Results for 'Sanctions'

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  1.  64
    Sanctioning Models: The Epistemology of Simulation.Eric Winsberg - 1999 - Science in Context 12 (2):275-292.
  2. Sanctioning Liberal Democracies.Avia Pasternak - 2009 - Political Studies 57:54-74.
    This article examines when economic sanctions should be imposed on liberal democracies that violate democratic norms. The argument is made from the social-liberal standpoint, which recognises the moral status of political communities. While social liberals rarely refer to the use of economic sanctions as a pressure tool, by examining why they restrict military intervention and economic aid to cases of massive human rights violations or acute humanitarian need, the article is able to show why they are likely to (...)
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  3.  26
    Regulatory Sanctions on Independent Directors and Their Consequences to the Director Labor Market: Evidence From China.Michael Firth, Sonia Wong, Qingquan Xin & Ho Yin Yick - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (4):693-708.
    We investigate the regulatory sanctions imposed on independent directors for their firms’ financial frauds in China. These regulatory sanctions are prima-facie evidence of significant lapses in business ethics. During the period 2003–2010, 302-person-time independent directors were penalized by the regulator, and the two stock exchanges. We find that the independent directors with accounting experiences are more likely to be penalized by the CSRC, though they do not suffer more severe penalties than do the other sanctioned independent directors. We (...)
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  4. Economic Sanctions and Political Repression: Assessing the Impact of Coercive Diplomacy on Political Freedoms. [REVIEW]Dursun Peksen & A. Cooper Drury - 2009 - Human Rights Review 10 (3):393-411.
    This article offers a thorough analysis of the unintended impact economic sanctions have on political repression—referred to in this study as the level of the government respect for democratic freedoms and human rights. We argue that economic coercion is a counterproductive policy tool that reduces the level of political freedoms in sanctioned countries. Instead of coercing the sanctioned regime into reforming itself, sanctions inadvertently enhance the regime’s coercive capacity and create incentives for the regime’s leadership to commit political (...)
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  5. Economic Sanctions, Morality and Escalation of Demands on Yugoslavia.Jovan Babić & Aleksandar Jokic - 2002 - International Peackeeping (No. 4):119-127.
    Economic sanctions are envisaged as a sort of punishment, based on what should be an institutional decision not unlike a court ruling. Hence, the conditions for their lifting should be clearly stated and once those are met sanctions should be lifted. But this is generally not what happens, and perhaps is precluded by the very nature of international sanctioning. Sanctions clearly have political, economic, military and strategic consequences, but the question raised here is whether sanctions can (...)
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  6.  23
    Sanctioned Violence in Early China.Derk Bodde & Mark Edward Lewis - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (4):679.
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  7. Sanctioning.Lucas Miotto - 2018 - Jurisprudence 9 (2):236-250.
    Up until recently, most legal philosophers have argued that an action is a token of sanctioning if, and only if, (i) its performance brings about unwelcome consequences to the targets, and (ii) it is performed as a response to the breach of a duty. In this paper I take issue with this account. I first add some qualifications to it in order to present it in its most plausible form. After doing this, I advance a series of hypothetical cases which (...)
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  8.  83
    Sanction and Obligation in Hart's Theory of Law.Danny Priel - 2008 - Ratio Juris 21 (3):404-411.
    Abstract. The paper begins by challenging Hart's argument aimed to show that sanctions are not part of the concept of law. It shows that in the "minimal" legal system as understood by Hart, sanctions may be required for keeping the legal system efficacious. I then draw a methodological conclusion from this argument, which challenges the view of Hart (and his followers) that legal philosophy should aim at discovering some general, politically neutral, conceptual truths about law. Instead, the aim (...)
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  9.  19
    Censure and Sanctions.Andrew Von Hirsch - 1996 - Oxford University Press UK.
    A number of jurisdictions, including England and Wales after their adoption of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act, require that sentences be `proportionate' to the severity of the crime. This book, written by the leading architect of `just deserts' sentencing theory, discusses how sentences may be scaled proportionately to the gravity of the crime. Topics dealt with include how the idea of a penal censure justifies proportionate sentences; how a penalty scale should be `anchored' to reduce overall punishment levels; how non-custodial (...)
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  10.  3
    Economic Statecraft - Human Rights, Sanctions and Conditionality.Cecile Fabre - 2018 - Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.
    At least since Athenian trade sanctions helped to spark the Peloponnesian War, economic coercion has been a prominent tool of foreign policy. In the modern era, sovereign states and multilateral institutions have imposed economic sanctions on dictatorial regimes or would-be nuclear powers as an alternative to waging war. They have conditioned offers of aid, loans, and debt relief on recipients’ willingness to implement market and governance reforms. Such methods interfere in freedom of trade and the internal affairs of (...)
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  11. Fairness, Sanction, and Condemnation.Pamela Hieronymi - manuscript
    I here press an often overlooked question: Why does the fairness of a sanction require an adequate opportunity to avoid it? By pressing this question, I believe I have come to better understand something that has long puzzled me, namely, what philosophers (and others) might have in mind when they talk about “true moral responsibility,” or the “condemnatory force” of moral blame, or perhaps even “basic desert.” In presenting this understanding of “condemnation” or of “basic desert,” I am presenting an (...)
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  12.  1
    Sanctioned Violence in the New Testament.Warren Carter - 2017 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 71 (3):284-297.
    After describing key interpretive categories of sanctioned and structural violence, the article identifies some forms of sanctioned structural violence evident in Matthew’s Gospel. It concludes with a brief consideration of contemporary strategies for identifying and resisting scriptural inscribing and sanctioning of violence.
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  13. Censure and Sanctions.Andrew Von Hirsch - 1996 - Law and Philosophy 15 (4):407-415.
     
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  14.  2
    Wrongs and Sanctions in the Pure Theory of Law.Luís Duarte D’Almeida - forthcoming - Ratio Juris.
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  15.  31
    Rules, Sanctions and Rewards in Primary Schools.Frank Merrett & Linda Jones - 1994 - Educational Studies 20 (3):345-356.
    Summary Twenty?four primary schools were randomly selected from all those listed in a local education authority in the West Midlands of England. Heads or deputy headteachers of 21 of these schools were interviewed using a structured interview schedule very similar to the one used for a recent survey of secondary schools. Data were obtained about the general rule structures of the schools and the system of sanctions and rewards used to maintain them. The findings were then compared with those (...)
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  16.  69
    Internal Sanctions in Mill's Moral Psychology: Dale E. Miller.Dale E. Miller - 1998 - Utilitas 10 (1):68-82.
    Mill's discussion of ‘the internal sanction’ in chapter III of Utilitarianism does not do justice to his understanding of internal sanctions; it omits some important points and obscures others. I offer an account of this portion of his moral psychology of motivation which brings out its subtleties and complexities. I show that he recognizes the importance of internal sanctions as sources of motives to develop and perfect our characters, as well as of motives to do our duty, and (...)
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  17.  26
    Group Sanctions Without Social Norms?B. Thierry - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    High propensities to form coalitions and to negotiate and prevent conflict escalation may be found in monkeys as in great apes. However, there is no evidence that non-human primate communities intend to suppress individual power that grows too strong. Qualifying as protomoral those abilities needed to keep low the dominance gradient is not useful. When communication about social norms appeared in some hominids, it would not have been limited to sanctions against domination.
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  18.  20
    Sanctioning of Illegal and Dangerous Ruck Cleanouts During the 2018 Super Rugby Competition.Wilbur Kraak, Jenna Bam, Stephanie Kruger, Stephanie Henderson, Ugan Josias & Keith Stokes - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  19.  20
    Sanctions as Punishment, Enforcement, and Prelude to Further Action.Patrick Clawson - 1993 - Ethics and International Affairs 7:17–37.
    This article looks at some major goals that have been set for sanctions and evaluates how effective sanctions have been at reaching those goals. It also examines the costs of sanctions, i.e., the impact on civilians and on international support for sanctions.
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  20. The Artist's Sanction in Contemporary Art.Sherri Irvin - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (4):315-326.
    I argue that contemporary artists fix the features of their works not only through their actions of making and presenting objects, but also through auxiliary activities such as corresponding with curators and institutions. I refer to such fixing of features as the artist’s sanction: artists sanction features of their work through publicly accessible actions and communications, such as making a physical object with particular features, corresponding with curators and producing artist statements. I show, through an extended example, that in order (...)
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  21.  9
    Economic Sanctions on Iraq: Tool for Peace, or Travesty?Sheila Zurbrigg - 2007 - Muslim World Journal of Human Rights 4 (2).
    Despite triggering one of the largest civilian death tolls in modern history, the policy and human consequences of economic sanctions on Iraq between 1990-2003 remain largely unexamined. This lack of scrutiny mirrors the euphemism and mis-information surrounding the embargo itself and the Oil-for-Food program ostensibly adopted to protect Iraq's civilian population. But it also reflects incomprehension among Western publics - long removed from the realities of hunger and economic destitution - of the intimate link between economic conditions and mortality. (...)
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  22.  64
    Sanction and Obligation.Russell Hardin - 1985 - The Monist 68 (3):403-418.
    H. L. A. Hart’s criticism of Austin’s theory of law is that it is essentially false to the facts. Austin asserts that “Every positive law simply and strictly so called, is set by a sovereign person, or sovereign body of persons, to a … person or persons in a state of subjection to its author.” Laws get their force from the threat of sanction. This view, which we may call “the gunman theory of law,” is what Hart criticizes. Too many (...)
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  23. Skepticism and Sanction: The Benefits of Rejecting Moral Responsibility.Neil Levy - 2012 - Law and Philosophy 31 (5):477-493.
    It is sometimes objected that we cannot adopt skepticism about moral responsibility, because the criminal justice system plays an indispensable social function. In this paper, I examine the implications of moral responsibility skepticism for the punishment of those convicted of crime, with special attention to recent arguments by Saul Smilansky. Smilansky claims that the skeptic is committed to fully compensating the incarcerated for their detention, and that this compensation would both be too costly to be practical and would remove the (...)
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  24.  29
    Rules, Sanctions and Rewards in Secondary Schools.F. Merrett, J. Wilkins, S. Houghton & K. Wheldall - 1988 - Educational Studies 14 (2):139-149.
    All 24 secondary schools in a West Midlands local education authority were visited and a structured interview was conducted with the head or another senior teacher. An interview schedule was used to record details concerning the rule structure which had been established to control the conduct of the pupils. Information was also gathered about the sanctions and rewards used to maintain this behaviour and from most schools copies of the rules were available. It was found that almost all schools (...)
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  25. The Ethics of International Sanctions: The Case of Yugoslavia.Jovan Babić & Aleksandar Jokic - 2000 - Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (no. 2):107-119.
    Sanctions such as those applied by the United Nations against Yugoslavia, or rather the actions of implementing and maintaining them, at the very least implicitly purport to have moral justification. While the rhetoric used to justify sanctions is clearly moralistic, even sanctions themselves, as worded, often include phrases indicating moral implication. On May 30, 1992, United Nation Security Council Resolution 757 imposed a universal, binding blockage on all trade and all scientific, cultural and sports exchanges with Serbia (...)
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  26.  15
    Social Norms, Expectations and Sanctions.Francesco Guala - 2019 - Analyse & Kritik 41 (2):375-382.
    Hindriks’ paper raises two issues: one is formal and concerns the notion of ‘cost’ in rational choice accounts of norms; the other is substantial and concerns the role of expectations in the modification of payoffs. In this commentary I express some doubts and worries especially about the latter: What’s so special with shared expectations? Why do they induce compliance with norms, if transgression is not associated with sanctions?
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  27. Philosophic Sanction of Ambition.George Santayana - 1915 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 12 (5):113-116.
  28.  3
    Sanctions for Evil: Sources of Social Destructiveness.Nevitt Sanford & Craig Comstock (eds.) - 1971 - Boston: Beacon Press.
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  29.  49
    Aquinas on God-Sanctioned Stealing.Matthew Shea - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):277-293.
    A serious challenge to religious believers in the Abrahamic traditions is that the God of the Old Testament seems to command immoral actions. Thomas Aquinas addresses this objection using the biblical story of God ordering the Israelites to plunder the Egyptians, which threatens to create an inconsistency among four of Aquinas’s views: God did indeed command this action; God is perfectly good and cannot command any evil actions; the objective moral goodness or badness of actions is not based on arbitrary (...)
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  30. Sanction.Edwin Essex - 1924 - New Blackfriars 5 (49):46-46.
  31. Sanctions in a Democratic Society.Carl F. Taeusch - 1937 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 2 (3):195.
     
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  32. Iran Sanctions Enter New Phase, US Official Says.U. S. Embassy - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press.
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  33. On Sanctioning Excuses.David Lyons - 1969 - Journal of Philosophy 66 (19):646-660.
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  34.  21
    Economic Sanctions: Panacea or Peacebuilding in a Post–Cold War World? David Cortright and George A. Lopez, Eds. , 256 Pp., $19.95 Paper. [REVIEW]Eileen M. Doherty - 1997 - Ethics and International Affairs 11:323-324.
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  35.  13
    Sanctioning International Peace.C. F. Taeusch - 1922 - International Journal of Ethics 33 (1):55-65.
  36. Sanctioning Knowledge.Sonja Brentjes - 2014 - Al-Qantara 35 (1):277-309.
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  37.  11
    Accountability and Sanctions in English Schools.Anne West, Paola Mattei & Jonathan Roberts - 2011 - British Journal of Educational Studies 59 (1):41-62.
    This paper focuses on accountability in school-based education in England. It explores notions of accountability and proposes a new framework for its analysis. It then identifies a number of types of accountability which are present in school-based education, and discusses each in terms of who is accountable to whom and for what. It goes on to examine the sanctions associated with each type of accountability and some possible effects of each type. School performance cross-cuts virtually all facets of accountability, (...)
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  38.  9
    Legal Sanctions Imposed on Parents in Old Babylonian Legal Sources.Joseph Fleishman - 2001 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (1):93-97.
  39.  45
    La Sanction en Tant Qu’element Corrupteur de la Moralite Chez J.M. Guyau.Jordi Riba - 1998 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 10 (1):40-54.
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  40.  24
    Analysis of Potential Impacts of Foreign Sanction on Cambodia’s Economy.Narith Por - 2018 - International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 38 (2):75-88.
    Cambodia’s GDP contributed 0.03 percent of the world economy. Cambodia economy has grown around seven percent. Cambodia’s economy was led by growth in garment exports. Cambodia’s economy was related with other countries through exports and imports. The Trump administration has imposed visa sanctions against Cambodia and likely to make economic sanction on Cambodia. To understand the potential impact of the sanction, a research into “Potential Impact of Foreign Sanction on Cambodia’s Economy” has been proposed. Two research objectives were (1) (...)
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  41.  8
    Sanctioned Global Operations: Neoliberalism's Domination of Place, Space, and Time.Pamela K. Smith - 2011 - Educational Studies: A Jrnl of the American Educ. Studies Assoc 47 (2):105-106.
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  42. The Sanction for Morality in Nature and Evolution.J. T. Bixby - 1896 - Philosophical Review 5:85.
     
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  43.  17
    La sanction morale.Fr Paulhan - 1894 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 37:395-419.
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  44. La Sanction Morale.F. Paulhan - 1894 - Philosophical Review 3:625.
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  45. Sanctions Vs. Reasons for Value Judgments.Stephen C. Pepper - 1959 - Ethics 70:109.
     
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  46.  32
    John Stuart Mill’s Sanction Utilitarianism: A Philosophical And Historical Interpretation.David E. Wright - 2014 - Dissertation, Texas A&M
    This dissertation argues for a particular interpretation of John Stuart Mill’s utilitarianism, namely that Mill is best read as a sanction utilitarian. In general, scholars commonly interpret Mill as some type of act or rule utilitarian. In making their case for these interpretations, it is also common for scholars to use large portions of Mill’s Utilitarianism as the chief source of insight into his moral theory. By contrast, I argue that Utilitarianism is best read as an ecumenical text where Mill (...)
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  47.  8
    Sanctions for Ethics Violations: Does Licensure or Socioeconomic Status Matter?Karlotta A. Richards & Charles D. Noblin - 1999 - Ethics and Behavior 9 (2):119 – 126.
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  48.  12
    Sanctioned by Government? The Home Offce, Peterloo and the Six Acts.Nathan Bend - 2019 - Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 95 (1):14-29.
    The role of the Home Office in the Peterloo Massacre remains contentious. This article assesses the available evidence from the Home Office and the private correspondence of Home Secretary Viscount Sidmouth to contest E. P. Thompson’s claim that the Home Office ‘assented’ to the arrest of Henry Hunt at St Peter’s Fields. Peterloo is placed within the context of government’s response to political radicalism to show how the Tory ministry had no clear counter-radical strategy in the months leading up to (...)
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  49.  74
    Financial Statement Frauds and Auditor Sanctions: An Analysis of Enforcement Actions in China.Michael Firth, Phyllis L. L. Mo & Raymond M. K. Wong - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4):367-381.
    The rising tide of corporate scandals and audit failures has shocked the public, and the integrity of auditors is being increasingly questioned. It is crucial for auditors and regulators to understand the main causes of audit failure and devise preventive measures accordingly. This study analyzes enforcement actions issued by the China Securities Regulatory Commission against auditors in respect of fraudulent financial reporting committed by listed companies in China. We find that auditors are more likely to be sanctioned by the regulators (...)
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  50.  9
    Peer Ostracism as a Sanction Against Wrongdoers and Whistleblowers.Mary B. Curtis, Jesse C. Robertson, R. Cameron Cockrell & L. Dutch Fayard - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 174 (2):333-354.
    Retaliation against whistleblowers is a well-recognized problem, yet there is little explanation for why uninvolved peers choose to retaliate through ostracism. We conduct two experiments in which participants take the role of a peer third-party observer of theft and subsequent whistleblowing. We manipulate injunctive norms and descriptive norms. Both experiments support the core of our theoretical model, based on social intuitionist theory, such that moral judgments of the acts of wrongdoing and whistleblowing influence the perceived likeability of each actor and (...)
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