30 found
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  1.  29
    An activation‐based model of sentence processing as skilled memory retrieval.Richard L. Lewis & Shravan Vasishth - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (3):375-419.
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  2.  50
    Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension.Richard L. Lewis, Shravan Vasishth & Julie A. Van Dyke - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (10):447-454.
  3.  12
    The Effect of Prominence and Cue Association on Retrieval Processes: A Computational Account.Felix Engelmann, Lena A. Jӓger & Shravan Vasishth - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (12):e12800.
    We present a comprehensive empirical evaluation of the ACT‐R–based model of sentence processing developed by Lewis and Vasishth (2005) (LV05). The predictions of the model are compared with the results of a recent meta‐analysis of published reading studies on retrieval interference in reflexive‐/reciprocal‐antecedent and subject–verb dependencies (Jäger, Engelmann, & Vasishth, 2017). The comparison shows that the model has only partial success in explaining the data; and we propose that its prediction space is restricted by oversimplifying assumptions. We then implement a (...)
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  4.  15
    Processing Polarity: How the Ungrammatical Intrudes on the Grammatical.Shravan Vasishth, Sven Brüssow, Richard L. Lewis & Heiner Drenhaus - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):685-712.
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  5.  24
    Exploratory and Confirmatory Analyses in Sentence Processing: A Case Study of Number Interference in German.Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann & Katja Suckow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1075-1100.
    Given the replication crisis in cognitive science, it is important to consider what researchers need to do in order to report results that are reliable. We consider three changes in current practice that have the potential to deliver more realistic and robust claims. First, the planned experiment should be divided into two stages, an exploratory stage and a confirmatory stage. This clear separation allows the researcher to check whether any results found in the exploratory stage are robust. The second change (...)
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  6.  23
    A Computational Investigation of Sources of Variability in Sentence Comprehension Difficulty in Aphasia.Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan & Frank Burchert - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):161-174.
    We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs. object relative sentences, presented in a self-paced (...)
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  7.  30
    Retrieval interference in reflexive processing: experimental evidence from Mandarin, and computational modeling.Lena A. Jäger, Felix Engelmann & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  8.  16
    When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.Bruno Nicenboim, Pavel Logačev, Carolina Gattei & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  9.  18
    Retrieval Interference in Syntactic Processing: The Case of Reflexive Binding in English.Umesh Patil, Shravan Vasishth & Richard L. Lewis - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  10.  30
    Working memory differences in long-distance dependency resolution.Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Carolina Gattei, Mariano Sigman & Reinhold Kliegl - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  11.  25
    Effects of Early Cues on the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for Experience‐Based Theories.Fuyun Wu, Elsi Kaiser & Shravan Vasishth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1101-1133.
    We used Chinese prenominal relative clauses to test the predictions of two competing accounts of sentence comprehension difficulty: the experience-based account of Levy () and the Dependency Locality Theory. Given that in Chinese RCs, a classifier and/or a passive marker BEI can be added to the sentence-initial position, we manipulated the presence/absence of classifiers and the presence/absence of BEI, such that BEI sentences were passivized subject-extracted RCs, and no-BEI sentences were standard object-extracted RCs. We conducted two self-paced reading experiments, using (...)
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  12.  23
    Teasing apart retrieval and encoding interference in the processing of anaphors.Lena A. Jäger, Lena Benz, Jens Roeser, Brian W. Dillon & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:130122.
    Two classes of account have been proposed to explain the memory processes subserving the processing of reflexive-antecedent dependencies. Structure-based accounts assume that the retrieval of the antecedent is guided by syntactic tree-configurational information without considering other kinds of information such as gender marking in the case of English reflexives. By contrast, unconstrained cue-based retrieval assumes that all available information is used for retrieving the antecedent. Similarity-based interference effects from structurally illicit distractors which match a non-structural retrieval cue have been interpreted (...)
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  13.  8
    A Computational Evaluation of Two Models of Retrieval Processes in Sentence Processing in Aphasia.Paula Lissón, Dorothea Pregla, Bruno Nicenboim, Dario Paape, Mick L. Van het Nederend, Frank Burchert, Nicole Stadie, David Caplan & Shravan Vasishth - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12956.
    Can sentence comprehension impairments in aphasia be explained by difficulties arising from dependency completion processes in parsing? Two distinct models of dependency completion difficulty are investigated, the Lewis and Vasishth (2005) activation-based model and the direct-access model (DA; McElree, 2000). These models' predictive performance is compared using data from individuals with aphasia (IWAs) and control participants. The data are from a self-paced listening task involving subject and object relative clauses. The relative predictive performance of the models is evaluated using k-fold (...)
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  14.  10
    A Computational Evaluation of Two Models of Retrieval Processes in Sentence Processing in Aphasia.Paula Lissón, Dorothea Pregla, Bruno Nicenboim, Dario Paape, Mick L. het Nederend, Frank Burchert, Nicole Stadie, David Caplan & Shravan Vasishth - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12956.
    Can sentence comprehension impairments in aphasia be explained by difficulties arising from dependency completion processes in parsing? Two distinct models of dependency completion difficulty are investigated, the Lewis and Vasishth (2005) activation‐based model and the direct‐access model (DA; McElree, 2000). These models' predictive performance is compared using data from individuals with aphasia (IWAs) and control participants. The data are from a self‐paced listening task involving subject and object relative clauses. The relative predictive performance of the models is evaluated using k‐fold (...)
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  15.  14
    Modeling Misretrieval and Feature Substitution in Agreement Attraction: A Computational Evaluation.Dario Paape, Serine Avetisyan, Sol Lago & Shravan Vasishth - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (8):e13019.
    We present computational modeling results based on a self‐paced reading study investigating number attraction effects in Eastern Armenian. We implement three novel computational models of agreement attraction in a Bayesian framework and compare their predictive fit to the data using k‐fold cross‐validation. We find that our data are better accounted for by an encoding‐based model of agreement attraction, compared to a retrieval‐based model. A novel methodological contribution of our study is the use of comprehension questions with open‐ended responses, so that (...)
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  16.  25
    A Principled Approach to Feature Selection in Models of Sentence Processing.Garrett Smith & Shravan Vasishth - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (12):e12918.
    Among theories of human language comprehension, cue‐based memory retrieval has proven to be a useful framework for understanding when and how processing difficulty arises in the resolution of long‐distance dependencies. Most previous work in this area has assumed that very general retrieval cues like [+subject] or [+singular] do the work of identifying (and sometimes misidentifying) a retrieval target in order to establish a dependency between words. However, recent work suggests that general, handpicked retrieval cues like these may not be enough (...)
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  17. Dependency Resolution Difficulty Increases with Distance in Persian Separable Complex Predicates: Evidence for Expectation and Memory-Based Accounts.Molood S. Safavi, Samar Husain & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  18.  31
    Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension.Philip Hofmeister & Shravan Vasishth - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:98835.
    In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color). Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets (...)
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  19. A Multiple‐Channel Model of Task‐Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension.Pavel Logačev & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):266-298.
    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model, assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. When (...)
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  20.  53
    Cross‐Linguistic Differences in Processing Double‐Embedded Relative Clauses: Working‐Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?Stefan L. Frank, Thijs Trompenaars & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):554-578.
    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German (...)
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  21.  37
    A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.Umesh Patil, Sandra Hanne, Frank Burchert, Ria De Bleser & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):5-50.
    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, (...)
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  22.  92
    A Framework for Modeling the Interaction of Syntactic Processing and Eye Movement Control.Felix Engelmann, Shravan Vasishth, Ralf Engbert & Reinhold Kliegl - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):452-474.
    We explore the interaction between oculomotor control and language comprehension on the sentence level using two well-tested computational accounts of parsing difficulty. Previous work (Boston, Hale, Vasishth, & Kliegl, 2011) has shown that surprisal (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and cue-based memory retrieval (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are significant and complementary predictors of reading time in an eyetracking corpus. It remains an open question how the sentence processor interacts with oculomotor control. Using a simple linking hypothesis proposed in Reichle, Warren, and (...)
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  23.  17
    Prosodic Focus Marking in Silent Reading: Effects of Discourse Context and Rhythm.Gerrit Kentner & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7:172189.
    Understanding a sentence and integrating it into the discourse depends upon the identification of its focus, which, in spoken German, is marked by accentuation. In the case of written language, which lacks explicit cues to accent, readers have to draw on other kinds of information to determine the focus. We study the joint or interactive effects of two kinds of information that have no direct representation in print but have each been shown to be influential in the reader’s text comprehension: (...)
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  24.  13
    A Bayesian approach to dynamical modeling of eye-movement control in reading of normal, mirrored, and scrambled texts.Maximilian M. Rabe, Johan Chandra, André Krügel, Stefan A. Seelig, Shravan Vasishth & Ralf Engbert - 2021 - Psychological Review 128 (5):803-823.
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  25.  17
    Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.Titus Malsburg, Reinhold Kliegl & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1675-1703.
    Scanpaths have played an important role in classic research on reading behavior. Nevertheless, they have largely been neglected in later research perhaps due to a lack of suitable analytical tools. Recently, von der Malsburg and Vasishth proposed a new measure for quantifying differences between scanpaths and demonstrated that this measure can recover effects that were missed with the traditional eyetracking measures. However, the sentences used in that study were difficult to process and scanpath effects accordingly strong. The purpose of the (...)
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  26.  8
    Estimating the True Cost of Garden Pathing: A Computational Model of Latent Cognitive Processes.Dario Paape & Shravan Vasishth - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (8):e13186.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 8, August 2022.
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  27. Human language processing: symbolic models.Shravan Vasishth & R. L. Lewis - 2006 - In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 5--410.
  28.  12
    Sentence comprehension as a cognitive process: a computational approach.Shravan Vasishth - 2021 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Felix Engelmann.
    Sentence comprehension - the way we process and understand spoken and written language - is a central and important area of research within psycholinguistics. This book explores the contribution of computational linguistics to the field, showing how computational models of sentence processing can help scientists in their investigation of human cognitive processes. It presents the leading computational model of retrieval processes in sentence processing, the Lewis and Vasishth cue-based retrieval mode, and develops a principled methodology for parameter estimation and model (...)
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  29. Symbolic models of human sentence processing.Shravan Vasishth & Richard L. Lewis - 2006 - In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 410--419.
  30.  7
    Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.Titus von der Malsburg, Reinhold Kliegl & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1675-1703.
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