Results for 'Sarah E. Ainsworth'

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  1.  35
    Cooperation and fairness depend on self-regulation.Sarah E. Ainsworth & Roy F. Baumeister - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):79-80.
    Any evolved disposition for fairness and cooperation would not replace but merely compete with selfish and other antisocial impulses. Therefore, we propose that human cooperation and fairness depend on self-regulation. Evidence shows reductions in fairness and other prosocial tendencies when self-regulation fails.
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  2.  18
    Differentiation of individual selves facilitates group-level benefits of ultrasociality.Sarah E. Ainsworth, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  3.  6
    Differentiating selves facilitates group outcomes.Sarah E. Ainsworth, Roy F. Baumeister & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  4.  39
    Are groups more or less than the sum of their members? The moderating role of individual identification.Roy F. Baumeister, Sarah E. Ainsworth & Kathleen D. Vohs - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-38.
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  5.  49
    Subjective correlates and consequences of belief in free will.A. Will Crescioni, Roy F. Baumeister, Sarah E. Ainsworth, Michael Ent & Nathaniel M. Lambert - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):41-63.
    Four studies measured or manipulated beliefs in free will to illuminate how such beliefs are linked to other aspects of personality. Study 1 showed that stronger belief in free will was correlated with more gratitude, greater life satisfaction, lower levels of perceived life stress, a greater sense of self-efficacy, greater perceived meaning in life, higher commitment in relationships, and more willingness to forgive relationship partners. Study 2 showed that the belief in free will was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction, (...)
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  6.  25
    Individual identity and freedom of choice in the context of environmental and economic conditions.Roy F. Baumeister, Jina Park & Sarah E. Ainsworth - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):484 - 484.
    Van de Vliert's findings fit nicely with our recent arguments implying that (1) differentiated selfhood is partly motivated by requirements of cultural groups, and (2) free will mainly exists within culture. Some cultural groups promote individual freedom, whereas others constrict it so as to maintain elites' power and privilege. Thus, freedom is, to a great extent, a creation of culture.
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  7.  8
    In Defense of Reading.Sarah E. Worth - 2017 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    In this fascinating book, Sarah Worth addresses from a philosophical perspective the many ways in which reading benefits us morally, socially and cognitively.
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  8.  63
    Evidentiality and the Structure of Speech Acts.Sarah E. Murray - 2010 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    Many languages grammatically mark evidentiality, i.e., the source of information. In assertions, evidentials indicate the source of information of the speaker while in questions they indicate the expected source of information of the addressee. This dissertation examines the semantics and pragmatics of evidentiality and illocutionary mood, set within formal theories of meaning and discourse. The empirical focus is the evidential system of Cheyenne (Algonquian: Montana), which is analyzed based on several years of fieldwork by the author.
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  9.  85
    Varieties of update.Sarah E. Murray - 2014 - Semantics and Pragmatics 7 (2):1--53.
    This paper discusses three potential varieties of update: updates to the common ground, structuring updates, and updates that introduce discourse referents. These different types of update are used to model different aspects of natural language phenomena. Not-at-issue information directly updates the common ground. The illocutionary mood of a sentence structures the context. Other updates introduce discourse referents of various types, including propositional discourse referents for at-issue information. Distinguishing these types of update allows a unified treatment of a broad range of (...)
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  10.  10
    The semantics of evidentials.Sarah E. Murray - 2017 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    This book provides a compositional, truth-conditional, crosslinguistic semantics for evidentiality, the linguistic encoding of the source of information on which a statement is based. Central to the proposed theory is the distinction between what propositional content is at-issue and what content is not-at-issue. Evidentials contribute not-at-issue content, and can affect the level of commitment a sentence makes to the main proposition, contributed by sentential mood. In this volume, Sarah Murray builds on recent work in the formal semantics of evidentials (...)
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  11.  34
    A Hamblin Semantics for Evidentials.Sarah E. Murray - 2011 - In Ed Cormany, Satoshi Ito & David Lutz (eds.), Proceedings From Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) XIX (2009). CLC Publications. pp. 324--341.
    In this paper, I propose that the distinction between what is at-issue and what is not can be modeled as a distinction between two components of assertion. These two components affect the common ground in different ways. The at-issue component of an assertion, which is negotiable, is treated as a proposal to update the common ground. The not-at-issue component of an assertion, which is not negotiable, is added directly to the common ground. Evidence for this proposal comes from evidentials, which (...)
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  12.  60
    Animals and agency: an interdisciplinary exploration.Sarah E. McFarland & Ryan Hediger (eds.) - 2009 - Boston: Brill.
    This collection examines the question of nonhuman animal agency by shifting emphasis from the human perspective toward that of other animals, exploring modes of ...
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  13.  52
    Evidentials and Questions in Cheyenne.Sarah E. Murray - 2010 - In Suzi Lima (ed.), Proceedings of SULA 5: Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas (2009). GLSA Publications. pp. 139--155.
    On one view, the point of an assertion is to update the common ground (Stalnaker 1978, Karttunen 1974). On another, the point of an assertion is to propose an update to the com- mon ground (Groenendijk 2009, Mascarenhas 2009, and related work on the structure of discourse, e.g., Ginzburg 1996, Roberts 1996, Gunlogson 2001). In Murray (to appear), I merge these two views. I argue based on evidence from declarative sentences with eviden- tials that assertion has two components: what is (...)
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  14.  63
    Reflexivity and Reciprocity with(out) Underspecification.Sarah E. Murray - 2008 - In Alte Grønn (ed.), Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 12 (2007). ILOS. pp. 455--469.
    In languages like English, reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by distinct proforms. However, many languages, such as Cheyenne, express reflexivity and reciprocity with a single proform. In this paper I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg, 1996) to a draw a semantic parallel between reflexive and reciprocal anaphors in English. I propose that they contribute overlapping but distinct requirements on the relations introduced by transitive verbs, requirements which fully specify reflexivity and reciprocity. This parallel is then extended to Cheyenne (...)
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  15. Dancing penguins and a pretentious raccoon : animated animals and 21st century environmentalism.Sarah E. McFarland - 2009 - In Sarah E. McFarland & Ryan Hediger (eds.), Animals and Agency: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Brill.
     
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  16.  49
    Quantificational and Illocutionary Variability in Cheyenne.Sarah E. Murray - 2012 - In Elizabeth Bogal-Allbritten (ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on the Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas and SULA-Bar. Glsa Publications. pp. 149--170.
    In this paper, I discuss the quantificational variability of Cheyenne indeterminates: the variety of interpretations they can receive and the grammatical contexts that condition these interpretations. Building on analyses of indeterminates in other languages, such as Kratzer and Shimoyama (2002), I present a Hamblin-style analysis of Cheyenne indeter- minates. The proposal builds on the analysis of declaratives and interrogatives argued for in Murray (2010). This analysis can account for the quantificational variability of indeterminates in the scope of propositional operators as (...)
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  17.  59
    Dynamics of Reflexivity and Reciprocity.Sarah E. Murray - 2007 - In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. ILLC/Department of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam. pp. 157--162.
    Plural reflexives and reciprocals are anaphoric not only to antecedent pluralities but also to relations between the members of those pluralities. In this paper, I utilize Dynamic Plural Logic (van den Berg 1996) to analyze reflexives and reciprocals as anaphors that elaborate on relations introduced by the verb, which can be collective, cumulative, or distributive. This analysis generalizes to languages like Cheyenne (Algonquian) where reflexivity and reciprocity are expressed by a single proform that I argue is underspecified, not ambiguous.
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  18. Comprehending negated sentences with binary states and locations.Sarah E. Anderson, Stephanie Huette, Teenie Matlock & M. Spivey - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  19. Approaching the agency of other animals : an introduction.Sarah E. McFarland & Ryan Hediger - 2009 - In Sarah E. McFarland & Ryan Hediger (eds.), Animals and Agency: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Brill.
     
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  20. Causation in Metaphysics and Moral Theory.Sarah E. Mcgrath - 2002 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Chapter 1. The causal relata. Ordinary talk suggests that entities from different ontological categories can cause and be caused: Kathy's throw, the fact that Kathy threw, and Kathy herself can all cause the window to break. But according to the majority view, causation exclusively relates events. This chapter defends the contrary view that the causal relata are as miscellaneous as ordinary talk suggests. A question remains: is there an ontological kind K such that causal relations on entities of that kind (...)
     
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  21. Proceedings of the British Academy Volume 167, 2009 Lectures.E. Fraser Sarah - 2011
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  22.  30
    Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology.Sarah E. Fratesi & H. Leonard Vacher - 2008 - Journal of Research Practice 4 (1):Article M1.
    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. (...)
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  23.  10
    Environmental guilt and shame: signals of individual and collective responsibility and the need for ritual responses.Sarah E. Fredericks - 2021 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Bloggers confessing that they waste food, non-governmental organizations naming corporations selling unsustainably harvested seafood, and veterans apologizing to Native Americans at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation for environmental and social devastation caused by the United States government all signal the existence of action-oriented guilt and identity-oriented shame about participation in environmental degradation. Environmental Guilt and Shamedemonstrates that these moral emotions are common among environmentally friendly segments of the United States but have received little attention from environmental ethicists though they can (...)
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  24.  8
    All creatures safe and sound: the social landscape of pets in disasters.Sarah E. DeYoung - 2021 - Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Edited by Ashley K. Farmer & Leslie Irvine.
    This book uses interview data from public officials tasked with planning and executing preparation and response to natural disasters to analyze how pets, livestock, and other companion animals complicate disaster preparedness. Because many families view animal welfare as a priority, evacuation and sheltering preparations and responses must account for animals.
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  25.  26
    Grammatical aspect and temporal distance in motion descriptions.Sarah E. Anderson, Teenie Matlock & Michael Spivey - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  26.  16
    Management Education and Earth System Science: Transformation as if Planetary Boundaries Mattered.Sarah E. Cornell, Jose M. Alcaraz & Mark G. Edwards - 2021 - Business and Society 60 (1):26-56.
    Earth system science (ESS) has identified worrying trends in the human impact on fundamental planetary systems. In this conceptual article, we discuss the implications of this research for business schools and management education (ME). We argue that ESS findings raise significant concerns about the relationship between business and nature and, consequently, a radical reframing is required to embed economic and social activity within the global sustainability of natural systems. This has transformative implications for ME. To illustrate this reframing, we apply (...)
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  27.  20
    Sender Gender Influences Emoji Interpretation in Text Messages.Sarah E. Butterworth, Traci A. Giuliano, Justin White, Lizette Cantu & Kyle C. Fraser - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  28.  26
    Motherhood and Resilience among Rwandan Genocide‐Rape Survivors.Maggie Zraly, Sarah E. Rubin & Donatilla Mukamana - 2013 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 41 (4):411-439.
  29.  8
    Empowerment through care: Using dialogue between the social model of disability and an ethic of care to redraw boundaries of independence and partnership between disabled people and services.Sarah E. Keyes, Sarah H. Webber & Kevin Beveridge - 2015 - Alter - European Journal of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche Sur le Handicap 9 (3):236-248.
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  30.  29
    Evolutionary Constraints on Human Object Perception.E. Koopman Sarah, Z. Mahon Bradford & F. Cantlon Jessica - 2017 - Cognitive Science:2126-2148.
    Language and culture endow humans with access to conceptual information that far exceeds any which could be accessed by a non-human animal. Yet, it is possible that, even without language or specific experiences, non-human animals represent and infer some aspects of similarity relations between objects in the same way as humans. Here, we show that monkeys’ discrimination sensitivity when identifying images of animals is predicted by established measures of semantic similarity derived from human conceptual judgments. We used metrics from computer (...)
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  31.  87
    Graduate students and the culture of authorship.Sarah E. Oberlander & Robert J. Spencer - 2006 - Ethics and Behavior 16 (3):217 – 232.
    In the last 50 years, multiauthored publications have become more prevalent, given the increasing number of collaborative, interdisciplinary, multicenter research studies. The determination of authorship credit and order is a difficult process, especially for graduate students, whose disadvantaged power position in research settings increases their vulnerability to exploitation. The American Psychological Association has published ethical standards for determining authorship credit, but the power difference inherent in the student-faculty relationship may complicate this ethical dilemma. The authors reviewed a number of previously (...)
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  32.  15
    “Our school system is trying to be agrarian”: educating for reskilling and food system transformation in the rural school garden.Sarah E. Cramer, Anna L. Ball & Mary K. Hendrickson - 2019 - Agriculture and Human Values 36 (3):507-519.
    School gardens and garden-based learning continue to gain great popularity in the United States, and their pedagogical potential, and ability to impact students’ fruit and vegetable consumption and activity levels have been well-documented. Less examined is their potential to be agents of food system reskilling and transformation. Though producer and consumer are inextricably linked in the food system, and deskilling of one directly influences the other, theorists often focus on production-centered and consumption-centered deskilling separately. However, in a school garden, the (...)
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  33.  24
    The Role of Cultural Artifacts in the Interpretation of Metaphorical Expressions About Time.Sarah E. Duffy - 2014 - Metaphor and Symbol 29 (2):94-112.
    Across cultures, people employ space to construct representations of time. English exhibits two deictic space–time metaphors: the “moving ego” metaphor conceptualizes the ego as moving forward through time and the “moving time” metaphor conceptualizes time as moving forward towards the ego. Earlier research investigating the psychological reality of these metaphors has shown that engaging in certain types of spatial-motion thinking may influence how people reason about events in time. More recently, research has shown that people’s interactions with cultural artifacts may (...)
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  34.  14
    A Transmaterial Approach to Walking Methodologies: Embodiment, Affect, and a Sonic Art Performance.Sarah E. Truman & Stephanie Springgay - 2017 - Body and Society 23 (4):27-58.
    Bodily methodologies that engage with the affective, rhythmic, and temporal dimensions of movement have altered the landscape of social science and humanities research. Walking is one such methodology by which scholars have examined vital, sensory, material, and ephemeral intensities beyond the logics of representation. Extending this rich field, this article invokes the concept trans to reconceptualize walking research through theories that attend to the vitality and agency of matter, the interconnectedness between humans and non-humans, the importance of mediation and bodily (...)
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  35.  16
    Individual differences in the interpretation of ambiguous statements about time.Sarah E. Duffy & Michele I. Feist - 2014 - Cognitive Linguistics 25 (1):29-54.
  36.  54
    Scholars, amateurs, and artists as partners for the future of religion and science.Sarah E. Fredericks & Lea F. Schweitz - 2015 - Zygon 50 (2):418-438.
    We recommend that the future of religion and science involve more partnerships between scholars, amateurs, and artists. This reimagines an underdeveloped aspect of the history of religion and science. Case studies of an undergraduate course examining religious ritual and technology, seminarians reflecting on memory and identity in light of Alzheimer's disease, environmentalists responding to their guilt and shame about climate change, and Chicagoans recognizing the presence of nature in the city show how these partnerships respect insights and experiences of our (...)
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  37.  25
    Informed consent in the psychosis prodrome: ethical, procedural and cultural considerations.Sarah E. Morris & Robert K. Heinssen - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:19.
    Research focused on the prodromal period prior to the onset of psychosis is essential for the further development of strategies for early detection, early intervention, and disease pre-emption. Such efforts necessarily require the enrollment of individuals who are at risk of psychosis but have not yet developed a psychotic illness into research and treatment protocols. This work is becoming increasingly internationalized, which warrants special consideration of cultural differences in conceptualization of mental illness and international differences in health care practices and (...)
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  38.  41
    Moving Through Time: The Role of Personality in Three Real‐Life Contexts.Sarah E. Duffy, Michele I. Feist & Steven McCarthy - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (8):1662-1674.
    In English, two deictic space-time metaphors are in common usage: the Moving Ego metaphor conceptualizes the ego as moving forward through time and the Moving Time metaphor conceptualizes time as moving forward toward the ego . Although earlier research investigating the psychological reality of these metaphors has typically examined spatial influences on temporal reasoning , recent lines of research have extended beyond this, providing initial evidence that personality differences and emotional experiences may also influence how people reason about events in (...)
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  39.  11
    Reacting to Consecrating Science: What Might Amateurs Do?Sarah E. Fredericks - 2019 - Zygon 54 (2):354-381.
    In Consecrating Science: Wonder, Knowledge, and the Natural World, Lisa H. Sideris makes a compelling case that a new cosmology movement advocates for a new, universal, creation story grounded in the sciences. She fears the new story reinforces elite power structures and anthropocentrism and thus environmental degradation. Alternatively, she promotes genuine wonder which occurs in experiences of the natural world. As Sideris focuses on the likely logical outcome of the assumptions and arguments of the new cosmologies, she does not investigate (...)
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  40.  17
    "Without respect of persons": Gender equality, theology, and the law in the writing of Margaret fell.Sarah E. Skwire - 2015 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (2):137-157.
  41. Why we are not morally required to select the best children: A response to Savulescu.Sarah E. Stoller - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (7):364-369.
    The purpose of this paper is to review critically Julian Savulescu's principle of 'Procreative Beneficence,' which holds that prospective parents are morally obligated to select, of the possible children they could have, those with the greatest chance of leading the best life. According to this principle, prospective parents are obliged to use the technique of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select for the 'best' embryos, a decision that ought to be made based on the presence or absence of both disease (...)
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  42.  8
    Is the Healthy Body Gendered? Toward a Feminist Critique of the New Paradigm of Health.Sarah E. H. Moore - 2010 - Body and Society 16 (2):95-118.
    A number of sociologists have identified the emergence of a ‘new paradigm’ of health, based on the principle that the National Health Service should seek to prevent ill-health rather than simply treat the sick. The sociology of health promotion that has emerged over the past 15 years has contributed to debates about risk, lifestyle and consumerism, but the gendered nature of what some refer to as the ‘new morality of health’, and in particular its urging of feminine attributes, has largely (...)
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  43.  33
    Social Norm Theory and Male Circumcision: Why Parents Circumcise.Sarah E. Waldeck - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):56-57.
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  44.  35
    Ebola, Team Communication, and Shame: But Shame on Whom?Sarah E. Shannon - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):20-25.
    Examined as an isolated situation, and through the lens of a rare and feared disease, Mr. Duncan's case seems ripe for second-guessing the physicians and nurses who cared for him. But viewed from the perspective of what we know about errors and team communication, his case is all too common. Nearly 440,000 patient deaths in the U.S. each year may be attributable to medical errors. Breakdowns in communication among health care teams contribute in the majority of these errors. The culture (...)
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  45.  16
    Elucidating Sensorimotor Control Principles with Myoelectric Musculoskeletal Models.Sarah E. Goodman & Christopher J. Hasson - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  46.  23
    Sounding Black or White: priming identity and biracial speech.Sarah E. Gaither, Ariel M. Cohen-Goldberg, Calvin L. Gidney & Keith B. Maddox - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  47.  5
    Speculating on the Roles of Nuclear Speckles: How RNA‐Protein Nuclear Assemblies Affect Gene Expression.Sarah E. Hasenson & Yaron Shav-Tal - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (10):2000104.
    Nuclear speckles are eukaryotic nuclear bodies enriched in splicing factors. Their exact purpose has been a matter of debate. The different proposed roles of nuclear speckles are reviewed and an additional layer of function is put forward, suggesting that by accumulating splicing factors within them, nuclear speckles can buffer the nucleoplasmic levels of splicing factors available for splicing and thereby modulate splicing rates. These findings build on the already established model that nuclear speckles function as a storage/recycling site for splicing (...)
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  48. Improving Student Learning with Aspects of Specifications Grading.Sarah E. Vitale & David W. Concepción - 2018 - Teaching Philosophy 44 (1):29-57.
    In her book Specifications Grading, Linda B. Nilson advocates for a grading regimen she claims will save faculty time, increase student motivation, and improve the quality and rigor of student work. If she is right, there is a strong case for many faculty to adopt some version of the system she recommends. In this paper, we argue that she is mostly right and recommend that faculty move away from traditional grading. We begin by rehearsing the central features of specifications grading (...)
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  49.  37
    Social Perspectives and Genetic Enhancement: Whose Perspective? Whose Choice?Sarah E. Wilson - 2007 - Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1).
    Sarah E. Wilson, University of Central LancashireThis paper's account of the core issues at stake in relation to genetic enhancement is presented as an alternative to mainstream liberal defenses of enhancement. The mainstream arguments are identified as being associated with reproductive autonomy, individual choice, and a `neutral', passive interpretation of technology. The alternative account is associated with the perspective of `woman' or child-bearer, with a fundamental concern for social justice, and an understanding of society in both a global and (...)
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  50.  13
    Accounting for infant perseveration beyond the manual search task.Sarah E. Berger - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):34-35.
    Although the dynamic field model predicts infants' perseverative behavior in the context of the A-not-B manual search task, it does not account for infant perseveration in other contexts. An alternative cognitive capacity explanation for perseveration is more parsimonious. It accounts for the graded nature of perseverative responses and perseveration in different contexts.
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