It is shown that all the provably total functions of Basic Arithmetic BA, a theory introduced by Ruitenburg based on Predicate Basic Calculus, are primitive recursive. Along the proof a new kind of primitive recursive realizability to which BA is sound, is introduced. This realizability is similar to Kleene's recursive realizability, except that recursive functions are restricted to primitive recursives.
Despite growing engagement by business practitioners in regenerative sustainability, there is little research into what factors contribute to its successful implementation. This paper offers first steps to close that gap. It examines theoretical foundations of and proposes empirical research for studying such innovative business practices. Our literature review draws on research in natural sciences, organization and management studies, corporate sustainability, and business strategy to theoretically define regenerative sustainability, explore how adopting principles of regeneration can help firms achieve “true business sustainability”, (...) and assess potential benefits, obstacles, and enablers of such radically different business models. We then propose an in-depth interpretive case study methodology to empirically investigate the phenomenon of interest, namely how proactive firms effectively enact regenerative sustainability principles. The paper closes with potential implications of the proposed study for management theory and practice and offers ideas for future research. (shrink)
Pessimistic meta-induction is a powerful argument against scientific realism, so one of the major roles for advocates of scientific realism will be trying their best to give a sustained response to this argument. On the other hand, it is also alleged that structural realism is the most plausible form of scientific realism; therefore, the plausibility of scientific realism is threatened unless one is given the explicit form of a structural continuity and minimal structural preservation for all our current theories. This (...) essay aims to present what we call expansive structures, which are the structures that can be reconstructed from geometrized Newtonian gravitation and are capable of expanding into general relativity, explicitly. In this way, pessimistic meta-induction will be undermined. (shrink)
Organised into three sections covering the place of semantics in linguistics, the description of sentence and word meanings, and current theoretical approaches to semantics, this book is aimed at undergraduates as well as general readers.
We take an argument of Gödel's from his ground‐breaking 1931 paper, generalize it, and examine its validity. The argument in question is this: "the sentence G says about itself that it is not provable, and G is indeed not provable; therefore, G is true".
International marketing practices, embedded in a strong ethical doctrine, can play a vital role in raising the standards of business conduct worldwide, while in no way compromising the quality of services or products offered to customers, or surrendering the profit margins of businesses. Adherence to such ethical practices can help to elevate the standards of behavior and thus of living, of traders and consumers alike. Against this background, this paper endeavors to identify the salient features of the Islamic framework of (...) International Marketing Ethics. In particular, it highlights the capabilities and strengths of this framework in creating and sustaining a strong ethical international marketing culture. At the heart of Islamic marketing is the principle of value-maximization based on equity and justice (constituting just dealing and fair play) for the wider welfare of the society. Selected key international marketing issues are examined from an Islamic perspective which, it is argued, if adhered to, can help to create a value-loaded global ethical marketing framework for MNCs in general, and establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between international marketers and Muslim target markets in particular. (shrink)
We argue that, under the usual assumptions for sufficiently strong arithmetical theories that are subject to Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem, one cannot, without impropriety, talk about *the* Gödel sentence of the theory. The reason is that, without violating the requirements of Gödel’s theorem, there could be a true sentence and a false one each of which is provably equivalent to its own unprovability in the theory if the theory is unsound.
A cornerstone of modern mathematical logic is the diagonal lemma of Gödel and Carnap. It is used in e.g. the classical proofs of the theorems of Gödel, Rosser and Tarski. From its first explication in 1934, just essentially one proof has appeared for the diagonal lemma in the literature; a proof that is so tricky and hard to relate that many authors have tried to avoid the lemma altogether. As a result, some so called diagonal-free proofs have been given for (...) the above mentioned fundamental theorems of logic. In this paper, we provide new proofs for the semantic formulation of the diagonal lemma, and for a weak version of the syntactic formulation of it. (shrink)
The data with the advancement of information technology are increasing on daily basis. The data mining technique has been applied to various fields. The complexity and execution time are the major factors viewed in existing data mining techniques. With the rapid development of database technology, many data storage increases, and data mining technology has become more and more important and expanded to various fields in recent years. Association rule mining is the most active research technique of data mining. Data mining (...) technology is used for potentially useful information extraction and knowledge from big data sets. The results demonstrate that the precision ratio of the presented technique is high comparable to other existing techniques with the same recall rate, i.e., the R-tree algorithm. The proposed technique by the mining effectively controls the noise data, and the precision rate is also kept very high, which indicates the highest accuracy of the technique. This article makes a systematic and detailed analysis of data mining technology by using the Apriori algorithm. (shrink)
_Islamic Thought_ is a fresh and contemporary introduction to the philosophies and doctrines of Islam. Abdullah Saeed, a distinguished Muslim scholar, traces the development of religious knowledge in Islam, from the pre-modern to the modern period. The book focuses on Muslim thought, as well as the development, production and transmission of religious knowledge, and the trends, schools and movements that have contributed to the production of this knowledge. Key topics in Islamic culture are explored, including the development of the (...) Islamic intellectual tradition, the two foundation texts, the Qur’an and Hadith, legal thought, theological thought, mystical thought, Islamic Art, philosophical thought, political thought, and renewal, reform and rethinking today. Through this rich and varied discussion, Saeed presents a fascinating depiction of how Islam was lived in the past and how its adherents practise it in the present. _Islamic Thought_ is essential reading for students beginning the study of Islam but will also interest anyone seeking to learn more about one of the world’s great religions. (shrink)
The proofs of Kleene, Chaitin and Boolos for Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem are studied from the perspectives of constructivity and the Rosser property. A proof of the incompleteness theorem has the Rosser property when the independence of the true but unprovable sentence can be shown by assuming only the (simple) consistency of the theory. It is known that Gödel's own proof for his incompleteness theorem does not have the Rosser property, and we show that neither do Kleene's or Boolos' proofs. (...) However, we show that a variant of Chaitin's proof can have the Rosser property. The proofs of Gödel, Rosser and Kleene are constructive in the sense that they explicitly construct, by algorithmic ways, the independent sentence(s) from the theory. We show that the proofs of Chaitin and Boolos are not constructive, and they prove only the mere existence of the independent sentences. (shrink)
Neonatal brain monitoring in the neonatal intensive care units requires a continuous review of the spontaneous cortical activity, i.e., the electroencephalograph background activity. This needs development of bedside methods for an automated assessment of the EEG background activity. In this paper, we present development of the key components of a neonatal EEG background classifier, starting from the visual background scoring to classifier design, and finally to possible bedside visualization of the classifier results. A dataset with 13,200 5-minute EEG epochs from (...) 27 infants with birth asphyxia was used for classifier training after scoring by two independent experts. We tested three classifier designs based on 98 computational features, and their performance was assessed with respect to scoring system, pre- and post-processing of labels and outputs, choice of channels, and visualization in monitor displays. The optimal solution achieved an overall classification accuracy of 97% with a range across subjects of 81–100%. We identified a set of 23 features that make the classifier highly robust to the choice of channels and missing data due to artefact rejection. Our results showed that an automated bedside classifier of EEG background is achievable, and we publish the full classifier algorithm to allow further clinical replication and validation studies. (shrink)
This research aims to critically analyze the role of Ideological State Apparatuses, defined by Louis Althusser, in identity formation of Zari Bano, the protagonist in the novel “The Holy Woman” written by Qaisra Shahraz. According to Althusser, ideology functions through ISAs which change individuals to ideological subjects within capitalist society. This study focuses on the influences of the cultural ISA, the political ISA and the family ISA on the character of Zari Bano. The study also analyzes the moments of ‘interpellation’ (...) by critically evaluating the text of the novel and reveals how the characters act in certain ways and blindly accept certain beliefs and ideologies. The findings of the research indicate that the ISAs play a crucial role in formation of individuals’ identities and the socio-cultural / political ideologies set double standards in a patriarchal society, particularly for women, which are difficult to challenge. The research is significant as it deals with the issue of passive discursive ideologies at work in setting up different norms and values in a patriarchal society and how these are given the status of natural laws of life to be followed blindly by the social subjects. This research study is limited to the analysis of interpellation and ISAs only on Zari Bano and the characters closely related to her within the first part of the novel. The study is replicable and may draw attention of the scholars to investigate the role of ISAs other than those in this paper and explain action and reactions of the characters involved. (shrink)
Consider a dynamic task allocation problem, where tasks are unknowingly distributed over an environment. This paper considers each task comprising two sequential subtasks: detection and completion, where each subtask can only be carried out by a certain type of agent. We address this problem using a novel nature-inspired approach called “hunter and gatherer.” The proposed method employs two complementary teams of agents: one agile in detecting and another skillful in completing the tasks. To minimize the collective cost of task accomplishments (...) in a distributed manner, a game-theoretic solution is introduced to couple agents from complementary teams. We utilize market-based negotiation models to develop incentive-based decision-making algorithms relying on innovative notions of “certainty and uncertainty profit margins.” The simulation results demonstrate that employing two complementary teams of hunters and gatherers can effectually improve the number of tasks completed by agents compared to conventional methods, while the collective cost of accomplishments is minimized. In addition, the stability and efficacy of the proposed solutions are studied using Nash equilibrium analysis and statistical analysis, respectively. It is also numerically shown that the proposed solutions function fairly; that is, for each type of agent, the overall workload is distributed equally. (shrink)
Gender inequality exists in Pakistan as a phenomenon that does not allow women equality of opportunity in the public and private sphere and also keeps women in very subjugated roles within the public and in private relationships. These factors can affect women’s access to education, employment, to career advancement and to their possibilities of holding positions of political power and roles of social and cultural esteem. Although gender equality may have progressed somewhat in the modern world but it is still (...) an issue of great urgency in other parts of the world as well as in Pakistan, that is the focus of this study. This research investigates the types and consequences of gender discrimination that exist. The findings from the study suggest that the urban women in the sample of the present study still struggle for gender equality with men in Pakistan. The results show that in a number of areas, in both family and public life, they are still seen by many as second class citizens; and see their own autonomy and opportunities as limited. The social class of urban women in Pakistan is strongly related to their opportunities. Urban women from upper and middle class backgrounds enjoy more autonomy and equality in their lives as compare to women from poor backgrounds. These findings tend to support historical data in relation to women in Pakistan. (shrink)
Although the kinematics and dynamics of spherical robots on flat horizontal and inclined 2D surfaces are thoroughly investigated, their rolling behavior on generic 3D terrains has remained unexplored. This paper derives the kinematics equations of the most common SR configurations rolling over 3D surfaces. First, the kinematics equations for a geometrical sphere rolling over a 3D surface are derived along with the characterization of the modeling method. Next, a brief review of current mechanical configurations of SRs is presented as well (...) as a novel classification for SRs based on their kinematics. Then, considering the mechanical constraints of each category, the kinematics equations for each group of SRs are derived. Afterward, a path-tracking method is utilized for a desired 3D trajectory. Finally, simulations are carried out to validate the developed models and the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. (shrink)
Shyness affects and influences the performance of the learners at school and college level. There are different correlates and reasons of shyness. Zimbardo states that Shyness is a vague concept which has many interpretations and definitions. One definition which is very renowned is that “The person, male or female, who is nervous, worried, and uncomfortable in the gathering or presence of others, is called shy”. The objectives of this research study were as: to investigate the relationship of schooling system with (...) shyness to investigate the relationship of residential locality with shyness to check relationship of Socio- Economic status with shyness To rank the correlates of shyness. Overall 252 students from graduation of Indus group of Colleges from Rawalpindi and Islamabad were the population of the study and 42 students were selected through simple random sampling technique as a sample for the study. The researcher got the data with the help of personal visits to the colleges. Questionnaire for measuring shyness was used by the researcher for this research study1. Another self developed questionnaire or instrument was used to know the correlates of shyness. Chisquare test of independence was used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that shyness depended upon these correlates of shyness as residential locality Schooling system socio-economic status of the learners. Shyness depends upon above mentioned correlates. In order to remove this problem of shyness, some steps should be taken as learners or students may not be blamed or punished without any reason. Learners should be encouraged and motivated. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThe unprecedented progress in bio‐medical sciences and technology during the last few decades has resulted in great transformations in the concepts of health and disease, health systems and healthcare organisation and practices. Those changes have been accompanied by the emergence of a broad range of ethical dilemmas that confront health professionals more frequently. The classical Hippocratic ethical principles, though still retaining their relevance and validity, have become insufficiently adequate in an increasing range of problems and situations. Healthcare that has been (...) practised for centuries on the basis of a direct doctor‐patient relationship has been increasingly transformed into a more complex process integrating the health‐team, the patient and the community. Systematic review of the specialised literatures revealed that Healthcare Ethics education has become a basic requirement for any training programme for health professionals, and should cover the different stages of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education. Both theoretical foundations and practical skills are required for the appropriate ethical reasoning, ethical attitude and decision‐making abilities. There is growing evidence that physicians’ professional and moral development is not only determined by the formal curriculum of ethics; rather more, it is determined by the moral environment of the professional practice, the ‘hidden curriculum’ which deserves serious consideration by medical education. (shrink)
This study investigated Iranian language students’ perception of and familiarity with plagiarism, their attitudes toward their professors regarding this issue, and their reasons for doing so. The participants were 122 undergraduate and graduate language students in Translation, Literature, TEFL, and Linguistics who filled out a validated and piloted questionnaire. Overall, the results indicated that students had different views about the definition of plagiarism and plagiarism was mostly perceived by students as using someone else’s words as if they were their own (...) rather than taking someone’s ideas without permission. It was also found that in their academic career, students mostly consider copying a completed assignment of their friend as an act of academic dishonesty. In addition, they mostly argued that professors at universities guess about who might have done plagiarism instead of checking it themselves and they used different strategies to detect plagiarism. The study also indicated that Iranian students had different reasons for plagiarism but they mostly plagiarize because of easiness of plagiarism. Finally, the results of the survey showed that the majority learned about plagiarism from their university professors. (shrink)
Gödel's second incompleteness theorem is proved for Herbrand consistency of some arithmetical theories with bounded induction, by using a technique of logarithmic shrinking the witnesses of bounded formulas, due to Z. Adamowicz [Herbrand consistency and bounded arithmetic, Fundamenta Mathematical vol. 171 (2002), pp. 279-292]. In that paper, it was shown that one cannot always shrink the witness of a bounded formula logarithmically, but in the presence of Herbrand consistency, for theories I∆₀+ Ωm, with m ≥ 2, any witness for any (...) bounded formula can be shortened logarithmically. This immediately implies the unprovability of Herbrand consistency of a theory T ⊇ I∆₀ + Ω₂ in t itself. In this paper, the above results are generalized for I∆₀ + Ω₁. Also after tailoring the definition of Herbrand consistency for I∆₀ we prove the corresponding theorems for I∆₀. Thus the Herbrand version of Gödel's second incompleteness theorem follows for the theories I∆₀ + Ω₁ and I∆₀. (shrink)
Forced marriages are a common practice in rural areas of Pakistan in general and Sindh in particular. Inhumane customs of honour-killing, child marriage, marriage with Quran and marriage in compensation which are the worst form of forced marriages still continue to haunt the rural Sindh. Women are the special target of those customs and cultural practices. This research argues that the cultural stigma attached with intertribal marriages and emphasis on consanguineal marriages in rural Sindh is one of the root-causes of (...) the most of the problems related to forced marriages in Sindh. In this regard criminal side of the problem has already been emphasized in human rights reports and research papers but the cultural side has not been studied specially in the context of the rural Sindh. This paper is an attempt to shed a power light on all those issues. Using four selected case studies it is explored that how the taboo attached with intertribal marriages promotes forced Marriages in rural context of Sindh. Moreover, an attempt has also been made to understand the exact legal position regarding forced marriages according to the international Law, local Pakistani law and Shariah law. Above all it is also discussed in this paper that what could be done to decrease the instances of forced marriages among the rural communities of Sindh. (shrink)
This paper undertakes a political sociology of religious sentiments by examining how social actors seek to make their religious sentiments legible and authoritative within structures of modern state governance. It argues that a central dimension of religious politics consists of struggles over constituting hegemonic and common sense religious sentiments through drawing on the secular powers of the modern state. This politics entails contestations over how citizens ought to feel, and how the state ought to authorize certain religious sentiments, with respect (...) to socially resonant religious issues and events. Drawing on concrete historical episodes from colonial India and postcolonial Pakistan that allow a problematization of ‘religious sentiments of Muslims' in relation to the controversial religious views of the reformist Ahmadiyya movement, this paper further demonstrates the elasticity of the modern state to accommodate and embed a range of religious sensibilities, affects and emotive responses through legal arguments about public order. (shrink)
One of the main goals of assignments in the academic environment is to assess the students’ knowledge and mastery of a specific topic, and it is crucial to ensure that the work is original and has been solely made by the students to assess their competence acquisition. Therefore, Text-Matching Software Products are used by academic institutes to ensure academic integrity and address plagiarism. However, some students find ways to trick TMSPS. In this paper, files with the common tricks students do (...) to beat TMSPS have been created and investigates with nine academic level TMPS to evaluate their effectiveness against these tricks, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each TMSP, and providing instructors with some practical tips on checking plagiarism effectively and spotting any tricks to cheat without getting noticed. (shrink)
This research was carried out to explore the gender differences in resilience, coping and quality of life of oncology nurses. It is evidenced through the literature that oncology nurses face different stressors because of complexity involved in their profession. This research attempts to investigate the impact of resilience and coping strategies on quality of life of nurses along with identifying nature of gender differences in each domain. A total of 300 oncology nurses participated in cross sectional survey based study. Trait (...) and State Resilience Checklist, Brief Cope Scale and WHO Quality of Life scale were used to assess resilience, coping strategies and quality of life respectively. Results indicated significant gender differences in terms of coping strategies and quality of life. Moreover, resilience came out to be a strong predictor of quality of life in nurses. Findings of the study are discussed in terms of policy towards nursing stress management and coping intervention. (shrink)
We prove the equivalence of the semantic version of Tarski’s theorem on the undefinability of truth with the semantic version of the diagonal lemma and also show the equivalence of a syntactic version of Tarski’s undefinability theorem with a weak syntactic diagonal lemma. We outline two seemingly diagonal-free proofs for these theorems from the literature and show that the syntactic version of Tarski’s theorem can deliver Gödel–Rosser’s incompleteness theorem.
The proofs of Gödel (1931), Rosser (1936), Kleene (first 1936 and second 1950), Chaitin (1970), and Boolos (1989) for the first incompleteness theorem are compared with each other, especially from the viewpoint of the second incompleteness theorem. It is shown that Gödel’s (first incompleteness theorem) and Kleene’s first theorems are equivalent with the second incompleteness theorem, Rosser’s and Kleene’s second theorems do deliver the second incompleteness theorem, and Boolos’ theorem is derived from the second incompleteness theorem in the standard way. (...) It is also shown that none of Rosser’s, Kleene’s second or Boolos’ theorems is equivalent with the second incompleteness theorem, and Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem neither delivers nor is derived from the second incompleteness theorem. We compare (the strength of) these six proofs with one another. (shrink)
Interesting as they are by themselves in philosophy and mathematics, paradoxes can be made even more fascinating when turned into proofs and theorems. For example, Russell’s paradox, which overthrew Frege’s logical edifice, is now a classical theorem in set theory, to the effect that no set contains all sets. Paradoxes can be used in proofs of some other theorems—thus Liar’s paradox has been used in the classical proof of Tarski’s theorem on the undefinability of truth in sufficiently rich languages. This (...) paradox (as well as Richard’s paradox) appears implicitly in Gödel’s proof of his celebrated first incompleteness theorem. In this paper, we study Yablo’s paradox from the viewpoint of first- and second-order logics. We prove that a formalization of Yablo’s paradox (which is second order in nature) is non-first-orderizable in the sense of George Boolos (1984). (shrink)
OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician (...) executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice. (shrink)
We formalize the notion of Herbrand Consistency in an appropriate way for bounded arithmetics, and show the existence of a finite fragment of IΔ0 whose Herbrand Consistency is not provable in IΔ0. We also show the existence of an IΔ0-derivable Π1-sentence such that IΔ0 cannot prove its Herbrand Consistency.
This study aims to analyze the short story, The Spell and the Ever Changing Moon by Rukhsana Ahmad, from the feminist perspective. A close reading of the text reveals that facing everyday challenges and juggling between multiple roles is a common practice for middleclass house wives in Pakistani society. The economic instabilities added with emotional, psychological as well as physical abuse plays a vital role in their oppression and humiliation on regular basis. These roles as assigned to them define their (...) social standing and suffering becomes their destiny. Multiple roles of such women and social expectations outside and inside the house define their way of living. Each and every movement and thought becomes codependent on their social familial roles. Being selfless becomes an obligation and ‘sacrifice’ becomes convention for middle class women who spend their whole lives living under the thumb of their men folk. Moreover, the movement and status of women inside and outside the home is also a major concern addressed in this paper including the concept of home, and its significance in lives of Pakistani women. (shrink)