Results for 'Self-driving cars'

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  1.  97
    Self-Driving Cars and Engineering Ethics: The Need for a System Level Analysis.Jason Borenstein, Joseph R. Herkert & Keith W. Miller - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):383-398.
    The literature on self-driving cars and ethics continues to grow. Yet much of it focuses on ethical complexities emerging from an individual vehicle. That is an important but insufficient step towards determining how the technology will impact human lives and society more generally. What must complement ongoing discussions is a broader, system level of analysis that engages with the interactions and effects that these cars will have on one another and on the socio-technical systems in which (...)
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  2. Self-Driving Cars in Dilemmatic Situations: An Approach Based on the Theory of Justification in Criminal Law.Ivó Coca-Vila - 2018 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 12 (1):59-82.
    This article puts forward solutions to some of the ethical and legal dilemmas posed in the current discussion on how to program crash algorithms in autonomous or self-driving cars. The first part of the paper defines the scope of the problem in the criminal legal field, and the next section gives a critical analysis of the proposal to always prioritise the interest of the occupant of the vehicle in situations with conflict of interests. The principle of minimizing (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Accident-Algorithms for Self-Driving Cars: An Applied Trolley Problem?Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1275-1289.
    Self-driving cars hold out the promise of being safer than manually driven cars. Yet they cannot be a 100 % safe. Collisions are sometimes unavoidable. So self-driving cars need to be programmed for how they should respond to scenarios where collisions are highly likely or unavoidable. The accident-scenarios self-driving cars might face have recently been likened to the key examples and dilemmas associated with the trolley problem. In this article, we (...)
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  4. Self-driving Cars and the Right to Drive.William Ratoff - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (3):1-15.
    Every year, 1.35 million people are killed on roads worldwide and even more people are injured. Emerging self-driving car technology promises to cut this statistic down to a fraction of the current rate. On the face of it, this consideration alone constitutes a strong reason to legally require — once self-driving car technology is widely available and affordable — that all vehicles on public roads be self-driving. Here I critically investigate the question of whether (...)
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  5.  48
    Solving the Single-Vehicle Self-Driving Car Trolley Problem Using Risk Theory and Vehicle Dynamics.Rebecca Davnall - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):431-449.
    Questions of what a self-driving car ought to do if it encounters a situation analogous to the ‘trolley problem’ have dominated recent discussion of the ethics of self-driving cars. This paper argues that this interest is misplaced. If a trolley-style dilemma situation actually occurs, given the limits on what information will be available to the car, the dynamics of braking and tyre traction determine that, irrespective of outcome, it is always least risky for the car (...)
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  6.  25
    Moral Dilemmas in Self-Driving Cars.Chiara Lucifora, Giorgio Mario Grasso, Pietro Perconti & Alessio Plebe - 2020 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 11 (2):238-250.
    : Autonomous driving systems promise important changes for future of transport, primarily through the reduction of road accidents. However, ethical concerns, in particular, two central issues, will be key to their successful development. First, situations of risk that involve inevitable harm to passengers and/or bystanders, in which some individuals must be sacrificed for the benefit of others. Secondly, and identification responsible parties and liabilities in the event of an accident. Our work addresses the first of these ethical problems. We (...)
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  7.  21
    On Self-Driving Cars as a Technological Sublime.Julia M. Hildebrand - 2019 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 23 (2):153-173.
    Driverless automobility presents a “technological sublime” encompassing both promises and perils. The light side of the emerging transportation future lies, for instance, in the newly gained freedom from driving. The dark side of this sublime includes ethical challenges and potential harm resulting from the required socio-technical transformations of mobility. This article explores contemporary visions for the self-driving car future through the lens of the sublime and some of its theoretical variations, such as the natural, technological, electrical, and (...)
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  8.  18
    Microdecisions and Autonomy in Self-Driving Cars: Virtual Probabilities.Florian Sprenger - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):619-634.
    To operate in an unpredictable environment, a vehicle with advanced driving assistance systems, such as a robot or a drone, not only needs to register its surroundings but also to combine data from different sensors into a world model, for which it employs filter algorithms. Such world models, as this article argues with reference to the SLAM problem in robotics, consist of nothing other than probabilities about states and events arising in the environment. The model, thus, contains a virtuality (...)
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  9.  5
    Ethics of Self-driving Cars: A Naturalistic Approach.Selene Arfini, Davide Spinelli & Daniele Chiffi - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-18.
    The potential development of self-driving cars has called the attention of different interested parties. Yet, there are still only a few relevant international regulations on them, no emergency patterns accepted by communities and Original Equipment Manufacturers, and no publicly accepted solutions to some of their pending ethical problems. Thus, this paper aims to provide some possible answers to these moral and practical dilemmas. In particular, we focus on what AVs should do in no-win scenarios and on who (...)
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  10. What has the Trolley Dilemma Ever Done for Us ? On Some Recent Debates About the Ethics of Self-Driving Cars.Andreas Wolkenstein - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (3):163-173.
    Self-driving cars currently face a lot of technological problems that need to be solved before the cars can be widely used. However, they also face ethical problems, among which the question of crash-optimization algorithms is most prominently discussed. Reviewing current debates about whether we should use the ethics of the Trolley Dilemma as a guide towards designing self-driving cars will provide us with insights about what exactly ethical research does. It will result in (...)
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  11.  19
    Our Bodies in the Trolley’s Path, or Why Self-Driving Cars Must *Not* Be Programmed to Kill.Nassim JafariNaimi - 2018 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 43 (2):302-323.
    The discourse around self-driving cars has been dominated by an emphasis on their potential to reduce the number of accidents. At the same time, proponents acknowledge that self-driving cars would inevitably be involved in fatal accidents where moral algorithms would decide the fate of those involved. This is a necessary trade-off, proponents suggest, in order to reap the benefits of this new technology. In this article, I engage this argument, demonstrating how an undue optimism (...)
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  12. The Ethics of Crashes with SelfDriving Cars: A Roadmap, I.Sven Nyholm - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (7):e12507.
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  13. The Ethics of Crashes with SelfDriving Cars: A Roadmap, II.Sven Nyholm - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (7):e12506.
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  14.  12
    Between Real World and Thought Experiment: Framing Moral Decision-Making in Self-Driving Car Dilemmas.Vanessa Schäffner - 2020 - Humanistic Management Journal 6 (2):1-24.
    How should driverless vehicles respond to situations of unavoidable personal harm? This paper takes up the case of self-driving cars as a prominent example of algorithmic moral decision-making, an emergent type of morality that is evolving at a high pace in a digitised business world. As its main contribution, it juxtaposes dilemma decision situations relating to ethical crash algorithms for autonomous cars to two edge cases: the case of manually driven cars facing real-life, mundane accidents, (...)
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  15.  4
    How Can We Know a Self-Driving Car is Safe?Jack Stilgoe - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):635-647.
    Self-driving cars promise solutions to some of the hazards of human driving but there are important questions about the safety of these new technologies. This paper takes a qualitative social science approach to the question ‘how safe is safe enough?’ Drawing on 50 interviews with people developing and researching self-driving cars, I describe two dominant narratives of safety. The first, safety-in-numbers, sees safety as a self-evident property of the technology and offers metrics (...)
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  16.  70
    Teaching & Learning Guide For: The Ethics of Crashes with SelfDriving Cars: A Roadmap, I–II.Sven Nyholm - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (7):e12508.
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  17.  5
    Between Real World and Thought Experiment: Framing Moral Decision-Making in Self-Driving Car Dilemmas.Vanessa Schäffner - 2021 - Humanistic Management Journal 6 (2):249-272.
    How should driverless vehicles respond to situations of unavoidable personal harm? This paper takes up the case of self-driving cars as a prominent example of algorithmic moral decision-making, an emergent type of morality that is evolving at a high pace in a digitised business world. As its main contribution, it juxtaposes dilemma decision situations relating to ethical crash algorithms for autonomous cars to two edge cases: the case of manually driven cars facing real-life, mundane accidents, (...)
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  18.  4
    Mind the Gap: A Theory Is Needed to Bridge the Gap Between the Human Skills and Self-Driving Cars.Endre E. Kadar - 2019 - In Maria Isabel Aldinhas Ferreira, João Silva Sequeira, Gurvinder Singh Virk, Mohammad Osman Tokhi & Endre E. Kadar (eds.), Robotics and Well-Being. Springer Verlag. pp. 55-65.
    In designing robots for safe and ethically acceptable interaction with humans, engineers need to understand human behaviour control including social interaction skills. Automated systems with the option of mixed control constitute an important subclass of these design problems. These designs imply basic interaction skills because an automatic controller should be similar to human-like controller; otherwise, the human and artificial agent could not understand/interpret each other in their interaction. A popular research area for mixed control is to develop self-driving (...)
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  19.  15
    The Ethics of Automated Vehicles: Why Self-driving Cars Should not Swerve in Dilemma Cases.Rob Lawlor - 2022 - Res Publica 28 (1):193-216.
    In this paper, I will argue that automated vehicles should not swerve to avoid a person or vehicle in its path, unless they can do so without imposing risks onto others. I will argue that this is the conclusion that we should reach even if we start by assuming that we should divert the trolley in the standard trolley case. In defence of this claim, I appeal to the distribution of moral and legal responsibilities, highlighting the importance of safe spaces, (...)
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  20. Two-Stage Approach to Solve Ethical Morality Problem in Self-Driving Cars.Akshat Chandak, Shailendra Aote, Aradhita Menghal, Urvi Negi, Shreyas Nemani & Shubham Jha - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Ethical morality is one of the significant issues in self-driving cars. The paper provides a newer approach to solve the ethical decision problems in self-driving cars until there is no concrete ethical decision to all problems. This paper gives a two-way approach to solve a problem, with first being the mapping of problem to the solution already known or which has a fixed set of solutions and action priorities defined to a problem previously. Now, (...)
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  21.  13
    Moral Judgements on the Actions of Self-Driving Cars and Human Drivers in Dilemma Situations From Different Perspectives.Noa Kallioinen, Maria Pershina, Jannik Zeiser, Farbod Nosrat Nezami, Gordon Pipa, Achim Stephan & Peter König - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  22.  27
    Self-Driving Vehicles—an Ethical Overview.Sven Ove Hansson, Matts-Åke Belin & Björn Lundgren - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1383-1408.
    The introduction of self-driving vehicles gives rise to a large number of ethical issues that go beyond the common, extremely narrow, focus on improbable dilemma-like scenarios. This article provides a broad overview of realistic ethical issues related to self-driving vehicles. Some of the major topics covered are as follows: Strong opinions for and against driverless cars may give rise to severe social and political conflicts. A low tolerance for accidents caused by driverless vehicles may delay (...)
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  23.  14
    The Relativistic Car: Applying Metaethics to the Debate About Self-Driving Vehicles.Thomas Pölzler - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (3):833-850.
    Almost all participants in the debate about the ethics of accidents with self-driving cars have so far assumed moral universalism. However, universalism may be philosophically more controversial than is commonly thought, and may lead to undesirable results in terms of non-moral consequences and feasibility. There thus seems to be a need to also start considering what I refer to as the “relativistic car” — a car that is programmed under the assumption that what is morally right, wrong, (...)
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  24.  9
    Morals, ethics, and the technology capabilities and limitations of automated and self-driving vehicles.Joshua Siegel & Georgios Pappas - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    We motivate the desire for self-driving and explain its potential and limitations, and explore the need for—and potential implementation of—morals, ethics, and other value systems as complementary “capabilities” to the Deep Technologies behind self-driving. We consider how the incorporation of such systems may drive or slow adoption of high automation within vehicles. First, we explore the role for morals, ethics, and other value systems in self-driving through a representative hypothetical dilemma faced by a (...)-driving car. Through the lens of engineering, we explain in simple terms common moral and ethical frameworks including utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics before characterizing their relationship to the fundamental algorithms enabling self-driving. The concepts of behavior cloning, state-based modeling, and reinforcement learning are introduced, with some algorithms being more suitable for the implementation of value systems than others. We touch upon the contemporary cross-disciplinary landscape of morals and ethics in self-driving systems from a joint philosophical and technical perspective, and close with considerations for practitioners and the public, particularly as individuals may not appreciate the nuance and complexity of using imperfect information to navigate diverse scenarios and tough-to-quantify value systems, while “typical” software development reduces complex problems to black and white decision-making. (shrink)
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  25. Automated Cars Meet Human Drivers: Responsible Human-Robot Coordination and the Ethics of Mixed Traffic.Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):335-344.
    In this paper, we discuss the ethics of automated driving. More specifically, we discuss responsible human-robot coordination within mixed traffic: i.e. traffic involving both automated cars and conventional human-driven cars. We do three main things. First, we explain key differences in robotic and human agency and expectation-forming mechanisms that are likely to give rise to compatibility-problems in mixed traffic, which may lead to crashes and accidents. Second, we identify three possible solution-strategies for achieving better human-robot coordination within (...)
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  26. Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting.Jan Gogoll & Julian F. Müller - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):681-700.
    The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting. While (...)
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  27.  94
    Human Decisions in Moral Dilemmas Are Largely Described by Utilitarianism: Virtual Car Driving Study Provides Guidelines for Autonomous Driving Vehicles.Anja K. Faulhaber, Anke Dittmer, Felix Blind, Maximilian A. Wächter, Silja Timm, Leon R. Sütfeld, Achim Stephan, Gordon Pipa & Peter König - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):399-418.
    Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles. We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments. Participants had to make decisions (...)
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  28. Crash Algorithms for Autonomous Cars: How the Trolley Problem Can Move Us Beyond Harm Minimisation.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):685-698.
    The prospective introduction of autonomous cars into public traffic raises the question of how such systems should behave when an accident is inevitable. Due to concerns with self-interest and liberal legitimacy that have become paramount in the emerging debate, a contractarian framework seems to provide a particularly attractive means of approaching this problem. We examine one such attempt, which derives a harm minimisation rule from the assumptions of rational self-interest and ignorance of one’s position in a future (...)
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  29.  18
    Sulla moralità artificiale. Le decisioni delle macchine tra etica e diritto.Daniela Tafani - 2020 - Rivista di Filosofia 1 (111):81-103.
    In the contemporary debate on artificial morality, the trolley problem has found a new field of application, in the “ethics of crashes” with self-driving cars. The paper aims to show that the trolley dilemma is out of place, in the context of automated traffic, not only with regard to the object of the dilemma (which human being should be sacrificed, in crashes with inevitable fatal consequences), but also with regard to the subject to whom it is up (...)
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  30. Liberalism, Self-Determination, and Secession.Christopher Heath Wellman - 1994 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    This dissertation provides a systematic analysis of when an individual or group has a right to secede that is grounded in self-determination. Since the primary question in a secessionist conflict concerns the territory being contested, any analysis of the right to secede must provide an account of what grounds the existing state's claim to political jurisdiction over its territory. With this in mind, I examine consent and teleological justifications for the state and find both inadequate. ;The consent account posits (...)
     
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  31. Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis.Alexander Hevelke & Julian Nida-Rümelin - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):619-630.
    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development (...)
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  32. Moral Technology.Paula Boddington - unknown
    Self-driving cars don’t drink and medical AIs are never overtired. Given our obvious flaws, what can humans still do best?
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  33. Attributing Agency to Automated Systems: Reflections on Human–Robot Collaborations and Responsibility-Loci.Sven Nyholm - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1201-1219.
    Many ethicists writing about automated systems attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots. I argue that whereas it (...)
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  34.  4
    Study on Global Parameters Optimization of Dual-Drive Powertrain System of Pure Electric Vehicle Based on Multiple Condition Computer Simulation.Yong Wang, Hongguo Cai, Yinghua Liao & Jun Gao - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-10.
    Equipped with two power sources, the dual-driving powertrain system for pure electric vehicles has a driving mode different from traditional electric vehicles. Under the premise that the structural form of the transmission system remains unchanged, the following transmission schemes can be adopted for double drive electric vehicles according to the demand power: the main and auxiliary electric transmission scheme, the transmission scheme in which the two motors always maintain coupling drive, and the speed-regulating type electric transmission scheme. Therefore, (...)
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  35. Who Should Bear the Risk When Self-Driving Vehicles Crash?Antti Kauppinen - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (4):630-645.
    The moral importance of liability to harm has so far been ignored in the lively debate about what self-driving vehicles should be programmed to do when an accident is inevitable. But liability matters a great deal to just distribution of risk of harm. While morality sometimes requires simply minimizing relevant harms, this is not so when one party is liable to harm in virtue of voluntarily engaging in activity that foreseeably creates a risky situation, while having reasonable alternatives. (...)
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  36. The Ethical Knob: Ethically-Customisable Automated Vehicles and the Law.Giuseppe Contissa, Francesca Lagioia & Giovanni Sartor - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (3):365-378.
    Accidents involving autonomous vehicles raise difficult ethical dilemmas and legal issues. It has been argued that self-driving cars should be programmed to kill, that is, they should be equipped with pre-programmed approaches to the choice of what lives to sacrifice when losses are inevitable. Here we shall explore a different approach, namely, giving the user/passenger the task of deciding what ethical approach should be taken by AVs in unavoidable accident scenarios. We thus assume that AVs are equipped (...)
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  37.  6
    Ethics for Robots: How to Design a Moral Algorithm.Derek Leben - 2018 - Routledge.
    Ethics for Robots describes and defends a method for designing and evaluating ethics algorithms for autonomous machines, such as self-driving cars and search and rescue drones. Derek Leben argues that such algorithms should be evaluated by how effectively they accomplish the problem of cooperation among self-interested organisms, and therefore, rather than simulating the psychological systems that have evolved to solve this problem, engineers should be tackling the problem itself, taking relevant lessons from our moral psychology. Leben (...)
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  38.  27
    Wenn Ethik zum Programm wird: Eine risikoethische Analyse moralischer Dilemmata des autonomen Fahrens.Vanessa Schäffner - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 3 (1):27-49.
    Wie sollen sich autonome Fahrzeuge verhalten, wenn ein Unfall nicht mehr abwendbar ist? Die Komplexität spezifischer moralischer Dilemmata, die in diesem Kontext auftreten können, lässt bewährte ethische Denktraditionen an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Aufsatz versteht sich als Versuch, neue Lösungsperspektiven mithilfe einer risikoethischen Sichtweise auf die Problematik zu eröffnen und auf diese Weise deren Relevanz für die Programmierung von ethischen Unfallalgorithmen aufzuzeigen. Im Zentrum steht dabei die Frage, welche Implikationen sich aus einer Auffassung von Dilemma-Situationen als risikoethische Verteilungsprobleme im Hinblick (...)
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  39. What Will Self-Aware Systems Be Aware Of?John McCarthy - unknown
    #tex2html_wrap_inline114# Easy aspects of state: battery level, memory available, etc. #tex2html_wrap_inline116# Ongoing activities: serving users, driving a car #tex2html_wrap_inline118# Knowledge and lack of knowledge #tex2html_wrap_inline120# purposes, intentions, hopes, fears, likes, dislikes #tex2html_wrap_inline122# Actions it is free to choose among relative to external constraints. That's where free will comes from.
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  40.  14
    Toward Implementing the ADC Model of Moral Judgment in Autonomous Vehicles.Veljko Dubljević - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2461-2472.
    Autonomous vehicles —and accidents they are involved in—attest to the urgent need to consider the ethics of artificial intelligence. The question dominating the discussion so far has been whether we want AVs to behave in a ‘selfish’ or utilitarian manner. Rather than considering modeling self-driving cars on a single moral system like utilitarianism, one possible way to approach programming for AI would be to reflect recent work in neuroethics. The agent–deed–consequence model :3–20, 2014a, Behav Brain Sci 37:487–488, (...)
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  41.  86
    The Ugly Truth About Ourselves and Our Robot Creations: The Problem of Bias and Social Inequity.Ayanna Howard & Jason Borenstein - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1521-1536.
    Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as “black teenagers” are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them (...)
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  42.  18
    Self-Driving Vehicles Against Human Drivers: Equal Safety is Far From Enough.Peng Liu, Lin Wang & Charles Vincent - 2020 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 26 (4):692-704.
    We examined the acceptable risk of self-driving vehicles (SDVs) compared with that of human-driven vehicles (HDVs) and the psychological mechanisms influencing the decision-making regarding acceptable risk through 4 studies conducted in China and South Korea. Participants from both countries required SDVs to be 4–5 times as safe as HDVs (Studies 1 and 4). When an SDV and an HDV were manipulated to exhibit equivalent safety performance, participants’ lower trust in the SDV, rather than the higher negative affect evoked (...)
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  43. Engineering Social Justice Into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?Milos N. Mladenovic & Tristram McPherson - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1131-1149.
    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. (...)
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  44.  18
    Ethics of Technology Needs More Political Philosophy.Johannes Himmelreich - 2020 - Communications of the Acm 63 (1):33-35.
    The ongoing debate on the ethics of self-driving cars typically focuses on two approaches to answering such questions: moral philosophy and social science. I argue that these two approaches are both lacking. We should neither deduce answers from individual moral theories nor should we expect social science to give us complete answers. To supplement these approaches, we should turn to political philosophy. The issues we face are collective decisions that we make together rather than individual decisions we (...)
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  45.  61
    Algorithm Exploitation: Humans Are Keen to Exploit Benevolent AI.Jurgis Karpus, Adrian Krüger, Julia Tovar Verba, Bahador Bahrami & Ophelia Deroy - 2021 - iScience 24 (6):102679.
    We cooperate with other people despite the risk of being exploited or hurt. If future artificial intelligence (AI) systems are benevolent and cooperative toward us, what will we do in return? Here we show that our cooperative dispositions are weaker when we interact with AI. In nine experiments, humans interacted with either another human or an AI agent in four classic social dilemma economic games and a newly designed game of Reciprocity that we introduce here. Contrary to the hypothesis that (...)
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  46.  54
    Theoretical Foundations for the Responsibility of Autonomous Agents.Jaap Hage - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 25 (3):255-271.
    This article argues that it is possible to hold autonomous agents themselves, and not only their makers, users or owners, responsible for the acts of these agents. In this connection autonomous systems are computer programs that interact with the outside world without human interference. They include such systems as ‘intelligent’ weapons and self-driving cars. The argument is based on an analogy between human beings and autonomous agents and its main element asserts that if humans can be held (...)
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  47.  22
    The Future of Transportation: Ethical, Legal, Social and Economic Impacts of Self-Driving Vehicles in the Year 2025.Mark Ryan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1185-1208.
    Self-driving vehicles offer great potential to improve efficiency on roads, reduce traffic accidents, increase productivity, and minimise our environmental impact in the process. However, they have also seen resistance from different groups claiming that they are unsafe, pose a risk of being hacked, will threaten jobs, and increase environmental pollution from increased driving as a result of their convenience. In order to reap the benefits of SDVs, while avoiding some of the many pitfalls, it is important to (...)
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  48.  12
    Convolutional Neural Networks as Aid in Core Lithofacies Classification.Rafael Pires de Lima, Fnu Suriamin, Kurt J. Marfurt & Matthew J. Pranter - 2019 - Interpretation 7 (3):SF27-SF40.
    Artificial intelligence methods have a very wide range of applications. From speech recognition to self-driving cars, the development of modern deep-learning architectures is helping researchers to achieve new levels of accuracy in different fields. Although deep convolutional neural networks have reached or surpassed human-level performance in image recognition tasks, little has been done to transport this new image classification technology to geoscientific problems. We have developed what we believe to be the first use of CNNs to identify (...)
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  49.  11
    Artificial Intelligence: What Everyone Needs to Know.Jerry Kaplan - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Over the coming decades, Artificial Intelligence will profoundly impact the way we live, work, wage war, play, seek a mate, educate our young, and care for our elderly. It is likely to greatly increase our aggregate wealth, but it will also upend our labor markets, reshuffle our social order, and strain our private and public institutions. Eventually it may alter how we see our place in the universe, as machines pursue goals independent of their creators and outperform us in domains (...)
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  50. The Case for Government by Artificial Intelligence.Steven James Bartlett - 2016 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website: Http://Www.Willamette.Edu/~Sbartlet/Documents/Bartlett_The%20Case%20for%20Government%20by%20Artifici al%20Intelligence.Pdf.
    THE CASE FOR GOVERNMENT BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. Tired of election madness? The rhetoric of politicians? Their unreliable promises? And less than good government? -/- Until recently, it hasn’t been hard for people to give up control to computers. Not very many people miss the effort and time required to do calculations by hand, to keep track of their finances, or to complete their tax returns manually. But relinquishing direct human control to self-driving cars is expected to be (...)
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