The concept of human dignity and the relationship between dignity and human rights have been important subjects in contemporary international academia. This article first analyzes the different understandings of the concept of dignity, which has left great influences in history (including the “theory of attribution-dignity”, the “theory of autonomy-dignity” or the “theory of moral completeness/achievement-dignity”, and the “theory of end-in-itself-dignity”); it then exposes the obvious defects of these modes of understanding; finally, it tries to define dignity as a moral right (...) to be free from insult. Meanwhile, the relationship between human dignity and human rights is clarified as a result of this research: Rather than being the foundation of human rights, human dignity is one of human rights. The idea of dignity nevertheless has a particular status in ethics in that it embodies a kind of core moral concern, representing a basic demand rooted in the human self or individuality, and hence representing an important aspect of human rights. We may anticipate that sooner or later, the idea of human dignity will become, together with other human rights, the only intangible cultural heritage of human society. (shrink)
The revival of Aristotelian virtue ethics since the 1980s does not signify that it goes back to its original form; rather, it is generally manifested in three different variations: The first is a variation of what is known as communitarianism, the second is universalism, and the third is phronesis. On the social level of morality, the serious attempt of modern virtue ethics towards improving the moral spirit of society is laudable. However, its method and reasoning deviates greatly from the demands (...) of modern societyâs integration of its operating rules and regulations, and concept of values; hence all of its attempts can hardly escape the fate of becoming just a fantasy. Yet, on the level of dealing with ethic conflicts and moral paradox, modern virtue ethicsâvia interpreting the theory of phronesis by Aristotleâproposes the valuable thought of a balanced morality that principlism should concern itself with and nourish itself from. (shrink)
_ Source: _Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 236 - 255 In this article I compare some elements of Eric Gans’s thought with a few aspects of the philosophy of Hermann Cohen—first and foremost, Gans’s concept of the origin and Cohen’s concept of Ursprung—while revealing the deep affinity between these two lines of thinking.
Eduard Gans remains a rather neglected thinker, although he was probably the most gifted and, perhaps, in the few years that he outlived him, the most influential of Hegel’s immediate followers. In the English speaking countries in particular, the reception of Gans has been hindered, if not prevented, by the formidable obstacle that his writings, with the exception of his additions to Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, are not available in English translation. In his native Germany, too, a full appreciation of (...) Gans has not yet been achieved. Serious study of Gans has only started in the wake and as a sideline of the post–1945 Hegel renaissance. Given this belated start to the discussion, it is not very surprising that even the main tenets of Gans’ political philosophy are still subject to controversial interpretations. The most important result of Gans research to date is to be found in the editorial efforts of Horst Schröder and Manfred Riedel which, for the first time, make some of Gans’ lectures available to the scholarly community at large. A consideration of Gans’ publication record may, to some extent, explain the long neglect of this notable philosopher. It may also account for the significance of the recently published lecture notes. Though the number of his books and articles is considerable, Gans did not bring together and publish details of the aspects in which his views differ from those of Hegel. This may have been due to Gans’ untimely death. Alternatively, from personal loyalty to Hegel or respect for Hegel’s system, Gans may have thought it inappropriate to publish anything critical of his patron and friend. Or, and this seems likely from the manner and context in which he presents his arguments, Gans did not perceive these differences as amounting to any substantial disagreement or even criticism, but considered them to be no more than interpretation or application of given principles to new conditions and phenomena. Suspending descision on the plausibility of these options, the fact remains that Gans did not publish a critique of Hegel, and it is in this respect, apart from their other merits, that Gans’ lectures attract our attention, for, while they appear to be merely expounding Hegel’s doctrines, they also examine them critically. In the light of these lectures, then, the differences between the views of Hegel and Gans can now be studied in much greater detail than was previously possible. That Gans’ lectures from both the pre- and post–1830 periods are now available has the additional advantage of enabling us to perceive significant developments in his views and convictions. (shrink)
Semi-compatibilists intend to reconcile moral responsibility with causal determinism, even if determinism is incompatible with freedom to do otherwise. For them, moral responsibility does not require free will, which is not a necessary condition for moral responsibility. They agree with the view that causal determinism is incompatible with free will. Free will is incompatible with determinism as well as moral responsibility. Both compatibilists and semi-compatibilists argue for the compatibility between determinism and moral responsibility. However, the latter fails to prove sufficiently (...) the reason why determinism is compatible with moral responsibility. (shrink)
This article is supposed to be an approximation to Eduard Gans´ conception of Europe, an author considered to be the most prominent disciple of Hegel by a growing number of scholars. In those times, the idea of Europe was a highly topical subject, due to both to the influence of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, but as well to the development of German idealism. Gans is closely related to these instances and formulates an idea of Europe that goes beyond (...) the conception of his teacher Hegel. He takes into account the new instances that arise from 1830 on in Europe, while he is also receptive to the views coming from America. (shrink)
This book discusses the justifications and limits of cultural nationalism from a liberal perspective. Chaim Gans presents a normative typology of nationalist ideologies, distinguishing between cultural liberal nationalism and statist liberal nationalism. Statist nationalisms argue that states have an interest in the cultural homogeneity of their citizenries. Cultural nationalisms argue that people have interests in adhering to their cultures and in sustaining these cultures for generations. Gans argues that freedom- and identity-based justifications for cultural nationalism common in literature can only (...) support the adherence thesis, while the historical thesis could only be justified by the interest people have in the long-term endurance of their personal and group endeavors. The Limits of Nationalism examines demands often made in the name of cultural nationalism, such as claims for national self-determination, historical rights claims to territories and demands entailed by cultural particularism as opposed to cultural cosmopolitanism. (shrink)
Current development in a deep neural network has given an opportunity to a novel framework for the reconstruction of a holographic image and a phase recovery method with real-time performance. There are many deep learning-based techniques that have been proposed for the holographic image reconstruction, but these deep learning-based methods can still lack in performance, time complexity, accuracy, and real-time performance. Due to iterative calculation, the generation of a CGH requires a long computation time. A novel deep generative adversarial network (...) holography framework is proposed for hologram reconstruction. This novel framework consists of two phases. In phase one, we used the Fresnel-based method to make the dataset. In the second phase, we trained the raw input image and holographic label image data from phase one acquired images. Our method has the capability of the noniterative process of computer-generated holograms. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods. (shrink)
This book examines the central questions concerning the duty to obey the law: the meaning of this duty; whether and where it should be acknowledged; and whether and when it should be disregarded. Many contemporary philosophers deny the very existence of this duty, but take a cautious stance toward political disobedience. This 'toothless anarchism', Professor Gans argues, should be discarded in favour of a converse position confirming the existence of a duty to obey the law which can be outweighed by (...) values and principles of political morality. Informed by the Israeli experience of political disobedience motivated by radically differing moral outlooks, the author sets out the principles which should guide our attitude to law and political authority even amidst clashing ideologies and irreconcilable moralities. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of law, philosophy and politics, and anyone concerned with the individual's responsibilties toward his or her political community. (shrink)
The legitimacy of the Zionist project--establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine--has been questioned since its inception. In recent years, the voices challenging the legitimacy of the State of Israel have become even louder. Chaim Gans examines these doubts and presents an in-depth, evenhanded philosophical analysis of the justice of Zionism.
This paper proposes that a corporation’s vulnerability to public scrutiny drives its corporate giving. The hypothesis that companies donate for strategic motives is tested against the alternative that they do so for altruistic reasons. Court cases and news articles were selected as proxies for public scrutiny. Macroeconomic variables were used to gauge the level of public charitable need and test for altruism. Through examining the philanthropic behavior of 40 Fortune 500 companies over 7 years, this paper finds that companies are (...) strategic and altruistic in their giving. (shrink)
The study of Joseon 朝鮮 Neo-Confucianism has recently given some attention to an inclination toward the Learning of the Mind-Heart, and Yi Gan 李柬 is at the center of this research. He was an outstanding disciple of Gwon Sang-ha 權尙夏 and a successor to the philosophical spirit of the Yulgok 栗谷 School; he is renowned for initiating the Horak 湖洛 Debate through his controversies with Han Won-jin 韓元震. In “A Thesis on the Not-Yet-Aroused State,” Yi asserted that the mind-heart is (...) purely good, basing his argument on the doctrine that “li 理 and qi 氣 are actualized as the same entity, and the mind-heart and nature are united as one.” Han Won-jin criticized this assertion as belonging to the Lu-Wang 陸王 School of Neo-Confucianism, and in fact, Yi Gan’s arguments were, in some aspects, consistent with Wang Yangming’s 王陽明 philosophy of the mind-heart. Indisputably, however, Yi Gan was an ardent follower of Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 philosophy. In this case, Yi Gan’s inclination toward the Learning of the Mind-Heart may perhaps be viewed in the tradition of the Learning of the Way, which emphasized self-cultivation and practice, a distinct feature of Joseon Neo-Confucianism. (shrink)
The making of infrared templates is of great significance for improving the accuracy and precision of infrared imaging guidance. However, collecting infrared images from fields is difficult, of high cost, and time-consuming. In order to address this problem, an infrared image generation method, infrared generative adversarial networks, based on conditional generative adversarial networks architecture is proposed. In I-GANs, visible images instead of random noise are used as the inputs, and the D-LinkNet network is also utilized to build the generative model, (...) enabling improved learning of rich image textures and identification of dependencies between images. Moreover, the PatchGAN architecture is employed to build a discriminant model to process the high-frequency components of the images effectively and reduce the amount of calculation required. In addition, batch normalization is used to optimize the training process, and thereby, the instability and mode collapse of the generated adversarial network training can be alleviated. Finally, experimental verification is conducted on the produced infrared/visible light dataset. The experimental results reveal that high-quality and reliable infrared data are generated by the proposed I-GANs. (shrink)
Computational visual perception, also known as computer vision, is a field of artificial intelligence that enables computers to process digital images and videos in a similar way as biological vision does. It involves methods to be developed to replicate the capabilities of biological vision. The computer vision’s goal is to surpass the capabilities of biological vision in extracting useful information from visual data. The massive data generated today is one of the driving factors for the tremendous growth of computer vision. (...) This survey incorporates an overview of existing applications of deep learning in computational visual perception. The survey explores various deep learning techniques adapted to solve computer vision problems using deep convolutional neural networks and deep generative adversarial networks. The pitfalls of deep learning and their solutions are briefly discussed. The solutions discussed were dropout and augmentation. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the accuracy using dropout and data augmentation. Deep convolutional neural networks’ applications, namely, image classification, localization and detection, document analysis, and speech recognition, are discussed in detail. In-depth analysis of deep generative adversarial network applications, namely, image-to-image translation, image denoising, face aging, and facial attribute editing, is done. The deep generative adversarial network is unsupervised learning, but adding a certain number of labels in practical applications can improve its generating ability. However, it is challenging to acquire many data labels, but a small number of data labels can be acquired. Therefore, combining semisupervised learning and generative adversarial networks is one of the future directions. This article surveys the recent developments in this direction and provides a critical review of the related significant aspects, investigates the current opportunities and future challenges in all the emerging domains, and discusses the current opportunities in many emerging fields such as handwriting recognition, semantic mapping, webcam-based eye trackers, lumen center detection, query-by-string word, intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons, and landslides. (shrink)
A qualitative study was conducted with 48 Chinese counselors and psychotherapists who were interviewed in 2006 and an independent sample of 50 participants who responded to a survey in 2014. This study aims to explore how the new emerging expansion of mental health practice is related to issues and challenges of dual role relationship and how the well-engrained values and social characteristics of Chinese culture influences perceptions and resolution of ethical dilemmas. The participants identified similar dual relationships in 2006 and (...) 2014: Incidental boundary crossings, a sexual or romantic relationship, a dual social relationship, and a professional dual relationship were the most frequently reported types of dual relationships encountered by Chinese practitioners, and the socioeconomic and cultural context and the development trajectory of counseling and psychotherapy in China play a significant role in shaping practitioners’ behaviors. The comparison of the data in 2006 and 2014 indicated that practitioners in psychotherapy and counseling have an improved awareness and understanding of ethical issues, evidenced by the decreasing cases of romantic and sexual relationships and increasing cases of social dual relationships influenced by the interrelatedness of traditional Chinese culture. (shrink)