This chapter begins with a discussion of Indian theories of inference. It identifies the unique features of Indian logic not found in Western logic. Indian theories of inference are primarily theories of adequate evidence, but they may also be viewed as systems of nonmonotonic reasoning, which is being used in modern computer simulation of actual human reasoning processes. The chapter then discusses Nyāya logic, Buddhist logic, Jaina logic, and Navya–Nyāya logic.
Kur’an’ın kendine has birbiriyle irtibatlı kelimeler dünyası bulunmakta-dır. Doğru bir Allah tasavvuru, Allah-âlem, Allah-kul, âlem-kul ilişkisinin nasıl olması gerektiği bu kelime dünyası tarafından anlatılmaktadır. Bu nok-tada Kur’an’da herhangi bir konu anlatılırken aralarında sıkı irtibat olan kelime grupları kullanılmıştır. Örneğin Allah Kur’ân’da kendisini, Rakîb, Alîm, Basîr, Habîr, Latîf vb. lafızlarla insanın idrakine yansıtmakta ve böylece doğru bir Allah Tasavvuru oluşmasını amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle ra-ka-be /رقب kökünün etimolojisi üzerinde durulacaktır. Zira bir kelimenin dildeki asli anlamı ve türevleriyle beraber sonradan kazandığı anlamların (...) tespiti, ilgili kelimenin anlam sahasını keşfetme ile mümkündür. Akabinde bu kökün türevlerinden “Rakîb” kelimesi ile anlam ilişkisi olan ve Yüce Allah’ın Kur’ân’da kendisine nispet ettiği sıfatlarından, Alîm, Basîr, Habîr, Şehîd kelimeler tahlil edilecektir. Bu bağlamda doğrudan olmasa da dolaylı olarak Allah’ın görmesini ve gözetlemesini ifade eden kelimelere ve ilgili âyetlere yer verilecektir. Böylece ra-ka-be kökünün Kur’an siyakındaki anlam sahası ortaya konulmuş olacaktır. (shrink)
Some books are like parents, grandparents or old friends. They have been with us from our earliest days and one treats them almost with familiarity. They belong to one's youth and the recognition that they have been around for months and years keeps company with surprise. For philosophers such a book is A. J. Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic, first published over fifty years ago in 1936. There is a sense in which a similar point may be made about some (...) individuals, but discretion and good manners should deter us from succumbing to the philosophical disease of pressing an analogy too far. Suffice it to say that over a period during which most English speaking philosophers were content to work within a context which was significantly influenced by Ayer's clear and cajoling formulation of a twentieth century of empiricism, F. C. Copleston provided one of the few distinctive alternative philosophical perspectives on major metaphysical questions. This essay will reflect upon the influence of Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic some fifty years after its publication, upon the philosophical discussion of religion and theological questions. (shrink)
In 1931 the mathematical logician Kurt Godel published a revolutionary paper that challenged certain basic assumptions underpinning mathematics and logic. A colleague of Albert Einstein, his theorem proved that mathematics was partly based on propositions not provable within the mathematical system and had radical implications that have echoed throughout many fields. A gripping combination of science and accessibility, Godel’s Proof by Nagel and Newman is for both mathematicians and the idly curious, offering those with a taste for logic and philosophy (...) the chance to satisfy their intellectual curiosity. (shrink)
Many religious people are alarmed about features of the current age - violence in the media, a pervasive hedonism, a marginalization of religion, and widespread abortion. These concerns influence politics, but just as there should be a separation between church and state, so should there be a balance between religious commitments and secular arguments calling for social reforms. Robert Audi offers a principle of secular rationale, which does not exclude religious grounds for action but which rules out restricting freedom except (...) on grounds that any rational citizen would accept. The book describes the essential commitments of free democracy, explains how religious and secular moral considerations can be integrated to facilitate co-operation in a world of religious pluralism, and proposes ideals of civic virtue that express the mutual respect on which democracy depends. Audi offers a balanced and sophisticated treatment of the relations between religion and politics in a modern, secular society. (shrink)
Son dönem Osmanlı âlimlerinden olan 1860/70 Kastamonu doğumlu Ahmed Mâhir Efendi “Ballıklızâde” lakabıyla tanınmaktadır. O, 19. yüzyılda, Batı’nın pek çok yönde ilerleme gösterdiği ve Osmanlı’nın ise yaptığı ıslahatların yanında toprak kaybetmeye başladığı Meşrutiyet döneminde yaşamıştır. Âlim Ahmed Hicâbî’den dersler almasının ardından kendisi de dersler vererek pek çok öğrenci yetiştirmiş, Dâru’l-Fünûn İlahiyât Fakültesi ve Medresetü’l-Vâizîn’de on üç yıl tefsir ve kelam dersleri okutmuştur. Bunun yanı sıra Yargıtay üyeliği, hâkimlik ve milletvekilliği yapmış olan âlim, siyasi bir kişilik olarak da karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Yayınlanan (...) dört eseri bulunan Mâhir Efendi, Kastamonu’nun dini, siyasi, edebi alanlarda yetiştirdiği önemli şahsiyetlerdendir. Bu çalışmada öncelikle Meşrutiyet Dönemi ve bu dönemde tefsir ilminin konumu ele alınmıştır. İkinci olarak Ahmed Mâhir’in hayatına dair bilgiler aktarıldıktan sonra “Mu’cizât-ı Kur’aniyye” ve “el-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri’l-Fâtiha” eserleri özelinde tefsirciliği incelenmiştir. Ahmed Mâhir’in hem siyasi hem de dini bir yönünün olması ve bugün elimizde ona dair dört eserin bulunuşu onun araştırılmasını önemli kılmaktadır. Onunla ilgili tasavvufi yönünün vurgulandığı bir doktora tezi ile aynı kişi tarafından hazırlanmış bir makale yine tasavvuf sahasında yazdığı eser ile alakalı iki yüksek lisans tezi yapılmıştır. Onun dışında hayatına ve eserlerine dair özlü bilgiler veren kaynaklar olsa da bazı biyografik ya da literatüre yönelik çalışmalarda verilen kısa bilgiler dışında “Mu’cizât-ı Kur’aniyye” ve “el-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri’l-Fâtiha” isimli eserlerinin akademik bir çalışmanın konusu olduğuna rastlamadık. Bu durum da bu çalışmayı önemli hale getirmiştir. İncelememiz neticesinde Ahmed Mâhir’in özellikle “Mu’cizât-ı Kur’aniyye” eserine, dönemindeki siyasi ya da dini olumsuz durumları taşıdığını tespit ettik. Kur’an’ın mükemmelliği ve her şeyi içerdiği düşüncesinden hareketle ayetleri, bu durumları düzeltmek için kullanmıştır. “el-Fâtiha fî Tefsîri’l-Fâtiha” eseri ise bize hem o dönem Osmanlı tefsir birikimin izlerini göstermede hem de bu âlimin tefsir, hadis, edebiyata dair ilmi geleneğe sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. (shrink)
Although social scientists have identified diverse behavioral patterns among children from dissimilarly structured families, marketing scholars have progressed little in relating family structure to consumption-related decisions. In particular, the roles played by members of single-mother families—which may include live-in grandparents, mother’s unmarried partner, and step-father with or without step-sibling(s)—may affect children’s influence on consumption-related decisions. For example, to offset a parental authority dynamic introduced by a new stepfather, the work-related constraints imposed on a breadwinning mother, or the imposition of adult-level (...) household responsibilities on children, single-mother families may attend more to their children’s product preferences. -/- Without a profile that includes socio-economic, behavioral, and psychological aspects, efficient and socially responsible marketing to single-mother households is compromised. Relative to dual-parent families, single-mother families tend to have fewer resources and less buying power, children who consume more materialistic and compulsively, and children who more strongly influence decision making for both own-use and family-use products. Timely research would ensure that these and other tendencies now differentiate single-mother from dual-parent families in ways that marketers should address. Hence, our threefold goal is (1) to consolidate and highlight gaps in existing theory applied to studying children’s influence on consumption-related decision making in single-mother families, and (2) to propose a hybrid framework that merges two theories conducive to such research, and (3) to identify promising research propositions for future research. (shrink)
Following promulgation of the Nuremberg code in 1947, the ethics of research on human subjects has been a challenging and often contentious topic of debate. Escalation in the use of research participants in low-income countries over recent decades , has intensified the debate on the ethics of international research and led to increasing attention both to exploitation of vulnerable subjects and to considerations of how the 10:90 gap in health and medical research could be narrowed. In 2000, prompted by the (...) discussions over several years that led to the US NIH launching a capacity building programme on research ethics for members of research ethics committees in developing countries, we advanced a ‘new look’ for the ethics of international research.1 Since then progress has been made on several fronts.First, our ideas—considered somewhat radical and impractical at the time—have been provocatively addressed by scholars who have either contested them or advanced similar conceptions of what obligations international researchers have to research participants and communities in low income countries before, during and after clinical trials. Second, those researchers who have been sympathetic to our ideas have either endeavoured to put these into practice or have investigated the feasibility of doing so. Third, the intractability of the 10/90 gap and the escalation of interest in global health have sensitised many to the need to amplify the uptake of these ideas in practice.Here, we briefly review the conceptual and practical developments in international research ethics. While much conceptual progress has been made (and the concepts are now appearing …. (shrink)
This is the first edition of Plato's Republic to be based on examination of all the evidence. Many new readings have been introduced in the Greek text. A critical apparatus gives details for all relevant textual evidence. All scholars and students of Plato and ancient philosophy in general will welcome this valuable new resource.
R. S. Peters on Education and Ethics reissues seven titles from Peters' life's work. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, the books are concerned with the philosophy of education and ethics. Topics include moral education and learning, authority and responsibility, psychology and ethical development and ideas on motivation amongst others. The books discuss more traditional theories and philosophical thinkers as well as exploring later ideas in a way which makes the subjects they discuss still relevant today.
This is a careful, line-by-line and often word-by-word commentary on Book XII of the Metaphysics. The commentary is preceded by a seven part introduction which deals with the theology of Book XII, noûs, self-knowledge, desire, the place of the book in Aristotle’s writings, its date and structure, and the problem of Chapter 8 and Aristotle’s monotheism. Elders claims Chapter 8 was not written by Aristotle but by a disciple or disciples. He also claims that Book XII contains at least five (...) other distinct treatises which come from different periods in Aristotle’s life. Throughout his book Elders summarizes the opinions of all the important modern and ancient commentators who have written on the questions he examines, and makes copious references to other Greek thinkers and other works of Aristotle. For example the section on self-knowledge moves through several dialogues of Plato and through Aristotle’s ethical writings. Philological observations abound, and Elders is sensitive to philosophical aspects in them. Some of his remarks about terms like ousia and dokei contain helpful philosophical insights. The presentation is lean, clear and direct. Elders has marked off another definite part of Aristotle’s Metaphysics and has supplied us with all the information, sources and scholarly commentary that are available for it.—R. S. (shrink)
In this response to Jeff Pflug’s review of my dissertation Michael Polanyi’s Integrative Philosophy, I note that Pflug focused on my discussion of possible extension of Polanyi’s epistemology; he has also taken my statements on scientific truth out of context. In addition, he ignored the four major elements of the dissertation, thereby not giving the reader a “map” to the meaning and the rationale of the work – an intellectual biography of Polanyi.
SummaryAn accurate framework for interpreting Kant's theory of knowledge must clearly distinguish between the six terms he uses to describe the various stages in the epistemological development of the‘object’of knowledge. Kant portrays the object transcendentally in the first Critique as passing from an unknowable‘thing in itself through the intermediate stage of being a‘transcendental object’, and finally attaining the ideal status of an‘appearance’. When the object is considered empirically, it passes through three corresponding stages: the‘phenomenon’is the real object as known in (...) experience, the‘negative noumenon’limits our knowledge to its intuitive manifestation, and the‘positive noumenon’is that aspect of the known object which remains ultimately transcendent. (shrink)
Polanyi’s philosophy of “man in thought,” by all appearances, chronologically and structurally, seems to be founded on his epistemology. Polanyi’s epistemology of tacit knowing as integration is teleological. By his “ontological equation,” he patterned comprehensive (and complex) entities as emergence on his epistemology. This forces him to make puzzling formulaic statements which land him in trouble with fellow scientists. The equation also lends itself to unwarranted problematic interpretations. The exploration leads me to suggest that Polanyi may be understood as a (...) “rational realist” who insisted on a tacit knowledge version of interactionist mode of mind-body relation. (shrink)
A successful attempt to bring all of Freud's discussions of the concepts of repression and defense into systematic form. Madison also argues that there is an observational language which corresponds to- Freud's theoretical language; by translating these concepts into observational terms, we can bring Freudian psychology "up to date."--S. R.
I am very pleased to see the response by J S Taylor to my critique of the “organs debate”. He makes some notable and important points, but also some errors to which attention should be drawn.Taylor erroneously attributes to me concern that the organ debate excessively focuses on saving the lives of a few people. My concern was about the narrow framework within which the debate is embedded and that it focuses on the lives of a few privileged people—those who (...) can pay—while largely neglecting the lives of those who cannot. The fact that some attention has been paid to such issues in some journals does not negate the importance of my claim. Moreover, it is not that the question of millions of premature deaths has …. (shrink)
Cheating is fairly commonplace at both Tiers 1 and 2 AACSB accredited business schools. Distinct differences exist between Tiers 1 and 2 students with regard to cheating. Tier 1 students are more likely to cheat on written assignments, they believe sanctions impact cheating, and that a stigma is attached to cheating. Tier 2 students are more likely to cheat on exams, and nearly as likely to cheat on written assignments. Tier 2 students accept the notion that moral and ethical people (...) cheat. Tier 2 students who are Business Administration majors, those who are employed 40 h or more per week, married students, and married students with children are more likely to cheat. At both Tiers 1 and 2 schools Asian students are less likely to cheat, but resident members of fraternities and sororities and those who drink frequently are more likely to cheat. (shrink)
Ayetler, ele aldıkları konular itibariyle geniş bir konu yelpazesine sahiptir. Bu konuları ise bazen doğrudan ve yoruma gerek bırakmayacak şekilde bazen de bu netlikte olmadan ortaya koyarlar. Bu durum, ayetle muhatap olan kişinin metni doğru anlamasında belli bir yöntem ve birikime sahip olmasını gerekli kılar. Bu ise muhatabın metni anlama ve yorumlamasında, sahip olduğu bakış açısının etkisini baskın hale getirir. Bu bağlamda ahkâm ayetlerine bakıldığında onların sınırlı ve bazı alanları düzenleyici oldukları görülür. Ayrıca içerdikleri ahkâma dair de çoğu kez farklı (...) yorumlanabilecek bir üslûba sahiptirler. Bu durum, onları anlamaya çalışan fukaha için bir taraftan geniş bir yorum sahası açarken diğer taraftan yapılan yorumda hesabı verilebilirlik unsurunu öne çıkartır. Bu zeminde ahkâma dair ayetler, fakihler tarafından çeşitli yorumlara tabi tutulmuştur. Ayetlerden hüküm çıkarmaya çalışan bu ilim adamları, çeşitli etkenler altında bu ameliyeyi gerçekleştirmişlerdir. Bu etkenlerden bir tanesi de takip edilen amelî mezheptir. Bu makale, ahkâm tefsirlerinin ilklerine sahip olan, bununla birlikte farklı fıkhî mezheplere tabi bulunan üç fakih-müfessir üzerinden meselenin bu veçhesine eğilmektedir. Bu sayede mevcut etkinin varlığı, ne boyutta olduğu gibi hususlarda bir fikir elde edilebilecektir. (shrink)
The main thesis of this book is that Wittgenstein’s early philosophy is an exemplification of Newtonian physics, whereas the later philosophy exemplifies contemporary, relativistic physics. The reader may recall Wittgenstein’s insistence, during both major periods of his thought, upon the separation of philosophy from science. However, Bolton’s unstated premise is that Wittgenstein’s thought was unconsciously determined by two different conceptions of physics. Whatever one may think of this, it leaves a question unanswered. Since both periods of Wittgenstein’s thought follow the (...) development of relativistic physics, why was he initially influenced by Newtonian physics or its expression in modern philosophy? Was this a contingent error of the youthful Wittgenstein, or an expression of historical inevitability? We find no discussion of this difficult problem in Bolton’s book. Instead, he claims, and to some extent shows, that Wittgenstein, in the Tractatus, crystallizes the axioms of modern philosophy, which is essentially Newtonian. At the historical level, this thesis is either wrong or uninformative. It is wrong because not all of modern philosophy can be explained on the basis of the peculiarities of modern or Newtonian physics. It is uninformative because to the extent that all modern philosophers took Newtonian physics for granted, the latter cannot account for the sharp differences between, say, John Locke and Hegel. Nevertheless, Bolton provides interesting and plausible reasons for regarding the Tractatus as an expression of that aspect of modern philosophy which may profitably be called "Newtonian." He fails to convince at least one reader that the repudiation of the Tractatus is a repudiation of modern philosophy for anyone other than Wittgenstein and his followers. On the other hand, once we discount, or even disregard, Bolton’s historical thesis, the more traditional virtues of his book come sharply into focus. Having recently reviewed the 686 page commentary by Baker and Hacker on the first third of the Investigations, as well as Wright’s 481 page essay on Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics, the author of this note is in a good position to appreciate the economy and lucidity of Bolton’s summary analysis of the main points in the Tractatus. As an example of my disagreement with Bolton’s interpretation, I begin with a brief citation from p. 86. (shrink)
This Companion provides a fresh and comprehensive account of this outstanding work, which remains among the most frequently read works of Greek philosophy, indeed of Classical antiquity in general. The sixteen essays, by authors who represent various academic disciplines, bring a spectrum of interpretive approaches to bear in order to aid the understanding of a wide-ranging audience, from first-time readers of the Republic who require guidance, to more experienced readers who wish to explore contemporary currents in the work’s interpretation. The (...) three initial chapters address aspects of the work as a whole. They are followed by essays that match closely the sequence in which topics are presented in the ten books of the Republic. Since the Republic returns frequently to the same topics by different routes, so do the authors of this volume, who provide the readers with divergent yet complementary perspectives by which to appreciate the Republic’s principal concerns. (shrink)