Results for 'Scott O���Connor'

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  1.  32
    The Eleatic Challenge in Aristotle’s Physics I.8.Scott O’Connor - 2017 - Rhizomata 5 (1):25-50.
    In Physics I.8, Aristotle outlines and responds to an Eleatic argument against the reality of change. I defend a new reading according to which the argu- ment assumes Predicational Monism, the claim that each being can possess only one property. In Phys. I.2, Aristotle responds to Predicational Monism, which he attributes to the Eleatics; I argue that he uses this response to distinguish coin- cidental from non-coincidental becoming, a distinction he employs in Phys I.8 to resolve the argument against the (...)
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  2.  42
    The Subjects of Natural Generations in Aristotle’s Physics I.7.Scott O'Connor - 2015 - Apeiron 48 (1):45-75.
    In 'Physics' I.7, Aristotle claims that plants and animals are generated from sperma. Since most understood sperma to be an ovum, this claim threatens to undermine the standard view that, for Aristotle, the matter natural beings are generated from persists through their generation. By focusing on Aristotle’s discussion of sperma in the first book of the 'Generation of Animals', I show that, for Aristotle, sperma in the female is surplus blood collected in the uterus and not an ovum. I subsequently (...)
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  3.  7
    Aristotle's Theory of Bodies by Christian Pfeiffer.Scott O'Connor - 2020 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 58 (1):167-168.
    Aristotle uses 'body' to describe the matter of animals, the elements and what they compose, as well as magnitudes extended in three-dimensions. These last bodies belong to the category of quantity, alongside surfaces and lines. It is this notion of body that interests Christian Pfeiffer, who presents Aristotle's various discussions of it as one exhaustive theory of body. According to this theory, magnitudes are form-matter composites, where boundaries are forms and extensions are matter. The boundary of a body is its (...)
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  4.  19
    On Persistence in Aristotle.Scott O'Connor - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5.
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  5.  2
    Shocking Grace, Sudden Enlightenment: O’Connor and the Koans of Zen Buddhism.Scott Forschler - 2017 - The Flannery O'Connor Review 15:50-69.
    The work argues that the koans of Zen Buddhism have several intriguing non-accidental parallels with the short stories of Catholic author Flannery O'Connor. Both typically portray characters in a state of non-enlightenment in which they are egoistically obsessed with something which prevents them from perceiving and properly responding to the real world around them. Both present the characters with some opportunity for enlightenment, which they may or may not take up. Both come in a variety of forms, in order to (...)
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  6. Chalmers, David J. The Character of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 2010, 624 Pp. Cliteur, Paul. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 328 Pp. Cochran, Molly. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey, Cambridge Uni. [REVIEW]Fred Evans, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Jesus Ilundain-Agurruza, Michael W. Austin, Timothy O'Connor, Constantine Sandis, Graham Oppy, Michael Scott & Roland Pierik - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):0026-1068.
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  7. De-Signing Design: Cartographies of Theory and Practice.Scott McQuire, Mark Jackson, Marsha Berry, Maria O'Connor, Laurene Vaughan, Yoko Akama, William Cartwright, Linda Daley, Karen Burns, Stephen Loo, Lisa Dethridge, Chris L. Smith & Neil Leach (eds.) - 2015 - Lexington Books.
    De-Signing Design: Cartographies of Theory and Practice throws new light on the terrain between theory and practice in transdisciplinary discourses of design and art. The collection brings together a selection of essays on spatiality, difference, cultural aesthetics, and identity in the expanded field of place-making and being.
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  8.  26
    Review of Gary Alan Scott, Does Socrates Have a Method' Rethinking the Elenchus in Plato's Dialogues and Beyond[REVIEW]David K. O'Connor - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (10).
  9.  25
    O'Connor's Paradox and the Teaching of Educational Philosophy.David Stenhouse & D. J. O'Connor - 1968 - British Journal of Educational Studies 16 (3):243 - 257.
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  10.  34
    Letter From Cardinal Murphy-O’Connor.Cormac Murphy-O’Connor - 2003 - The Chesterton Review 29 (3):410-411.
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  11. Flannery O’Connor on the Catholic Novelist in the Protestant South.Flannery O'Connor - 2009 - The Chesterton Review 35 (3/4):730-740.
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  12. The Metaphysics of Emergence.Timothy O'Connor - 2005 - Noûs 39 (4):658-678.
    The objective probability of every physical event is fixed by prior physical events and laws alone. (This thesis is sometimes expressed in terms of explanation: In tracing the causal history of any physical event, one need not advert to any non-physical events or laws. To the extent that there is any explanation available for a physical event, there is a complete explanation available couched entirely in physical vocabulary. We prefer the probability formulation, as it should be acceptable to any physicalist, (...)
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  13. Evolving Perceptual Categories.Cailin O’Connor - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):110-121.
    This article uses sim-max games to model perceptual categorization with the goal of answering the following question: To what degree should we expect the perceptual categories of biological actors to track properties of the world around them? I argue that an analysis of these games suggests that the relationship between real-world structure and evolved perceptual categories is mediated by successful action in the sense that organisms evolve to categorize together states of nature for which similar actions lead to similar results. (...)
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  14.  30
    New Aspects of Omnipotence and Necessity in Anselm: M. J. A. O'CONNOR.M. J. A. O'connor - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):133-146.
    Anselm presented his ontological argument in three main forms. In Proslogion II he argued that the very concept of God implies his actual existence. In Reply to Gaunilo —the argument from aseity—he argued that the conception of God as an eternal existent rules out his conception as a merely possible existent. In Proslogion III he argued that the concept of God implies his actual existence as logically necessary. Each of these arguments has its traditional refutation. Against Proslogion II it is (...)
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  15.  46
    Dynamics and Diversity in Epistemic Communities.Cailin O’Connor & Justin Bruner - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (1):101-119.
    Bruner shows that in cultural interactions, members of minority groups will learn to interact with members of majority groups more quickly—minorities tend to meet majorities more often as a brute fact of their respective numbers—and, as a result, may come to be disadvantaged in situations where they divide resources. In this paper, we discuss the implications of this effect for epistemic communities. We use evolutionary game theoretic methods to show that minority groups can end up disadvantaged in academic interactions like (...)
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  16.  52
    Theism and Ultimate Explanation: The Necessary Shape of Contingency.Timothy O’Connor - 2010 - Philosophia Christi 12 (2):265-272.
    Twentieth-century analytic philosophy was dominated by positivist antimetaphysics and neo-Humean deflationary metaphysics, and the nature of explanation was reconceived in order to fit these agendas. Unsurprisingly, the explanatory value of theist was widely discredited. I argue that the long-overdue revival of moralized, broadly neo-Aristotelian metaphysics and an improved perspective on modal knowledge dramatically changes the landscape. In this enriched context, there is no sharp divide between physics and metaphysics, and the natural end of the theoretician’s quest for a unified explanation (...)
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  17. Freedom With a Human Face.Timothy O'Connor - 2005 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 29 (1):207-227.
    As good a definition as any of a _philosophical_ conundrum is a problem all of whose possible solutions are unsatisfactory. The problem of understanding the springs of action for morally responsible agents is commonly recognized to be such a problem. The origin, nature, and explanation of freely-willed actions puzzle us today as they did the ancients Greeks, and for much the same reasons. However, one can carry this ‘perennial-puzzle’ sentiment too far. The unsatisfactory nature of philosophical theories is a more (...)
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  18.  51
    The Evolution of Guilt.Cailin O'Connor - unknown
    Using evolutionary game theory, I consider how guilt can provide individual fitness benefits to actors both before and after bad behavior. This supplements recent work by philosophers on the evolution of guilt with a more complete picture of the relevant selection pressures.
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  19. The Evolution of Vagueness.Cailin O'Connor - 2013 - Erkenntnis (S4):1-21.
    Vague predicates, those that exhibit borderline cases, pose a persistent problem for philosophers and logicians. Although they are ubiquitous in natural language, when used in a logical context, vague predicates lead to contradiction. This paper will address a question that is intimately related to this problem. Given their inherent imprecision, why do vague predicates arise in the first place? I discuss a variation of the signaling game where the state space is treated as contiguous, i.e., endowed with a metric that (...)
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  20. Interests Without History: Some Difficulties for a Negative Aristotelianism.Brian O'Connor - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (3):854-860.
    This paper focuses on 3 features of Freyenhagen's Aristotelian version of Adorno. (a) It challenges the strict negativism Freyenhagen finds in Adorno. If we have morally relevant interests in ourselves, it is implicit that we have a standard by which to understand what is both good and bad for us (our interests). Because strict negativism operates without reference to what is good, it seems to be detached from real interests too. Torture, it is argued, is, among other things, a violation (...)
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  21.  76
    Ambiguity Is Kinda Good Sometimes.Cailin O'Connor - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):110-121.
    In a recent article, Carlos Santana shows that in common interest signaling games when signals are costly and when receivers can observe contextual environmental cues, ambiguous signaling strategies outperform precise ones and can, as a result, evolve. I show that if one assumes a realistic structure on the state space of a common interest signaling game, ambiguous strategies can be explained without appeal to contextual cues. I conclude by arguing that there are multiple types of cases of payoff-beneficial ambiguity, some (...)
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  22. Causality, Mind, and Free Will.Timothy O'Connor - 2000 - Noûs 34 (s14):105-117.
    One familiar affirmative answer to this question holds that these facts suffice to entail that Descartes' picture of the human mind must be mistaken. On Descartes' view, our mind or soul (the only essential part of ourselves) has no spatial location. Yet it directly interacts with but one physical object, the brain of that body with which it is, 'as it were, intermingled,' so as to 'form one unit.' The radical disparity posited between a nonspatial mind, whose intentional and conscious (...)
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  23. Brian O'Connor, Adorno's Negative Dialectic: Philosophy and the Possibility of Critical Rationality. [REVIEW]Patrick O'Connor - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (2):114-116.
     
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  24.  43
    Flannery O'Connor Meets Russell Kirk.Flannery O'Connor - 2007 - The Chesterton Review 33 (1/2):335-337.
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  25. Persons and Causes: The Metaphysics of Free Will.Timothy O'Connor - 2000 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This provocative book refurbishes the traditional account of freedom of will as reasons-guided "agent" causation, situating its account within a general metaphysics. O'Connor's discussion of the general concept of causation and of ontological reductionism v. emergence will specially interest metaphysicians and philosophers of mind.
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  26. Line Drawings: Defining Women Through Feminist Practice.Peg O'Connor - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):194-197.
  27. The Neo‐Hegelian Theory of Freedom and the Limits of Emancipation.Brian O'Connor - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):171-194.
    This paper critically evaluates what it identifies as ‘the institutional theory of freedom’ developed within recent neo-Hegelian philosophy. While acknowledging the gains made against the Kantian theory of autonomy as detachment it is argued that the institutional theory ultimately undermines the very meaning of practical agency. By tying agency to institutionally sustained recognition it effectively excludes the exercise of practical reason geared toward emancipation from a settled normative order. Adorno's notion of autonomy as resistance is enlisted to develop an account (...)
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  28. Power, Bargaining, and Collaboration.Justin Bruner & Cailin O'Connor - 2016 - In T. Boyer, C. Mayo-Wilson & M. Weisberg (eds.), Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge.
    Collaboration is increasingly popular across academia. Collaborative work raises certain ethical questions, however. How will the fruits of collaboration be divided? How will the work for the collaborative project be split? In this paper, we consider the following question in particular. Are there ways in which these divisions systematically disadvantage certain groups? -/- We use evolutionary game theoretic models to address this question. First, we discuss results from O'Connor and Bruner (unpublished). In this paper, we show that underrepresented groups in (...)
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  29.  72
    On the Transfer of Necessity.Timothy O'Connor - 1993 - Noûs 27 (2):204-18.
    Over the last several years, a number of philosophers have advanced formal versions of certain traditional arguments for the incompatibility of human freedom with causal determinism and for the incompatibility of human freedom with infallible divine foreknowledge. Common to all of these is some form of a principle governing the transfer of a species of alethic necessity (TPN). More recently, a few clear and compelling counterexamples to TNP (and a variant of it) have begun to surface in the literature. These (...)
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  30. Indeterminism and Free Agency: Three Recent Views.Timothy O'connor - 1993 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):499-26.
    It is a commonplace of philosophy that the notion of free will is a hard nut to crack. A simple, compelling argument can be made to show that behavior for which an agent is morally responsible cannot be the outcome of prior determining causal factors.1 Yet the smug satisfaction with which we incompatibilists are prone to trot out this argument has a tendency to turn to embarrassment when we're asked to explain just how it is that morally responsible action might (...)
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  31.  21
    The Misinformation Age: How False Beliefs Spread.Cailin O'Connor & James Owen Weatherall - 2019 - New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press.
    "Why should we care about having true beliefs? And why do demonstrably false beliefs persist and spread despite consequences for the people who hold them? Philosophers of science Cailin O’Connor and James Weatherall argue that social factors, rather than individual psychology, are what’s essential to understanding the spread and persistence of false belief. It might seem that there’s an obvious reason that true beliefs matter: false beliefs will hurt you. But if that’s right, then why is it irrelevant to many (...)
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  32.  7
    The Apomediated World: Regulating Research When Social Media Has Changed Research.Dan O’Connor - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):470-483.
    Social media, meaning digital technologies and platforms such as blogs, wikis, forums, content aggregators, sharing sites, and social networks like Facebook and Twitter, have profoundly changed the way that information can be shared online. Now, almost anyone with a broadband internet connection or a smart phone can share ideas, data, and opinions with just about anyone else on the planet. This change has serious implications for the way in which human subjects research can be conducted and, concomitantly, for the ways (...)
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  33.  17
    O’Connor’s Permissive Multiverse.Michael J. Almeida - 2010 - Philosophia Christi 12 (2):296-307.
    I distinguish restrictive and permissive multiverse solutions to the problems of evil and no best world. Restrictive multiverses do not admit a single instance of gratuitous evil and they are not improvable. I show that restrictive multiverses unacceptably entail that all modal distinctions collapse. I consider Timothy O’Connor’s permissive multiverse. I show that a perfect creator minimizes aggregative suffering in permissive multiverses only if the actual universe is not included in any actualizable multiverse. I conclude that permissive multiverses do not (...)
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  34.  25
    Bridging the Gap: A Study of General Nurses' Perceptions of Patient Advocacy in Ireland.Tom O’Connor & Billy Kelly - 2005 - Nursing Ethics 12 (5):453-467.
    Advocacy has become an accepted and integral attribute of nursing practice. Despite this adoption of advocacy, confusion remains about the precise nature of the concept and how it should be enacted in practice. The aim of this study was to investigate general nurses’ perceptions of being patient advocates in Ireland and how they enact this role. These perceptions were compared with existing theory and research on advocacy in order to contribute to the knowledge base on the subject. An inductive, qualitative (...)
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  35.  52
    Thomas Reid on Free Agency.Timothy O'Connor - 1994 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (4):605-622.
    Reid takes it to be part of our commonsense view of ourselves that "we" -- "qua" enduring substances, not merely "qua" subjects of efficacious mental states -- are often the immediate causes of our own volitions. Only if this conviction is veridical, Reid thinks, may we be properly held to be responsible for our actions (indeed, may we truly be said to "act" at all). This paper offers an interpretation of Reid's account of such agency (taking account of Rowe's recent (...)
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  36.  53
    Epicurus' Ethical Theory: The Pleasures of Invulnerability.David K. O'Connor - 1991 - Ethics 101 (3):657-658.
  37.  27
    Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network: Dynamics of Learning and Computations.Christopher M. O’Connor, George S. Cree & Ken McRae - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):665-708.
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  38. Simplicity and Creation.Timothy O’Connor - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):405-412.
    According to many philosophical theologians, God is metaphysically simple: there is no real distinction among His attributes or even between attribute and existence itself. Here, I consider only one argument against the simplicity thesis. Its proponents claim that simplicity is incompatible with God’s having created another world, since simplicity entails that God is unchanging across possible worlds. For, they argue, different acts of creation involve different willings, which are distinct intrinsic states. I show that this is mistaken, by sketching an (...)
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  39.  72
    In Epistemic Networks, is Less Really More?Sarita Rosenstock, Cailin O'Connor & Justin Bruner - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (2):234-252.
    We show that previous results from epistemic network models showing the benefits of decreased connectivity in epistemic networks are not robust across changes in parameter values. Our findings motivate discussion about whether and how such models can inform real-world epistemic communities. As we argue, only robust results from epistemic network models should be used to generate advice for the real-world, and, in particular, decreasing connectivity is a robustly poor recommendation.
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  40.  36
    Metaphysical Beliefs.D. J. O'Connor - 1959 - Philosophy 34 (128):54-56.
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  41. Agent-Causal Theories.Timothy O'Connor - 2011 - In Robert Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will: Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 309-328.
    This essay will canvass recent philosophical discussion of accounts of human (free) agency that deploy a notion of agent causation . Historically, many accounts have only hinted at the nature of agent causation by way of contrast with the causality exhibited by impersonal physical systems. Likewise, the numerous criticisms of agent causal theories have tended to be highly general, often amounting to no more that the bare assertion that the idea of agent causation is obscure or mysterious. But in the (...)
     
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  42.  28
    Wittgenstein: A Feminist Interpretation.Peg O'Connor - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (3):207-210.
    In this new book, Alessandra Tanesini demonstrates that feminist thought has a lot to offer to the study of Wittgenstein's philosophical work, and that -at the same time-that work can inspire feminist reflection in new directions. In Wittgenstein, Tanesini offers a highly original interpretation of several themes in Wittgenstein's philosophy. She argues that when we look at his work through feminist eyes we discover that he is not primarily concerned with providing solutions to technical problems in the philosophy of mind, (...)
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  43.  63
    How to Beat Science and Influence People: Policymakers and Propaganda in Epistemic Networks.James Owen Weatherall, Cailin O’Connor & Justin P. Bruner - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (4):1157-1186.
    In their recent book, Oreskes and Conway describe the ‘tobacco strategy’, which was used by the tobacco industry to influence policymakers regarding the health risks of tobacco products. The strategy involved two parts, consisting of promoting and sharing independent research supporting the industry’s preferred position and funding additional research, but selectively publishing the results. We introduce a model of the tobacco strategy, and use it to argue that both prongs of the strategy can be extremely effective—even when policymakers rationally update (...)
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  44. David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning.Justin Bruner, Cailin O’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):603-621.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis. We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors to transfer (...)
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  45.  24
    The Trolley Method of Moral Philosophy.James O’Connor - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (1):14.
    The hypothetical scenarios generally known as trolley problems have become widespread in recent moral philosophy. They invariably require an agent to choose one of a strictly limited number of options, all of them bad. Although they don’t always involve trolleys / trams, and are used to make a wide variety of points, what makes it justified to speak of a distinctive “trolley method” is the characteristic assumption that the intuitive reactions that all these artificial situations elicit constitute an appropriate guide (...)
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  46. Introductory Philosophy Edited by Frank Tillman, Bernard Berofsky [and] John O'connor. --.Frank A. Tillman, Bernard Berofsky & John O'connor - 1967 - Harper & Row.
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  47. The Imagination: Cognitive, Pre-Cognitive, and Meta-Cognitive Aspects.Kieron P. O’Connor & Frederick Aardema - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):233-256.
    This article is an attempt to situate imagination within consciousness complete with its own pre-cognitive, cognitive, and meta-cognitive domains. In the first sections we briefly review traditional philosophical and psychological conceptions of the imagination. The majority have viewed perception and imagination as separate faculties, performing distinct functions. A return to a phenomenological account of the imagination suggests that divisions between perception and imagination are transcended by precognitive factors of sense of reality and non-reality where perception and imagination play an indivisible (...)
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  48. Free Will.Timothy O'Connor & Christopher Evan Franklin - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    “Free Will” is a philosophical term of art for a particular sort of capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives. Which sort is the free will sort is what all the fuss is about. (And what a fuss it has been: philosophers have debated this question for over two millenia, and just about every major philosopher has had something to say about it.) Most philosophers suppose that the concept of free will is very (...)
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  49.  3
    The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution.Cailin O'Connor - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    In almost every human society some people get more and others get less. Why is inequity the rule in human societies? Philosopher Cailin O'Connor reveals how cultural evolution works on social categories such as race and gender to generate unfairness.
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  50.  7
    Line Drawings: Defining Women Through Feminist Practice.Peg O'Connor - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (1):209-212.
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