The vertebrate adaptive immune system has well defined functions in maintaining tolerance to self‐tissues. Suppression of autoreactive T cells is dependent on the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a distinct T cell lineage specified by the transcription factor Foxp3. Although TGF‐β promotes thymic Treg (tTreg) cell development by repressing T cell clonal deletion and peripheral Treg cell differentiation by inducing Foxp3 expression, a recent study shows that TGF‐β suppresses autoreactive T cells independent of Foxp3+ (...) Treg cells. These findings imply that as an ancestral growth factor family member, TGF‐β may have been co‐opted as a T cell‐intrinsic mechanism of self‐tolerance control to assist the evolutionary transition of vertebrate adaptive immunity. Later, perhaps in placental mammals upon their acquisition of a TGF‐β regulatory element in the Foxp3 locus, the TGF‐β pathway is further engaged to induce peripheral Treg cell differentiation and expand the scope of T cell tolerance control to innocuous foreign antigens. (shrink)
This article is dealt with at a historical-strategic level. Historical processes can be functionally divided into two sections: the social-material-directed Power-organizing part and the cultural-spiritual Ethic-thinking part. Thus there exist two corresponding dynamic-operative functions in history, which are guided and impelled by different motivations, methods, and destinations involved in the two functions. The Ethic-practicing praxis has been always performed through the empirical-humanist-rational ways, which today can be more effectively embodied in human sciences to be reorganized by the general-semiotic strategy. So (...) there are two kinds of human historical courses: the one as the materialist-directed power-organizing part and the other as spiritual-theoretical-directed ethic-reflecting part. From a historical-philosophical point of view, the former is to prepare the material-conditions/means for supporting the latter as the ethic-spiritual mission that is directed towards exploring the meaning/value foundation for human existence. Lacking in the internal link between the two historical-pragmatic functions the ethic-spiritual praxes should manage to find a separate strategy for actively continuing its independent ethic task by dint of wisely/bravely shunning the materialist-determinism issued from the technical/commercialized globalization era. (shrink)
Wei Jin xuan xue jia de xuan lun, ru jin zhi zai zhi ben wen ju jian. Dan bing bu jing mo, na xie xuan lun zong shi dui du zhe zhan xian qi zi ji. Wei Jin zhi shi, xuan xiao rao rang, xuan si zhe huo sa tuo fang da, huo yi yu shen yin, ru he zai xian shi jian yi wei, shun ni shi Wei Jin xuan yin zhong zui shen ke de di yun. Zuo zhe (...) Lu Guizhen pan wang tou guo xiang Wei Jin xuan lun zhe de kou wen, zhi chu yi ge fang xiang,er zai ci yi fang xiang de guan zhu xia, neng gou cheng xian yi ge yu xuan lun rong he de xin shi yu, bing jie ci dui yu mou xie zhong yao de ke ti jin xing sheng si, shi quan shi de jie guo ju you yi ding cheng du de yi yi. Ben shu zhong ji lu de liu pian lun wen, ji shi zhe xie nian zuo zhe bu duan xiang Wei Jin zhe ren ti wen zhi hou suo huo zhi de da an.--. (shrink)
Yuejiao was the primary form of education ever since the time of Emperors Yao and Shun. This tradition of valuing Yue over Li lasted till the Three Dynasties period. After the Spring and Autumn Period, Lijiao became the dominant form, but it still consisted of a lot of yue. Seeing the declining of this tradition, Confucius claimed to “follow upon Zhou”. That is, he wanted to recover and inherit this ideology that engages primarily in music cultivation supplemented by ritual normalization. (...) His statement: “Let a man be first incited by the Songs, then given a firm footing by the study of ritual, and finally perfected by music,” also shows his emphasis on Yue. More proofs can be found in Confucian classics such as Analects and the Record of Rites, in which discourses on/ about beauty and goodness are characterized by the juxtaposition of Li and Yue to serve a higher purpose for the pre-Qin Confucians. However, this ideology was not inherited by later Confucians. And the consequence is with the increasing status and impact of Confucianism in China in the past 2500 years, such a tradition of valuing Yue over Li gradually turned into a tradition of valuing Li over Yue. This, however, is inconsistent with both Confucius’ ideology of Li and Yue and the real characteristic of Chinese cultural tradition. (shrink)
Ben shu yi si xiang jiao liu wei he xin yi ti, Li zu yu dong ya wen hua chuan bo de xue shu fan chou, Tan tao zhu shun shui yu zhong ri wen hua, Si xiang, Zheng zhi, Xue shu deng fang mian suo qi de ying xiang yu zuo yong.
A major controversy in the study of the "Analects" has been over the relation between two central concepts, ren (humanity, human excellence) and li (rites, rituals of propriety). Confucius seems to have said inconsistent things about this relation. Some passages appear to suggest that ren is more fundamental than li, while others seem to imply the contrary. It is therefore not surprising that there have been different interpretations and characterizations of this relation. Using the analogy of language grammar and mastery (...) of a language, it is proposed here that we should understand li as a cultural grammar and ren as the mastery of a culture. In this account, society cultivates its members through li toward the goal of ren, and persons of ren manifest their human excellence through their practice of li. (shrink)
Lawami' al-Nazar fi Tahqiq Ma'ani al-Mukhtasar is Aḥmad b. Ya'qub al-Wallali's (d. 1128/1716) commentary on al-Sanusi's (d. 895/1490) compendium of logic, al-Mukhtasar. Al-Wallali was the first commentator on al-Sanusi's compendium after the author's autocommentary. In this publication, Ibrahim Safri offers a critical edition of this work, together with a study of the author's life and oeuvre. Safri also tries to show the indirect influence of Avicennism on logic in the Maghribi tradition in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the basis (...) of his writings on logic and philosophical theology, al-Wallali was considered a master of rational sciences by his contemporaries. (shrink)