Results for 'S. de Laat'

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  1.  9
    When Research Seems Like Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study of the Communication of Individual Cancer Genetic Research Results.Fiona A. Miller, Mita Giacomini, Catherine Ahern, Jason S. Robert & Sonya de Laat - 2008 - BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):4.
    Research ethicists have recently declared a new ethical imperative: that researchers should communicate the results of research to participants. For some analysts, the obligation is restricted to the communication of the general findings or conclusions of the study. However, other analysts extend the obligation to the disclosure of individual research results, especially where these results are perceived to have clinical relevance. Several scholars have advanced cogent critiques of the putative obligation to disclose individual research results. They question whether ethical goals (...)
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  2. Online Diaries: Reflections on Trust, Privacy, and Exhibitionism. [REVIEW]Paul B. de Laat - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (1):57-69.
    Trust between transaction partners in cyberspace has come to be considered a distinct possibility. In this article the focus is on the conditions for its creation by way of assuming, not inferring trust. After a survey of its development over the years (in the writings of authors like Luhmann, Baier, Gambetta, and Pettit), this mechanism of trust is explored in a study of personal journal blogs. After a brief presentation of some technicalities of blogging and authors’ motives for writing their (...)
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  3. Trusting Virtual Trust.Paul B. de Laat - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):167-180.
    Can trust evolve on the Internet between virtual strangers? Recently, Pettit answered this question in the negative. Focusing on trust in the sense of ‘dynamic, interactive, and trusting’ reliance on other people, he distinguishes between two forms of trust: primary trust rests on the belief that the other is trustworthy, while the more subtle secondary kind of trust is premised on the belief that the other cherishes one’s esteem, and will, therefore, reply to an act of trust in kind (‘trust-responsiveness’). (...)
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  4. The Use of Software Tools and Autonomous Bots Against Vandalism: Eroding Wikipedia’s Moral Order?Paul B. de Laat - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):175-188.
    English - language Wikipedia is constantly being plagued by vandalistic contributions on a massive scale. In order to fight them its volunteer contributors deploy an array of software tools and autonomous bots. After an analysis of their functioning and the ‘ coactivity ’ in use between humans and bots, this research ‘ discloses ’ the moral issues that emerge from the combined patrolling by humans and bots. Administrators provide the stronger tools only to trusted users, thereby creating a new hierarchical (...)
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  5. Models for Humanitarian Health Care Ethics.L. Schwartz, M. Hunt, C. Sinding, L. Elit, L. Redwood-Campbell, N. Adelson & S. de Laat - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (1):81-90.
    Humanitarian health care practitioners working outside familiar settings, and without familiar supports, encounter ethical challenges both familiar and distinct. The ethical guidance they rely upon ought to reflect this. Using data from empirical studies, we explore the strengths and weaknesses of two ethical models that could serve as resources for understanding ethical challenges in humanitarian health care: clinical ethics and public health ethics. The qualitative interviews demonstrate the degree to which traditional teaching and values of clinical health ethics seem insufficient (...)
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  6. Copyright or Copyleft?: An Analysis of Property Regimes for Software Development.Paul B. de Laat - 2005 - Research Policy 34 (10):1511-1532.
    Two property regimes for software development may be distinguished. Within corporations, on the one hand, a Private Regime obtains which excludes all outsiders from access to a firm's software assets. It is shown how the protective instruments of secrecy and both copyright and patent have been strengthened considerably during the last two decades. On the other, a Public Regime among hackers may be distinguished, initiated by individuals, organizations or firms, in which source code is freely exchanged. It is argued that (...)
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  7. Profiling Vandalism in Wikipedia: A Schauerian Approach to Justification.Paul B. de Laat - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):131-148.
    In order to fight massive vandalism the English- language Wikipedia has developed a system of surveillance which is carried out by humans and bots, supported by various tools. Central to the selection of edits for inspection is the process of using filters or profiles. Can this profiling be justified? On the basis of a careful reading of Frederick Schauer’s books about rules in general (1991) and profiling in particular (2003) I arrive at several conclusions. The effectiveness, efficiency, and risk-aversion of (...)
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  8.  2
    Algorithmic Decision-Making Employing Profiling: Will Trade Secrecy Protection Render the Right to Explanation Toothless?Paul B. de Laat - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    Algorithmic decision-making based on profiling may significantly affect people’s destinies. As a rule, however, explanations for such decisions are lacking. What are the chances for a “right to explanation” to be realized soon? After an exploration of the regulatory efforts that are currently pushing for such a right it is concluded that, at the moment, the GDPR stands out as the main force to be reckoned with. In cases of profiling, data subjects are granted the right to receive meaningful information (...)
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  9.  29
    Stijlen Van ethisch argumenteren in de laat-moderne tijd.Gerard de Vries - 2004 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 66 (4):649-665.
    A cursory view of the history of ethical thinking shows the presence of a limited variety of 'styles of ethical reasoning', a term used in analogy of Crombie's 'styles of scientific reasoning' for systems of thought that set their own standards and techniques for providing evidence. Each style of reasoning tends to suggest a specific role for ethicists. Styles are appropriate relative to particular contexts of problems and require special institutions to flourish. Herman De Dijn's discussion in Taboes, monsters en (...)
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  10.  2
    Lukas 5:5 "Op U woord sal ek die net laat sak".E. S. Mulder - 1949 - Hts Theological Studies 6 (1/2).
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  11. Algorithmic Decision-Making Based on Machine Learning From Big Data: Can Transparency Restore Accountability?Paul B. de Laat - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):525-541.
    Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Would transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems as is often maintained? Several objections to full transparency are examined: the loss of privacy when datasets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves, the potential loss of companies’ competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms usually are (...)
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  12. Coercion or Empowerment? Moderation of Content in Wikipedia as 'Essentially Contested' Bureaucratic Rules.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (2):123-135.
    In communities of user-generated content, systems for the management of content and/or their contributors are usually accepted without much protest. Not so, however, in the case of Wikipedia, in which the proposal to introduce a system of review for new edits (in order to counter vandalism) led to heated discussions. This debate is analysed, and arguments of both supporters and opponents (of English, German and French tongue) are extracted from Wikipedian archives. In order to better understand this division of the (...)
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  13.  58
    The Disciplinary Power of Predictive Algorithms: A Foucauldian Perspective.Paul B. de Laat - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):319-329.
    Big Data are increasingly used in machine learning in order to create predictive models. How are predictive practices that use such models to be situated? In the field of surveillance studies many of its practitioners assert that “governance by discipline” has given way to “governance by risk”. The individual is dissolved into his/her constituent data and no longer addressed. I argue that, on the contrary, in most of the contexts where predictive modelling is used, it constitutes Foucauldian discipline. Compliance to (...)
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  14. De onwetende meester als voorbeeld - Jacques Ranciere: van praktijk naar principe.Martijn Boven - 2017 - Wijsgerig Perspectief 3 (57):6-15.
    Bestaat de kernactiviteit van de meester erin om zijn eigen kennis uit te leggen en over te dragen? De Franse filosoof Jacques Rancière laat zien dat een gelegenheidsexperiment van Joseph Jacotot ons een ander voorbeeld aanreikt: de onwetende meester. In zijn boek De onwetende meester: vijf lessen over intellectuele emancipatie (Le maître ignorant: Cinq leçons sur l'émancipation intellectuelle) stelt hij dat de onwetende meester evengoed of zelfs beter in staat is leerlingen iets te leren dan de wetende meester. Rancière (...)
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  15. Open Source Production of Encyclopedias: Editorial Policies at the Intersection of Organizational and Epistemological Trust.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - Social Epistemology 26 (1):71-103.
    The ideas behind open source software are currently applied to the production of encyclopedias. A sample of six English text-based, neutral-point-of-view, online encyclopedias of the kind are identified: h2g2, Wikipedia, Scholarpedia, Encyclopedia of Earth, Citizendium and Knol. How do these projects deal with the problem of trusting their participants to behave as competent and loyal encyclopedists? Editorial policies for soliciting and processing content are shown to range from high discretion to low discretion; that is, from granting unlimited trust to limited (...)
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  16.  83
    How Can Contributors to Open-Source Communities Be Trusted? On the Assumption, Inference, and Substitution of Trust.Paul B. de Laat - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):327-341.
    Open-source communities that focus on content rely squarely on the contributions of invisible strangers in cyberspace. How do such communities handle the problem of trusting that strangers have good intentions and adequate competence? This question is explored in relation to communities in which such trust is a vital issue: peer production of software (FreeBSD and Mozilla in particular) and encyclopaedia entries (Wikipedia in particular). In the context of open-source software, it is argued that trust was inferred from an underlying ‘hacker (...)
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  17.  9
    Companies Committed to Responsible AI: From Principles Towards Implementation and Regulation?Paul B. de Laat - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1135-1193.
    The term ‘responsible AI’ has been coined to denote AI that is fair and non-biased, transparent and explainable, secure and safe, privacy-proof, accountable, and to the benefit of mankind. Since 2016, a great many organizations have pledged allegiance to such principles. Amongst them are 24 AI companies that did so by posting a commitment of the kind on their website and/or by joining the ‘Partnership on AI’. By means of a comprehensive web search, two questions are addressed by this study: (...)
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  18. NAVIGATING BETWEEN CHAOS AND BUREAUCRACY: BACKGROUNDING TRUST IN OPEN-CONTENT COMMUNITIES.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - In Karl Aberer, Andreas Flache, Wander Jager, Ling Liu, Jie Tang & Christophe Guéret (eds.), 4th International Conference, SocInfo 2012, Lausanne, Switzerland, December 5-7, 2012. Proceedings. Springer.
    Many virtual communities that rely on user-generated content (such as social news sites, citizen journals, and encyclopedias in particular) offer unrestricted and immediate ‘write access’ to every contributor. It is argued that these communities do not just assume that the trust granted by that policy is well-placed; they have developed extensive mechanisms that underpin the trust involved (‘backgrounding’). These target contributors (stipulating legal terms of use and developing etiquette, both underscored by sanctions) as well as the contents contributed by them (...)
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  19. From Open-Source Software to Wikipedia: ‘Backgrounding’ Trust by Collective Monitoring and Reputation Tracking.Paul B. de Laat - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):157-169.
    Open-content communities that focus on co-creation without requirements for entry have to face the issue of institutional trust in contributors. This research investigates the various ways in which these communities manage this issue. It is shown that communities of open-source software—continue to—rely mainly on hierarchy (reserving write-access for higher echelons), which substitutes (the need for) trust. Encyclopedic communities, though, largely avoid this solution. In the particular case of Wikipedia, which is confronted with persistent vandalism, another arrangement has been pioneered instead. (...)
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  20. Open Source Software: A New Mertonian Ethos?Paul B. de Laat - 2001 - In Anton Vedder (ed.), Ethics and the Internet. Intersentia.
    Hacker communities of the 1970s and 1980s developed a quite characteristic work ethos. Its norms are explored and shown to be quite similar to those which Robert Merton suggested govern academic life: communism, universalism, disinterestedness, and organized scepticism. In the 1990s the Internet multiplied the scale of these communities, allowing them to create successful software programs like Linux and Apache. After renaming themselves the `open source software' movement, with an emphasis on software quality, they succeeded in gaining corporate interest. As (...)
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  21.  25
    Rede en religie in de greep van grondmodellen.Jacob Klapwijk - 2008 - Philosophia Reformata 73 (1):19-43.
    Over de vraag hoe geloof en verstand zich onderling verhouden, bestaat geen communis opinio; ook in het verleden is die er nooit geweest. Integendeel, de filosofiehistorie vertoont een complexe verscheidenheid van opvattingen. In dit artikel heb ik deze geordend in een beperkt aantal grondschema’s of grondmodellen. Ik breng zeven van die grondmodellen ter sprake, en duid ze kortweg aan met de termen identificatie, conflict, subordinatie, complementariteit, fundering, authenticiteit en transformatie. Mijn analyse laat zien hoe deze modellen, eenmaal present op (...)
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  22.  22
    Big Data and Algorithmic Decision-Making.Paul B. de Laat - 2017 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 47 (3):39-53.
    Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Can transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems? Several objections are examined: the loss of privacy when data sets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves, the potential loss of competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms are inherently opaque. It is concluded that transparency is (...)
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  23. Internet-Based Commons of Intellectual Resources: An Exploration of Their Variety.Paul B. de Laat - 2006 - In Jacques Berleur, Markku I. Nurminen & John Impagliazzo (eds.), IFIP; Social Informatics: An Information Society for All? In Remembrance of Rob Kling Vol 223. Springer.
    During the two last decades, speeded up by the development of the Internet, several types of commons have been opened up for intellectual resources. In this article their variety is being explored as to the kind of resources and the type of regulation involved. The open source software movement initiated the phenomenon, by creating a copyright-based commons of source code that can be labelled `dynamic': allowing both use and modification of resources. Additionally, such a commons may be either protected from (...)
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  24. Trusting the (Ro)Botic Other: By Assumption?Paul B. de Laat - 2015 - SIGCAS Computers and Society 45 (3):255-260.
    How may human agents come to trust (sophisticated) artificial agents? At present, since the trust involved is non-normative, this would seem to be a slow process, depending on the outcomes of the transactions. Some more options may soon become available though. As debated in the literature, humans may meet (ro)bots as they are embedded in an institution. If they happen to trust the institution, they will also trust them to have tried out and tested the machines in their back corridors; (...)
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  25. Networked Learning 2020: Proceedings For The Twelfth International Conference On Networked Learning.Maarten De Laat, Thomas Ryberg, Nina Bonderup Dohn, Stig Børsen Hansen & Jens Jørgen Hansen (eds.) - 2020
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  26.  56
    Emerging Roles for Third Parties in Cyberspace.Paul B. de Laat - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (4):267-276.
    In `real' space, third partieshave always been useful to facilitatetransactions. With cyberspace opening up, it isto be expected that intermediation will alsodevelop in a virtual fashion. The articlefocuses upon new cyberroles for third partiesthat seem to announce themselves clearly.First, virtualization of the market place haspaved the way for `cybermediaries', who brokerbetween supply and demand of material andinformational goods. Secondly,cybercommunication has created newuncertainties concerning informational securityand privacy. Also, as in real space,transacting supposes some decency with one'spartners. These needs are being addressed (...)
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  27. Aristotle’s “De Anima”: A Critical Commentary.Ronald Polansky - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's De Anima is the first systematic philosophical account of the soul, which serves to explain the functioning of all mortal living things. In his commentary, Ronald Polansky argues that the work is far more structured and systematic than previously supposed. He contends that Aristotle seeks a comprehensive understanding of the soul and its faculties. By closely tracing the unfolding of the many-layered argumentation and the way Aristotle fits his inquiry meticulously within his scheme of the sciences, Polansky answers questions (...)
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  28.  60
    Burgerschapseducatie zal ons niet redden.Michael S. Merry - 2021 - Pedagogiek 41 (3):272-295.
    In dit artikel onderzoek ik of de standaardbenaderingen van burgerschapsonderwijs in de Lage Landen geschikt zijn om jonge mensen voor te bereiden om de huidige politieke realiteiten tegemoet te treden, laat staan om onrecht te bestrijden. Ik laat zien waarom een nadruk op ‘democratische principes’ of de rechtsstaat de status quo waarschijnlijk niet zal veranderen zolang opvoeders er niet in slagen de aandacht voor de waarheid te cultiveren die nodig is om te kunnen oordelen over rivaliserende normatieve claims. (...)
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  29.  16
    Assessing Climate Model Projections: State of the Art and Philosophical Reflections.Joel Katzav, Henk Dijkstra & Jos de Laat - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43 (4):258-276.
    The present paper draws on climate science and the philosophy of science in order to evaluate climate-model-based approaches to assessing climate projections. We analyze the difficulties that arise in such assessment and outline criteria of adequacy for approaches to it. In addition, we offer a critical overview of the approaches used in the IPCC working group one fourth report, including the confidence building, Bayesian and likelihood approaches. Finally, we consider approaches that do not feature in the IPCC reports, including three (...)
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  30.  10
    Trusting the (Ro)Botic Other.Paul B. de Laat - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):255-260.
    How may human agents come to trust artificial agents? At present, since the trust involved is non-normative, this would seem to be a slow process, depending on the outcomes of the transactions. Some more options may soon become available though. As debated in the literature, humans may meet bots as they are embedded in an institution. If they happen to trust the institution, they will also trust them to have tried out and tested the machines in their back corridors; as (...)
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  31.  12
    Trusting the Robotic Other.Paul B. de Laat - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):255-260.
    How may human agents come to trust artificial agents? At present, since the trust involved is non-normative, this would seem to be a slow process, depending on the outcomes of the transactions. Some more options may soon become available though. As debated in the literature, humans may meet bots as they are embedded in an institution. If they happen to trust the institution, they will also trust them to have tried out and tested the machines in their back corridors; as (...)
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  32. Picture Perfect (?): Ethical Considerations in Visual Representation.Sonya de Laat - 2004 - Nexus 17 (1):5.
     
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  33.  88
    Assessing Climate Model Projections: State of the Art and Philosophical Reflections.Joel Katzav, Henk A. Dijkstra & A. T. J. de Laat - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43 (4):258-276.
    The present paper draws on climate science and the philosophy of science in order to evaluate climate-model-based approaches to assessing climate projections. We analyze the difficulties that arise in such assessment and outline criteria of adequacy for approaches to it. In addition, we offer a critical overview of the approaches used in the IPCC working group one fourth report, including the confidence building, Bayesian and likelihood approaches. Finally, we consider approaches that do not feature in the IPCC reports, including three (...)
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  34.  76
    Aristotle’s de Interpretatione: Contradiction and Dialectic.C. W. A. Whitaker - 1996 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    De Interpretatione is among Aristotle's most influential and widely read writings; C. W. A. Whitaker presents the first systematic study of this work, and offers a radical new view of its aims, its structure, and its place in Aristotle's system. He shows that De Interpretatione is not a disjointed essay on ill-connected subjects, as traditionally thought, but a highly organized and systematic treatise on logic, argument, and dialectic.
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  35. Aristotle’s de Interpretatione: Contradiction and Dialectic.C. W. A. Whitaker - 1996 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Aristotle's treatise De Interpretatione is one of his central works; it continues to be the focus of much attention and debate. C. W. A. Whitaker presents the first systematic study of this work, and offers a radical new view of its aims, its structure, and its place in Aristotle's system, basing this view upon a detailed chapter-by-chapter analysis.By treating the work systematically, rather than concentrating on certain selected passages, Whitaker is able to show that, contrary to traditional opinion, it forms (...)
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  36.  33
    Boethius’s De Topicis Differentiis.Eleonore Stump - 1979 - Philosophical Review 88 (3):486-488.
  37.  31
    Aristotle's De Motu Animalium.D. W. Hamlyn - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (120):246.
  38. Aristotle's De motu animalium.Martha Craven Nussbaum - 1978 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 43 (2):378-378.
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  39. Aristotle's De Motu Animalium.Martha Craven Nussbaum - 1978 - Journal of the History of Biology 13 (2):351-356.
     
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  40.  18
    Plutarch's de Fortuna Romanorum.S. C. R. Swain - 1989 - Classical Quarterly 39 (02):504-.
    Plutarch's essay de fortuna Romanorum has attracted divergent judgements. Ziegler dismissed it as ‘eine nicht weiter ernst zu nehmende rhetorische Stilübung’. By Flacelière it was hailed as ‘une ébauche de méditation sur le prodigieux destin de Rome’. It is time to consider the work afresh and to discover whether there is common ground between these two views. Rather than offering a general appreciation, my treatment will take the work chapter by chapter, considering points of interest as they arise. This method (...)
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  41.  54
    Cicero’s De Officiis.David S. Brown - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (2):151-159.
    The goal of this paper is to increase interest in Cicero’s “De Officiis” as both a textbook and resource for developing curricula at the secondary and post-secondary level. The paper begins by tracing the extensive influence that the work has had in ethics, political philosophy, literature, and education before proceeding to an explanation for why its influence has waned since the nineteenth century. Next, the paper contends that “De Officiis” addresses some of the most relevant and pressing questions in ethics. (...)
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  42.  13
    Cicero’s De Officiis: Ancient Ethics for Modern Times.David S. Brown - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (2):151-159.
    The goal of this paper is to increase interest in Cicero’s “De Officiis” as both a textbook and resource for developing curricula at the secondary and post-secondary level. The paper begins by tracing the extensive influence that the work has had in ethics, political philosophy, literature, and education before proceeding to an explanation for why its influence has waned since the nineteenth century. Next, the paper contends that “De Officiis” addresses some of the most relevant and pressing questions in ethics. (...)
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  43.  14
    Cicero's 'de Temporibus Suis':: The Evidence Reconsidered.S. Harrison - 1990 - Hermes 118 (4):455-463.
  44.  8
    Aristotle’s de Interpretatione: Contradiction and Dialectic.C. W. A. Whitaker - 1998 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 51:171-172.
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  45. Essays on Aristotle's De Anima.Martha Craven Nussbaum & Amélie Rorty (eds.) - 1992/1995 - Oxford University Press.
    Bringing together a group of outstanding new essays on Aristotle's De Anima, this book covers topics such as the relation between soul and body, sense-perception, imagination, memory, desire, and thought, which present the philosophical substance of Aristotle's views to the modern reader. The contributors write with philosophical subtlety and wide-ranging scholarship, locating their interpretations firmly within the context of Aristotle's thought as a whole.u.
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  46.  9
    William Cleghorn's De Igne.Douglas McKie & Niels H. de V. Heathcote - 1958 - Annals of Science 14 (1):1-82.
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  47.  7
    William Cleghorn's De Igne.Douglas Mckie & Niels de V. Heathcote - 1958 - Annals of Science 14 (1):1-82.
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  48.  49
    Reuchlin's de Verbo Mirifico and the Magic Debate of the Late Fifteenth Century.Charles Zika - 1976 - Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39:104-138.
  49.  28
    Cicero's De Fato in Deleuze's Logic of Sense.Michael James Bennett - 2015 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 9 (1):25-58.
    The arguments of the Stoic Chrysippus recorded in Cicero's De Fato are of great importance to Deleuze's conception of events in The Logic of Sense. The purpose of this paper is to explicate these arguments, to which Deleuze's allusions are extremely terse, and to situate them in the context of Deleuze's broader project in that book. Drawing on contemporary scholarship on the Stoics, I show the extent to which Chrysippus' views on compatibilism, hypothetical inference and astrology support Deleuze's claim that (...)
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  50. Aristotle's De Anima : On Why the Soul is Not a Set of Capacities.Rebekah Johnston - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (2):185-200.
    Although it is common for interpreters of Aristotle's De Anima to treat the soul as a specially related set of powers of capacities, I argue against this view on the grounds that the plausible options for reconciling the claim that the soul is a set of powers with Aristotle's repeated claim that the soul is an actuality cannot be unsuccessful. Moreover, I argue that there are good reasons to be wary of attributing to Aristotle the view that the soul is (...)
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