, is that of an absolutist, monist metaphysics which overcomes all resistance, sublating or assimilating all differences into a single organic 'Whole'. For that reason, the reception of Hegel has always been marked by the question of how to resist Hegel: how to think that which remains outside of or other to the (...)
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  37. Reasoning with Quantifiers.Bart Geurts - 2003 - Cognition 86 (3):223--251.
    In the semantics of natural language, quantification may have received more attention than any other subject, and one of the main topics in psychological studies on deductive reasoning is syllogistic inference, which is just a restricted form of reasoning with quantifiers. But thus far the semantical and psychological enterprises have remained disconnected. This paper aims to show how our understanding of syllogistic reasoning may benefit from semantical research on quantification. I present a very simple logic that pivots on the monotonicity (...)
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  38. Are Normative Properties Descriptive Properties?Bart Streumer - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 154 (3):325 - 348.
    Some philosophers think that normative properties are identical to descriptive properties. In this paper, I argue that this entails that it is possible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I argue that Frank Jackson's argument to show that this is possible fails, and that the objections to this argument show that it is impossible to say which descriptive properties normative properties are identical to. I conclude that normative properties are not identical to descriptive properties. I then (...)
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  39.  79
    Children's First and Second-Order False-Belief Reasoning in a Verbal and a Low-Verbal Task.Bart Hollebrandse, Angeliek Hout & Petra Hendriks - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    We can understand and act upon the beliefs of other people, even when these conflict with our own beliefs. Children’s development of this ability, known as Theory of Mind, typically happens around age 4. Research using a looking-time paradigm, however, established that toddlers at the age of 15 months old pass a non-verbal false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon in Science 308:255–258, 2005). This is well before the age at which children pass any of the verbal false-belief tasks. In this study (...)
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  40.  9
    Book Review: Supersizing Science. On Building Large-Scale Research Projects in Biology, by Niki Vermeulen, Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht [Maastricht University Press]. [REVIEW]Bart Penders - 2009 - Genomics, Society and Policy 5 (1):1-5.
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  41.  3
    Objects, Relations, Potential and Change.Bart Nooteboom - 2020 - Open Philosophy 3 (1):53-67.
    This article attempts to develop further the conception of dynamics in Object-Oriented Ontology : its model of how objects develop and change. Objects are affected by relations between them, and have the potential both to produce and undergo effects, as realised in interaction with other objects. To elaborate on the change of objects in OOO, an idea is adopted from transcendental ontology. A key Hegelian question in this article is how the realisation of existing potential can produce new potential. Stated (...)
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  42. Local Satisfaction Guaranteed: A Presupposition Theory and its Problems. [REVIEW]Bart Geurts - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (3):259 - 294.
  43. Linguistic Criteria for Judging Composition and Division Fallacies.Bart Garssen, Frans Eemeren & Frans H. van Eemeren - 2015 - In Bart Garssen, Frans Eemeren & Frans H. van Eemeren (eds.), Reasonableness and Effectiveness in Argumentative Discourse. Springer Verlag.
     
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  44.  13
    Scalar Implicature and Local Pragmatics.Bart Geurts - 2009 - Mind and Language 24 (1):51-79.
    : The Gricean theory of conversational implicature has always been plagued by data suggesting that what would seem to be conversational inferences may occur within the scope of operators like believe, for example; which for bona fide implicatures should be an impossibility. Concentrating my attention on scalar implicatures, I argue that, for the most part, such observations can be accounted for within a Gricean framework, and without resorting to local pragmatic inferences of any kind. However, there remains a small class (...)
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  45.  88
    Presuppositions and Anaphors in Attitude Contexts.Bart Geurts - 1998 - Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (6):545-601.
    This paper consists of two main parts and a coda. In the first part I present the ''binding theory'' of presupposition projection, which is the framework that I adopt in this paper (Section 1.1). I outline the main problems that arise in the interplay between presuppositions and anaphors on the one hand and attitude reports on the other (Section 1.2), and discuss Heim''s theory of presuppositions in attitude contexts (Section 1.3).In the second part of the paper I present my own (...)
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  46.  18
    The Moral Underpinning of the Proxy-Provider Relationship: Issues of Trust and Distrust.Bart J. Collopy - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (1):37-45.
    Despite clear legislative and judicial support, a well established ethical consensus, and increased efforts at information dissemination and education, proxy decision making for incapacitated patients continues to produce moral muddle and poor resolutions in end-of-life care.In her analysis of the proxy-doctor relationship, Nancy Dubler spells out the institutionalized patterns that keep the promise of proxy directives so often unrealized. Facing medically complex care of an incapacitated patient, health care teams are apt to view the proxy as a potentially indecisive or (...)
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  47.  2
    Click Here to Consent Forever: Expiry Dates for Informed Consent.Bart Custers - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (1).
    The legal basis for processing personal data and some other types of Big Data is often the informed consent of the data subject involved. Many data controllers, such as social network sites, offer terms and conditions, privacy policies or similar documents to which a user can consent when registering as a user. There are many issues with such informed consent: people get too many consent requests to read everything, policy documents are often very long and difficult to understand and users (...)
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  48. The Happiness Philosophers: The Lives and Works of the Great Utilitarians.Bart Schultz - 2017 - Princeton University Press.
    A colorful history of utilitarianism told through the lives and ideas of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and its other founders In The Happiness Philosophers, Bart Schultz tells the colorful story of the lives and legacies of the founders of utilitarianism—one of the most influential yet misunderstood and maligned philosophies of the past two centuries. Best known for arguing that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong," utilitarianism was developed by (...)
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  49.  17
    The Moral Underpinning of the Proxy-Provider Relationship: Issues of Trust and Distrust.Bart J. Collopy - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (1):37-45.
    Despite clear legislative and judicial support, a well established ethical consensus, and increased efforts at information dissemination and education, proxy decision making for incapacitated patients continues to produce moral muddle and poor resolutions in end-of-life care.In her analysis of the proxy-doctor relationship, Nancy Dubler spells out the institutionalized patterns that keep the promise of proxy directives so often unrealized. Facing medically complex care of an incapacitated patient, health care teams are apt to view the proxy as a potentially indecisive or (...)
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  50. On an Ambiguity in Quantified Conditionals.Bart Geurts - manuscript
    Conditional sentences with quantifying expressions are systematically ambigous. In one reading, the if -clause restricts the domain of the overt quantifier; in the other, the if -clause restricts the domain of a covert quantifier, which defaults to epistemic necessity. Although the ambiguity follows directly from the Lewis- Kratzer line on if, it is not generally acknowledged, which has led to pseudoproblems and spurious arguments.
     
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