74 found
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  1.  98
    Representation, similarity, and the chorus of prototypes.Shimon Edelman - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (1):45-68.
    It is proposed to conceive of representation as an emergent phenomenon that is supervenient on patterns of activity of coarsely tuned and highly redundant feature detectors. The computational underpinnings of the outlined concept of representation are (1) the properties of collections of overlapping graded receptive fields, as in the biological perceptual systems that exhibit hyperacuity-level performance, and (2) the sufficiency of a set of proximal distances between stimulus representations for the recovery of the corresponding distal contrasts between stimuli, as in (...)
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  2.  21
    One‐year‐old infants use teleological representations of actions productively.Michael Ramscar, Daniel Yarlett, Shimon Edelman, Nathan Intrator, Gergely Csibra, Szilvia Bıró, Orsolya Koós, György Gergely, Holk Cruse & Michael D. Lee - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (1):111-133.
    Two experiments investigated whether infants represent goal‐directed actions of others in a way that allows them to draw inferences to unobserved states of affairs (such as unseen goal states or occluded obstacles). We measured looking times to assess violation of infants' expectations upon perceiving either a change in the actions of computer‐animated figures or in the context of such actions. The first experiment tested whether infants would attribute a goal to an action that they had not seen completed. The second (...)
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  3. System, Subsystem, Hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness.Tomer Fekete, Cees van Leeuwen & Shimon Edelman - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i) would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii) would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii) would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious (...)
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  4.  47
    Learn Locally, Act Globally: Learning Language from Variation Set Cues.Luca Onnis, Heidi R. Waterfall & Shimon Edelman - 2008 - Cognition 109 (3):423.
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  5.  32
    Dynamical Emergence Theory (DET): A Computational Account of Phenomenal Consciousness.Roy Moyal, Tomer Fekete & Shimon Edelman - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):1-21.
    Scientific theories of consciousness identify its contents with the spatiotemporal structure of neural population activity. We follow up on this approach by stating and motivating Dynamical Emergence Theory, which defines the amount and structure of experience in terms of the intrinsic topology and geometry of a physical system’s collective dynamics. Specifically, we posit that distinct perceptual states correspond to coarse-grained macrostates reflecting an optimal partitioning of the system’s state space—a notion that aligns with several ideas and results from computational neuroscience (...)
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  6.  16
    Towards structural systematicity in distributed, statically bound visual representations.Shimon Edelman & Nathan Intrator - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (1):73-109.
    The problem of representing the spatial structure of images, which arises in visual object processing, is commonly described using terminology borrowed from propositional theories of cognition, notably, the concept of compositionality. The classical propositional stance mandates representations composed of symbols, which stand for atomic or composite entities and enter into arbitrarily nested relationships. We argue that the main desiderata of a representational system—productivity and systematicity—can (indeed, for a number of reasons, should) be achieved without recourse to the classical, proposition‐like compositionality. (...)
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  7.  82
    How seriously should we take Minimalist syntax?Shimon Edelman - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):60-61.
    Lasnik’s review of the Minimalist program in syntax [1] offers cognitive scientists help in navigating some of the arcana of the current theoretical thinking in transformational generative grammar. One may observe, however, that this journey is more like a taxi ride gone bad than a free tour: it is the driver who decides on the itinerary, and questioning his choice may get you kicked out. Meanwhile, the meter in the cab of the generative theory of grammar is running, and has (...)
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  8.  74
    Towards structural systematicity in distributed, statically bound visual representations.Shimon Edelman & Nathan Intrator - 2003 - Cognitive Science 23 (1):73-110.
    The problem of representing the spatial structure of images, which arises in visual object processing, is commonly described using terminology borrowed from propositional theories of cognition, notably, the concept of compositionality. The classical propositional stance mandates representations composed of symbols, which stand for atomic or composite entities and enter into arbitrarily nested relationships. We argue that the main desiderata of a representational system — productivity and systematicity — can (indeed, for a number of reasons, should) be achieved without recourse to (...)
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  9. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process‐Level Model of Language Acquisition.Oren Kolodny, Arnon Lotem & Shimon Edelman - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (4):227-267.
    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this (...)
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  10. Computational theories of object recognition.Shimon Edelman - 1997 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (8):296-304.
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  11.  30
    Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song.Otília Menyhart, Oren Kolodny, Michael H. Goldstein, Timothy J. DeVoogd & Shimon Edelman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  12.  49
    Automatic acquisition and efficient representation of syntactic structures.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    The distributional principle according to which morphemes that occur in identical contexts belong, in some sense, to the same category [1] has been advanced as a means for extracting syntactic structures from corpus data. We extend this principle by applying it recursively, and by using mutual information for estimating category coherence. The resulting model learns, in an unsupervised fashion, highly structured, distributed representations of syntactic knowledge from corpora. It also exhibits promising behavior in tasks usually thought to require representations anchored (...)
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  13.  61
    Bridging computational, formal and psycholinguistic approaches to language.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We compare our model of unsupervised learning of linguistic structures, ADIOS [1, 2, 3], to some recent work in computational linguistics and in grammar theory. Our approach resembles the Construction Grammar in its general philosophy (e.g., in its reliance on structural generalizations rather than on syntax projected by the lexicon, as in the current generative theories), and the Tree Adjoining Grammar in its computational characteristics (e.g., in its apparent affinity with Mildly Context Sensitive Languages). The representations learned by our algorithm (...)
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  14.  57
    Generalization to Novel Images in Upright and Inverted Faces.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    An image of a face depends not only on its shape, but also on the viewpoint, illumination conditions, and facial expression. A face recognition system must overcome the changes in face appearance induced by these factors. This paper investigate two related questions: the capacity of the human visual system to generalize the recognition of faces to novel images, and the level at which this generalization occurs. We approach this problems by comparing the identi cation and generalization capacity for upright and (...)
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  15.  91
    Being in Time: Dynamical Models of Phenomenal Experience.Shimon Edelman, Tomer Fekete & Neta Zach (eds.) - 2012 - Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    The chapters comprising this book represent a collective attempt on the part of their authors to redress this aberration.
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  16.  30
    A productive, systematic framework for the representation of visual structure.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We describe a unified framework for the understanding of structure representation in primate vision. A model derived from this framework is shown to be effectively systematic in that it has the ability to interpret and associate together objects that are related through a rearrangement of common “middle-scale” parts, represented as image fragments. The model addresses the same concerns as previous work on compositional representation through the use of what+where receptive fields and attentional gain modulation. It does not require prior exposure (...)
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  17.  50
    Characterizing Motherese: On the Computational Structure of Child-Directed Language.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We report a quantitative analysis of the cross-utterance coordination observed in child-directed language, where successive utterances often overlap in a manner that makes their constituent structure more prominent, and describe the application of a recently published unsupervised algorithm for grammar induction to the largest available corpus of such language, producing a grammar capable of accepting and generating novel wellformed sentences. We also introduce a new corpus-based method for assessing the precision and recall of an automatically acquired generative grammar without recourse (...)
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  18.  42
    Unsupervised context sensitive language acquisition from a large corpus.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We describe a pattern acquisition algorithm that learns, in an unsupervised fashion, a streamlined representation of linguistic structures from a plain natural-language corpus. This paper addresses the issues of learning structured knowledge from a large-scale natural language data set, and of generalization to unseen text. The implemented algorithm represents sentences as paths on a graph whose vertices are words. Significant patterns, determined by recursive context-sensitive statistical inference, form new vertices. Linguistic constructions are represented by trees composed of significant patterns and (...)
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  19.  61
    Unsupervised Efficient Learning and Representation of Language Structure.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We describe a linguistic pattern acquisition algorithm that learns, in an unsupervised fashion, a streamlined representation of corpus data. This is achieved by compactly coding recursively structured constituent patterns, and by placing strings that have an identical backbone and similar context structure into the same equivalence class. The resulting representations constitute an efficient encoding of linguistic knowledge and support systematic generalization to unseen sentences.
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  20. Unsupervised learning of visual structure.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    To learn a visual code in an unsupervised manner, one may attempt to capture those features of the stimulus set that would contribute significantly to a statistically efficient representation. Paradoxically, all the candidate features in this approach need to be known before statistics over them can be computed. This paradox may be circumvented by confining the repertoire of candidate features to actual scene fragments, which resemble the “what+where” receptive fields found in the ventral visual stream in primates. We describe a (...)
     
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  21.  12
    The bottleneck may be the solution, not the problem.Arnon Lotem, Oren Kolodny, Joseph Y. Halpern, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  22.  15
    Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition.Oren Kolodny, Arnon Lotem & Shimon Edelman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (2):227-267.
    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this (...)
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  23.  44
    Being in time.Shimon Edelman & Tomer Fekete - 2012 - In Shimon Edelman, Tomer Fekete & Neta Zach (eds.), Being in Time: Dynamical Models of Phenomenal Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 88--81.
  24.  38
    Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics.Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Word recognition is the Petri dish of the cognitive sciences. The processes hypothesized to govern naming, identifying and evaluating words have shaped this field since its origin in the 1970s. Techniques to measure lexical processing are not just the back-bone of the typical experimental psychology laboratory, but are now routinely used by cognitive neuroscientists to study brain processing and increasingly by social and clinical psychologists (Eder, Hommel, and De Houwer 2007). Models developed to explain lexical processing have also aspired to (...)
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  25.  38
    Neural spaces: A general framework for the understanding of cognition?Shimon Edelman - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):664-665.
    A view is put forward, according to which various aspects of the structure of the world as internalized by the brain take the form of “neural spaces,” a concrete counterpart for Shepard's “abstract” ones. Neural spaces may help us understand better both the representational substrate of cognition and the processes that operate on it. [Shepard].
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  26.  29
    Better limited systematicity in hand than structural descriptions in the bush: A reply to Hummel.Shimon Edelman & Nathan Intrator - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):331-332.
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  27.  37
    Vision, reanimated and reimagined.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    The publication in 1982 of David Marr’s Vision has delivered a singular boost and a course correction to the science of vision. Thirty years later, cognitive science is being transformed by the new ways of thinking about what it is that the brain computes, how it does that, and, most importantly, why cognition requires these computations and not others. This ongoing process still owes much of its impetus and direction to the sound methodology, engaging style, and unique voice of Marr’s (...)
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  28.  29
    Tracks in the Mind: Differential Entrenchment of Common and Rare Liturgical and Everyday Multiword Phrases in Religious and Secular Hebrew Speakers.Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We tested the hypothesis that more frequent exposure to multiword phrases results in deeper entrenchment of their representations, by examining the performance of subjects of different religiosity in the recognition of briefly presented liturgical and secular phrases drawn from several frequency classes. Three of the sources were prayer texts that religious Jews are required to recite on a daily, weekly, and annual basis, respectively; two others were common and rare expressions encountered in the general secular Israeli culture. As expected, linear (...)
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  29.  45
    an evolved model agent by R. Beer.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Beer ’s paper devotes much energy to buttressing the walls of Castle Dynamic and dredging its moat in the face of what some of its dwellers perceive as a besieging army chanting “no cognition without representation”. The divide is real, as attested by the contrast between titles such as “Intelligence without representation” and “In defense of representation”, to pick just one example from each side. It is, however, not too late for people from both sides of the moat to meet (...)
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  30.  56
    A New Vision of Language.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    A metaphor that has dominated linguistics for the entire duration of its existence as a discipline views sentences as edifices consisting of Lego-like building blocks. It is assumed that each sentence is constructed (and, on the receiving end, parsed) ab novo, starting (ending) with atomic constituents, to logical semantic specifications, in a recursive process governed by a few precise algebraic rules. The assumptions underlying the Lego metaphor, as it is expressed in generative grammar theories, are: (1) perfect regularity of what (...)
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  31.  16
    Brahe, looking for Kepler.Shimon Edelman - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):538-540.
    Arbib, Érdi, and Szentágothai's book should be a required reading for any serious student of the brain. The scope and the accessibility of its presentation of the neurobiological data (especially the functional anatomy of select parts of the central nervous system) more than make up for the peculiarities of the theoretical stance it adopts.
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  32. Complex Cells and Object Recognition.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Nearest-neighbor correlation-based similarity computation in the space of outputs of complex-type receptive elds can support robust recognition of 3D objects. Our experiments with four collections of objects resulted in mean recognition rates between 84% and 94%, over a 40 40 range of viewpoints, centered on a stored canonical view and related to it by rotations in depth. This result has interesting implications for the design of a front end to an arti cial object recognition system, and for the understanding of (...)
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  33.  75
    Evolution of Dynamic Coordination.Shimon Edelman & Erich D. Jarvis - unknown
    What insights does comparative biology provide for furthering scienti¿ c understanding of the evolution of dynamic coordination? Our discussions covered three major themes: (a) the fundamental unity in functional aspects of neurons, neural circuits, and neural computations across the animal kingdom; (b) brain organization –behavior relationships across animal taxa; and (c) the need for broadly comparative studies of the relationship of neural structures, neural functions, and behavioral coordination. Below we present an overview of neural machinery and computations that are shared (...)
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  34.  63
    Evolution of language diversity: the survival of the fitness.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We examined the role of fitness, commonly assumed without proof to be conferred by the mastery of language, in shaping the dynamics of language evolution. To that end, we introduced island migration (a concept borrowed from population genetics) into the shared lexicon model of communication (Nowak et al., 1999). The effect of fitness linear in language coherence was compared to a control condition of neutral drift. We found that in the neutral condition (no coherence-dependent fitness) even a small migration rate (...)
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  35.  51
    Generative grammar with a human face?Shimon Edelman - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):675-676.
    The theoretical debate in linguistics during the past half-century bears an uncanny parallel to the politics of the (now defunct) Communist Bloc. The parallels are not so much in the revolutionary nature of Chomsky's ideas as in the Bolshevik manner of his takeover of linguistics (Koerner 1994) and in the Trotskyist (“permanent revolution”) flavor of the subsequent development of the doctrine of Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) (Townsend & Bever 2001, pp. 37–40). By those standards, Jackendoff is quite a party faithful (...)
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  36.  47
    Bridging language with the rest of cognition: computational, algorithmic and neurobiological issues and methods.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    The computational program for theoretical neuroscience initiated by Marr and Poggio (1977) calls for a study of biological information processing on several distinct levels of abstraction. At each of these levels — computational (defining the problems and considering possible solutions), algorithmic (specifying the sequence of operations leading to a solution) and implementational — significant progress has been made in the understanding of cognition. In the past three decades, computational principles have been discovered that are common to a wide range of (...)
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  37.  96
    How representation works is more important than what representations are.Shimon Edelman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):630-631.
    A theory of representation is incomplete if it states “representations areX” whereXcan be symbols, cell assemblies, functional states, or the flock of birds fromTheaetetus, without explaining the nature of the link between the universe ofXs and the world. Amit's thesis, equating representations with reverberations in Hebbian cell assemblies, will only be considered a solution to the problem of representation when it is complemented by a theory of how a reverberation in the brain can be a representation of anything.
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  38. In Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    By what empirical means can a person determine whether he or she is presently awake or dreaming? Any conceivable test addressing this question, which is a special case of the classical metaphysical doubting of reality, must be statistical (for the same reason that empirical science is, as noted by Hume). Subjecting the experienced reality to any kind of statistical test (for instance, a test for bizarreness) requires, however, that a set of baseline measurements be available. In a dream, or in (...)
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  39.  8
    Life, death, and other inconvenient truths: a realist's view of the human condition.Shimon Edelman - 2020 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    Short essays that touch many topics-anxiety, consciousness, death, happiness, morality, stupidity, & truth-that make the case for realism & help set expectations with regard to the human condition.
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  40.  79
    Learning Syntactic Constructions from Raw Corpora.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Construction-based approaches to syntax (Croft, 2001; Goldberg, 2003) posit a lexicon populated by units of various sizes, as envisaged by (Langacker, 1987). Constructions may be specified completely, as in the case of simple morphemes or idioms such as take it to the bank, or partially, as in the expression what’s X doing Y?, where X and Y are slots that admit fillers of particular types (Kay and Fillmore, 1999). Constructions offer an intriguing alternative to traditional rule-based syntax by hinting at (...)
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  41.  17
    Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics Catherine Caldwell-Harris, Jonathan Berant and.Shimon Edelman - 2012 - In Dagmar Divjak & Stefan Thomas Gries (eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Representation. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 2--165.
  42.  21
    No reconstruction, no impenetrability (at least not much).Shimon Edelman - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):376-376.
    Two of the premises of Pylyshyn's target article – surface reconstruction as the goal of early vision and inaccessibility of intermediate stages in the process presumably leading to such reconstruction – are questioned and found wanting.
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  43.  18
    No reconstruction, no impenetrability (at least not much) A commentary on ``Is vision continuous with cognition?'' by Z. Pylyshyn.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Two of the premises of the target paper -- surface reconstruction as the goal of early vision, and inaccessibility of intermediate stages in the process presumably leading to such reconstruction -- are questioned and found wanting.
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  44.  68
    On look-ahead in language: navigating a multitude of familiar paths.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Language is a rewarding field if you are in the prediction business. A reader who is fluent in English and who knows how academic papers are typically structured will readily come up with several possible guesses as to where the title of this section could have gone, had it not been cut short by the ellipsis. Indeed, in the more natural setting of spoken language, anticipatory processing is a must: performance of machine systems for speech interpretation depends critically on the (...)
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  45.  81
    (Object recognition/multidimensional scaling/computational model).Shimon Edelman - unknown
    differentiaily rated pairwise similarity when confronted with two pairs of objects, each revolving in a separate window on a computer screen. Subject data were pooled using individually weighted MDS (ref. 11; in all the experiments, the solutions were consistent among subjects). In each trial, the subject had to select among two pairs of shapes the one consisting of the most similar shapes. The subjects were allowed to respond at will; most responded within 10 sec. Proximity (that is, perceived similarity) tables (...)
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  46.  76
    On the virtues of going all the way.Shimon Edelman & Elise M. Breen - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):614-614.
    Representational systems need to use symbols as internal stand-ins for distal quantities and events. Barsalou's ideas go a long way towards making the symbol system theory of representation more appealing, by delegating one critical part of the representational burden to image-like entities. The target article, however, leaves the other critical component of any symbol system theory underspecified. We point out that the binding problem can be alleviated if a perceptual symbol system is made to rely on image-like entities not only (...)
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  47.  34
    On the virtues of going all the way A commentary on Barsalou.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Supposing the symbol system postulated by Barsalou is perceptual through and through -- what then? The target article outlines an intriguing and exciting theory of cognition in which (1) wellspecified, event- or object-linked percepts assume the role traditionally allotted to abstract and arbitrary symbols, and (2) perceptual simulation is substituted for processes traditionally believed to require symbol manipulation, such as deductive reasoning. We take a more extreme stance on the role of perception (in particular, vision) in shaping cognition, and propose, (...)
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  48. Proc. Edinburgh Workshop on Similarity and Categorization.Shimon Edelman & Sharon Duvdevani-Bar - 1997
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  49.  22
    Reading Cursive Handwriting by Alignment of Letter Prototypes.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    We describe a new approach to the visual recognition of cursive handwriting. An effort is made to attain humanlike performance by using a method based on pictorial alignment and on a model of the process of handwriting.
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  50. Representing 3D ob jects by sets of activities of receptiv e elds.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Idealized mo dels of receptive elds (RFs) can be used as building blocks for the creation of p owerful distributed computation systems. The present rep ort concentrates on inv estigating the utility of collections of RFs in representing 3D objects under changing viewing conditions. The main requirement in this task is that the pattern of activity of RFs vary as little as p ossible when the object and the camera move relative to each other. I propose a method for representing (...)
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