Based on materials collected during a fieldwork in Barnaul (Siberia, Russia) in 2001–2004, the article explores two provincial academic discourses that are focused on issues of Russian national identity. Ethnohistories of trauma address Russia’s current problems through the constant re-writing of the country’s past in order to demonstrate the non-Russian character of its national and state institutions. In the second discourse, ethno-vitalism, the struggle over constructing and interpreting the nation’s memory of the past is replaced with a similar struggle over (...) constructing and interpreting perceptions of the nation’s current experience. Produced by professional intelligentsia, these frameworks and discourses provide a useful link to understanding imaginary constructions of the national belonging in a situation where more positive ways of inventing traditions and imagining communities are unavailable or discredited. (shrink)
This paper proves two theorems for homogeneous juries that arise from different solutions to the problem of aggregation of dichotomous choice. In the first theorem, negative correlation increases the competence of the jury, while positive correlation has the opposite effect. An enlargement of the jury with positive correlation can be detrimental up to a certain size, beyond which it becomes beneficial. The second theorem finds a family of distributions for which correlation has no effect on a jury’s competence. The approach (...) allows us to compute the bounds on a jury’s competence as the maximum and minimum probability of it being correct for a given individual competence and dependence structure. (shrink)
In a homogeneous jury, in which each vote is correct with the same probability, and each pair of votes correlates with the same correlation coefficient, there exists a correlation-robust voting quota, such that the probability of a correct verdict is independent of the correlation coefficient. For positive correlation, an increase in the correlation coefficient decreases the probability of a correct verdict for any voting rule below the correlation-robust quota, and increases that probability for any above the correlation-robust quota. The jury (...) may be less competent under the correlation-robust rule than under simple majority rule and less competent under simple majority rule than a single juror alone. The jury is always less competent than a single juror under unanimity rule. (shrink)
Based on a set of interviews and materials collected in Barnaul in 2001-2005, this article explores discursive mechanisms through which new social realities and new social identities are imagined, negotiated, and internalized in postsocialist Russia. By analyzing popular conspiracy narratives about universal lie, corruption, and manipulation, the article draws attention to the increasing prominence of images and ideas of an enclosed national community that are used to counterbalance the perceived exposure to foreign values and capital after the collapse of the (...) Soviet Union. (shrink)
For gut microbiota to influence behavior, microorganisms should be able to interfere with specific brain neurochemical circuitries. Understanding these molecular mechanisms is a key task in the new microbiota-gut-brain field. Recent studies have revealed that one major mechanistic link is the modulation of neuropeptide signaling by homologous bacterial proteins acting both directly and indirectly via production of neuropeptide-reactive immunoglobulins.
In a homogeneous jury, the votes are exchangeable correlated Bernoulli random variables. We derive the bounds on a homogeneous jury’s competence as the minimum and maximum probability of the jury being correct, which arise due to unknown correlations among the votes. The lower bound delineates the downside risk associated with entrusting decisions to the jury. In large and not-too-competent juries the lower bound may fall below the success probability of a fair coin flip—one half, while the upper bound may not (...) reach a certainty. We also derive the bounds on the voting power of an individual juror as the minimum and maximum probability of her/his casting a decisive vote. The maximum is less than one, while the minimum of zero can be attained for infinitely many combinations of distribution moments. (shrink)
Consciousness has been and will continue to be one of the central problems of philosophy. In written works the fact that the consciousness can sing is presented as one of the most interesting and enigmatic properties of consciousness. That consciousness can sing, and in fact does so, and to prove that this is the case is relatively easy. It is enough to say that “one is singing within oneself”, not loudly and only one or various simple sounds in a way (...) so that the Phonologic system does not take part at all. The arguments over whether or not the consciousness can sing are based on comparisons of paragraphs 15 to 27 from the first and second editions of Kant’s “Critique of Pure Reason” which were modified in the second edition, where no categorical statement about the similaritybetween reproduced representations and phenomenon is found. The problem between the similarity between the reproduced representations in the consciousness/brain and the consciousness/brain phenomenon were investigated by Kant in his first and second edition, where Kant reached his conclusion about the reproduced representations in the phenomenon. We are in agreement with Kant that there can exist in “the interior” of consciousness/brains of all human beings the state of similarity or difference between the represented and the perceived, but the unity of the consciousness can be found in only one state: the similarity between the represented and the perceived in the “interior”, of the consciousness/brain. In view of the similarity of the reproduced representations and the phenomenon of the consciousness/brain, the consciousness can sing and be united, or, if not, referring to the dissimilarity, the consciousness cannot sing and can be divided. (shrink)
Il s’agit dans cet article de dégager une certaine disposition de la philosophie russe envers la traduction comme opération fondamentale de la pensée. On considérera les cas précis des trois penseurs jouissant d’un prestige européen – Léon Chestov, Mikhaïl Bakhtine et Valery Podoroga. Cette disposition, considérée dans le geste des philosophes face à l’intraduisible, se manifesterait tout simplement par la violence, faite à l’original, de la non-hospitalité culturelle. Cette dernière est masquée parfois par l’idée reçue de l’omniréceptivité de la culture (...) russe, exprimée naguère par Dostoïevski dans son hommage à Pouchkine. (shrink)
The questions of « why » and « how to » translate Deleuze are examined by way of considerations concerning the recent penetration of Deleuze in Russian philosophical culture and the effect this has had on the manner in which one translates philosophy today in Russia. Under the sway of a strange misinterpretation, Deleuze’s thought has been diffused as a sort of introduction to Capitalist life, by which philosophy can be « de-marxised » and Russian thought freed from the burden (...) of Marxism or, rather, pseudo-Marxism. At the same time, the translation of Deleuze has become a site of conflict between traditionalists who reduce Deleuze’s language to that of classical philosophy and proponents of new practices who defend the singularity of Deleuze’s language and style. (shrink)
Résumé L’auteur fait ici partager plus de 30 ans d’expérience de l’étude du XVIIIe siècle dans les murs d’un institut académique russe. L’évolution de ses propres intérêts et des tendances historiographiques générales, la transformation du milieu académique, les changements dans l’organisation et le financement de la recherche russe sont placés dans le contexte plus large des métamorphoses dramatiques survenues dans son pays depuis la fin de l’ère soviétique jusqu’à nos jours.
This article analyses 178 essays written in April 1997, in which Siberian students described their understandings of Soviet and post-Soviet realities. The main change between the two regimes is perceived in these essays as the change in patterns of consumption. Moreover, as the essays indicate, the new Russian style of consumption, usually associated with the style of the new rich classes in Russia, finds its fullest representation in the figure of the `new Russian' man. The article suggests that students' attempts (...) to envision unfamiliar patterns of wealthy consumption bring with them the reproduction of their own cultural dispositions and habits. Being unable to easily come up with adequate cultural signifiers that could homologically represent the distinctive economic location of the new rich, students chose to follow the path of quantitative rather than qualitative representation, expressing `the taste of luxury' in terms of the `taste of necessity'. Along with this subjective factor, that is, the students' own cultural dispositions, the prominence of the quantitative factor in their descriptions of the new Russian style of consumption is determined by the absence of a developed field of post-Soviet cultural production, which could have provided the new Russian style with distinctive status symbols. (shrink)
Two-stage voting is prone to majority inversions, a situation in which the outcome of an election is not backed by a majority of popular votes. We study the probability of majority inversion in a model with two candidates, three states and uniformly distributed fractions of supporters for each candidate. The model encompasses equal or distinct population sizes, with equal, population-based or arbitrary voting weights in the second stage. We prove that, when no state can dictate the outcome of the election (...) by commanding a voting weight in excess of one half, the probability of majority inversion increases with the size disparity among the states. (shrink)
The volume draws attention to the unknown and unexplored areas, trends and ways of thinking under the communist regime. It demonstrates how various bodies of knowledge were produced, disseminated and used for a wide variety of purposes: from openly justifying dominant political views to framing oppositional and non-official discourses and practices.
How is peace to be understood? Does it make any sense to believe in its utopian realisation? Or is its failure necessary, its attempt always transforming into dystopia? Is there something to be saved in the ideal of utopian peace? Can one affirm that peace is in fact a pantopia an omnipresent reality? The collection of essays, Concerning Peace: New Perspectives on Utopia, investigates these questions. Its method resides in both a philosophical understanding of peace, and its exemplification into concrete (...) reality. Through the analysis of concrete examples of peace belonging to the diverse fields of metaphysics, politics, history and culture, the essays bring the idea of peace within our reach. Going from the particular to the general, from life to philosophy, the authors of the collected essays offer us more than an understanding of peace; they produce it before our eyes. If this book may interest peace and philosophy scholars, it was first intended for any citizen caring about the way the world must be, refusing to simply accept it as it is for anyone willing to believe in the reality of utopia. (shrink)
The importance of an author can be evaluated by the extent to which his theoretical contribution transforms a certain area of knowledge: major researchers create new vistas. This certainly applies to Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934), one of the most brilliant authors of contemporary psychology. His work, owing to its originality, is of epistemological interest to several areas of knowledge. In fact, Vygotsky was at the center of a historical time of change in twentieth-century Russia, in which Mikhail Bakhtin, Roman Jakobson, (...) class='Hi'>Serguei Eisenstein, Alexander Luria, and Yuri Lotman took part. Their theoretical proposals had repercussions in several areas of knowledge: in literature, semiotics, film, and .. (shrink)
Em busca da relação profícua entre Psicanálise e História, procura-se, neste artigo avaliar como Carlo Ginzburg, em sua trajetória intelectual e acadêmica, discutiu Freud e a Psicanálise à luz da Micro-História. Para tanto, a obra de Ginzburg Mitos, emblemas, sinais: morfologia e história tornou-se um manancial para esta busca. Nos capítulos Sinais: raízes de um paradigma indiciário e, principalmente, Freud, o homem dos lobos e os lobisomens, Ginzburg discute criticamente as interpretações de Freud sobre o seu caso clínico mais importante, (...) um paciente russo de nome Serguei Constantinovitch Pankejeff, conhecido como O Homem dos Lobos. Ginzburg não deixa de reconhecer a magnitude da obra de Freud, mas aponta suas limitações como não considerar suficientemente a formação cultural de seu paciente e dar um enfoque maior a individuação. Ginzburg permitiu, ainda, demonstrar em sua obra a importância da Psicanálise na elaboração do conceito fundamental à MicroHistória, o paradigma indiciário. (shrink)