This paper wishes to problematize the foundations of production governance and offer an analytical perspective on the interrelation between agents’ preferences, strategic choice, and the public sphere . The value is in the idea of preferences being social in nature and in the application both to the internal stakeholders of the organisation and its impacts on people outside. Using the concept of ‘strategic failure’ we suggest that social preferences reflected in deliberative social praxis can reduce false beliefs and increase individual (...) wellbeing. From this approach, the paper offers a taxonomy of production organisations, based on social preferences about two variables: the governance form other strategic decisions that characterize the management of a company at a more operational level, once its fundamental legal form has been chosen. Each dimension is then categorised alongside two basic preferences: towards inclusion or exclusion of ‘publics’ that have no substantial access to decision power about these variables. Our framework explains governance heterogeneity by contrasting exclusive and inclusive social preferences in cooperatives, social enterprises, as well as traditional corporations. A discussion of the evolution of social preferences and organizational forms is addressed through examples and regional experiences. (shrink)
This essay argues that despite of the feminist critique of Merleau-Ponty his phenomenology can be positively appropriated to the theory of sexual difference. It focuses on three issues: the first one is closely linked to the Phenomenology of Perception and introduces a concept of "difference as differentiation". The second one is concerned with the intersubjective dimension of sexuality and will be called a "sexual syncretism". Finally, I’m referring to Merleau-Ponty's notion of "chiasm" in his late work The Visible and the (...) Invisible in order to apply it to the theory of sexual difference. At this point, the difference between sexual beings will be conceptualized as "chiasmatic intertwining". In doing so, I hope to show that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology is a helpful resource for philosophical research that is mainly concerned with the questions of sexuality and sexual difference. (shrink)
This paper deals with the modal logics associated with (possibly nonstandard) provability predicates of Peano Arithmetic. One of our goals is to present some modal systems having the fixed point property and not extending the Gödel-Löb system GL. We prove that, for every has the explicit fixed point property. Our main result states that every complete modal logic L having the Craig's interpolation property and such that , where and are suitable modal formulas, has the explicit fixed point property.
Our purpose is to present some connections between modal incompleteness andmodal logics related to the Gödel-Löb logic GL. One of our goals is to prove that for all m, n, k, l ∈ ℕ the logic K + equation image□i □jp ↔ p) → equation image□ip is incomplete and does not have the fixed point property. As a consequence we shall obtain that the Boolos logic KH does not have the fixed point property.
Can art, religion, or philosophy afford ineffable insights? If so, what are they? The idea of ineffability has puzzled philosophers from Laozi to Wittgenstein. In Ineffability and its Metaphysics: The Unspeakable in Art, Religion and Philosophy, Silvia Jonas examines different ways of thinking about what ineffable insights might involve metaphysically, and shows which of these are in fact incoherent. Jonas discusses the concepts of ineffable properties and objects, ineffable propositions, ineffable content, and ineffable knowledge, examining the metaphysical pitfalls involved (...) in these concepts. Ultimately, she defends the idea that ineffable insights as found in aesthetic, religious, and philosophical contexts are best understood in terms of self-acquaintance, a particular kind of non-propositional knowledge. Ineffability as a philosophical topic is as old as the history of philosophy itself, but contributions to the exploration of ineffability have been sparse. The theory developed by Jonas makes the concept tangible and usable in many different philosophical contexts. (shrink)
Exposición realizada por Silvia Hernández, Doctora en Ciencias Sociales, en la segunda ronda del ciclo de conversaciones “Crítica a la Epidemiología Política. Prácticas y racionalidad neoliberales en tiempos de pandemia”, organizado por el equipo editorial de la Revista de Filosofía Otrosiglo, enero 2021. Disponible en Youtube, canal Revista Otrosiglo. _Palabras Clave: _Pandemia – Ideología – Neoliberalismo – Covid19.
El artículo propone abordar aspectos de la relación contemporánea entre sujeto y ciudad desde una perspectiva que combina algunos puntos de lo que se ha llamado el "pensamiento de la comunidad" (que concibe lo comunitario desde un punto de vista diferente al que se maneja habitualmente) con el cuest..
O tema principal deste trabalho é a compreensão kierkegaardiana da imaginação e a estrutura da dialética da imaginação nos estádios estético e religioso. The main theme of this paper is Kierkegaard´s understanding of the imagination and the structure of dialectic of imagination in aesthetic and religious dimensions.
Drawing an analogy between modal structuralism about mathematics and theism, I o er a structuralist account that implicitly de nes theism in terms of three basic relations: logical and metaphysical priority, and epis- temic superiority. On this view, statements like `God is omniscient' have a hypothetical and a categorical component. The hypothetical component provides a translation pattern according to which statements in theistic language are converted into statements of second-order modal logic. The categorical component asserts the logical possibility of the (...) theism struc- ture on the basis of uncontroversial facts about the physical world. This structuralist reading of theism preserves objective truth-values for theistic statements while remaining neutral on the question of ontology. Thus, it o ers a way of understanding theism to which a naturalist cannot object, and it accommodates the fact that religious belief, for many theists, is an essentially relational matter. (shrink)
Adorno’s metaphysics as developed in his Negative Dialectics revolves around what he calls the ‘Non-identical’. The Non-identical is essentially ineffable and can only be understood negatively, through Adorno’s method of ‘negative dialectics’. Negative dialectics is Adorno’s answer to Hegelian metaphysics, which he criticises for its ‘consistent resolution of non-identity into pure identity’. While Adorno endorses Hegel’s critique of Kant’s distinction between the realm of noumena and the realm of phenomena, he argues that Hegel is wrong in believing that a speculative (...) identity between thought and being can be achieved in a positive fashion. Human reason, Adorno argues, imposes unity and identity on objects in the world, thus suppressing their uniqueness and making equivalent what is essentially non-equivalent. The way Adorno sees it, ‘dialectics means to break the compulsion to achieve identity’. This paper aims (1) to explain Adorno’s answer to Hegelian metaphysics, (2) to elucidate Adorno’s idea of the Non-identical as ineffable, and (3) to highlight the importance of acknowledging the ineffable in contemporary philosophy. The paper thus expounds Adorno’s answer to Hegelian metaphysics, according to which philosophy must be prepared to bear not only contradiction, but also the ultimate impossibility of resolving non-identity into identity. (shrink)
La pregunta inicial relacionada con este artículo es: ¿cómo el arte ha ido asimilando los procedimientos lógicos de los algoritmos computacionales? Nuestra hipótesis es que estamos siendo entrenados por procedimientos lógicos que conforman, informan y forman nuestro pensamiento, tales como simulaciones, modelos, patrones, códigos y conjuntos de códigos, algoritmos, dispositivos, interfaces, y estos son el núcleo de lo que llamamos de «pensamiento conformado». Es importante resaltar que al decir que un pensamiento está conformado no se limita a formas, aspectos físicos, (...) expresiones de patrones, sino que es un conjunto de hábitos o costumbres comunes y socialmente definidos, determinados por la sociedad, comunidad o grupo. Por lo tanto, el pensamiento conformado provoca cambios significativos e impulsa nuestro pensamiento, lenguaje y, en consecuencia, nuestro comportamiento. El objetivo es comprender cómo la lógica de los algoritmos, especialmente de la inteligencia artificial, que están presentes en los modelos conceptuales y perceptuales de las obras de arte actuales, puede generar un desmembramiento estético. La premisa es que la comprensión de los procedimientos tecnológicos aumenta las posibilidades creativas y el potencial expresivo de los proyectos de arte. Esto se verá reflejado de alguna manera en la experiencia estética, porque, cambiando conceptos y técnicas, también cambian el pensamiento y las formas de acción y, en consecuencia, los procesos creativos y los resultados estéticos. Este es el resultado de un estudio que busca comprender cómo estos procedimientos afectan los sistemas sensoriales y cognitivos, cómo nuestra mente procesa esta información y consecuentemente interactuamos en el mundo. Nuestro punto de vista es que los artistas tienen el papel crítico no solo de aplicar estos principios lógicos en sus obras de arte, sino también de intervenir en estos procesos de manera disconforme. (shrink)
Philosophy of science has seen a passionate debate over the influence of non-cognitive values on theory choice. In this paper, we argue against a dichotomous divide between cognitive and non-cognitive values and for the possibility of a dual role for feminist values. By analyzing the influence of feminist values on evolutionary psychology and evolutionary biology, we show how they have cognitive and non-cognitive functions at the same time.
Expected Utility Theory (EUT) has anomalies when interpreted descriptively and tested empirically. Experiments show that the way in which options are formulated is, in most cases, relevant for decision-making. This kind of anomaly is directly related, however, not with a proper axiom of EUT but rather with the logical principle of extensionality and its decision theoretic version: the principle of invariance. This paper focuses on the phenomenon of framing effects (FE) and the associated failures of invariance. FE arise when different (...) descriptions of the same object lead to different preferences, beliefs, or choices. A formal reconstruction of the Gain–Loss (G-L) frame is proposed, expanding the domain of standard decision theory to incorporate not only prospects but also descriptions of prospects. The system is extended by adding non-monotonic logical resources so as to account for the ceteris paribus character of FE. Finally, the same method is applied to sketching a formal representation for an anomalous case that involves subjective probabilities. The logical method is a general one that can be applied to most cases of FE. The philosophical consequences of the strategy pursued are also discussed. (shrink)
An outstanding reference source to the full span of Murdoch's work, comprising 37 specially commissioned chapters written by an international team of leading scholars. This is the first volume to do justice to the incredibly rich and wide-ranging nature of her work.
We characterize (both from a syntactic and an algebraic point of view) the normal K4-logics for which unification is filtering. We also give a sufficient semantic criterion for existence of most general unifiers, covering natural extensions of K4.2⁺ (i.e., of the modal system obtained from K4 by adding to it, as a further axiom schemata, the modal translation of the weak excluded middle principle).
La compleja organización de las políticas sociales estatales y sus programas origina una brecha entre lo formalmente establecido y los comportamientos reales de los actores sociales involucrados. Dicho hecho se puede explicar a partir del análisis de un amplio espectro de relaciones cuya emergencia responde a diferentes factores sociales. El presente trabajo trata de mostrar las características de dicho fenómeno en el Programa de Comedores Infantiles de la ciudad de Salta. El mismo está planificado y sustentado por una ideología general (...) que comparten o no los actores sociales, por lo que en su organización se entretejen múltiples redes de relaciones de poder desiguales y cambiantes entre individuos, grupos e instituciones con comportamientos particulares que difieren por intereses, orientaciones, percepciones, capital cultural y posiciones sociales variadas; por lo que las normas universales no se encarnan directamente en ellos, sino que pasan por la mediación de formas sociales singulares que se apartan o alejan de lo formalmente instituido.The complex organization of the state social policies and her programs originate a breach between formally established and the real behaviors of the involved social actors. This fact can be explained from the analysis of an ample phantom of relations whose emergency responds to different social factors. The present work tries to show the characteristics of this phenomenon in the Program of Infantile Dining rooms of the city of Salta. The same one is planned and supported by a general ideology that share or not the social actors, for which in their organization multiple networks of relations they interweave themselves to be able uneven and moneychangers among individuals, groups and institutions with private behaviors that differ for interests, orientation, perceptions, cultural capital and various social positions; for which the universal norms are not embodied directly in them, but they pass for the Mediation of singular social forms that are set apart or they move away of it formally instituted. (shrink)
This article analyses the ethical aspects of multistakeholder recommendation systems (RSs). Following the most common approach in the literature, we assume a consequentialist framework to introduce the main concepts of multistakeholder recommendation. We then consider three research questions: who are the stakeholders in a RS? How are their interests taken into account when formulating a recommendation? And, what is the scientific paradigm underlying RSs? Our main finding is that multistakeholder RSs (MRSs) are designed and theorised, methodologically, according to neoclassical welfare (...) economics. We consider and reply to some methodological objections to MRSs on this basis, concluding that the multistakeholder approach offers the resources to understand the normative social dimension of RSs. (shrink)
What kind of thing do you believe when you believe that you are in a certain place, that it is a certain time, and that you are a certain individual? What happens if you get lost, or lose track of the time? Can you ever be unsure of your own identity? These are the kind of questions considered in my thesis. Beliefs about where, when and who you are are what are called in the literature de se, or self-locating beliefs. (...) This thesis examines how we can represent de se beliefs, and how we can reason about de se uncertainty. In the first part of the thesis, I present and motivate a specific account of the content of de se belief, based on the one given by David Lewis. On this account, the content of de se beliefs are centred propositions. I defend this view against a rival account, put forward by Robert Stalnaker, according to whom the content of de se beliefs are ordinary propositions. In the second part of the thesis, I explore how we can reason probabilistically about de se uncertainty. I start by defining probabilities over centred propositions, and investigate what probabilities mean in this context. As it turns out, all the main interpretations of probability can be extended to centred propositions. The only trouble seems to arise for the Bayesian principle of updating via conditionalization. After giving a diagnosis of the problem, I offer a solution by formulating a natural extension of conditionalization, which I argue preserves the essential features of Bayesian reasoning. In the final chapter, I apply my view and show that it leads to a natural resolution of a puzzle that is generally taken to be a test case for any account of centred updating. (shrink)