161 found
Order:
Disambiguations
S. Alexander [104]Samuel Alexander [33]Sidney Alexander [7]Samuel Allen Alexander [6]
Samuel A. Alexander [5]Sally Alexander [4]Shana Alexander [3]Somek Alexander [2]

Not all matches are shown. Search with initial or firstname to single out others.

See also
Alex Sager
Portland State University
Samuel Allen Alexander
Ohio State University (PhD)
  1.  58
    Space, Time and Deity.S. Alexander - 1920 - Macmillan.
  2. AGI and the Knight-Darwin Law: Why Idealized AGI Reproduction Requires Collaboration.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Springer.
    Can an AGI create a more intelligent AGI? Under idealized assumptions, for a certain theoretical type of intelligence, our answer is: “Not without outside help”. This is a paper on the mathematical structure of AGI populations when parent AGIs create child AGIs. We argue that such populations satisfy a certain biological law. Motivated by observations of sexual reproduction in seemingly-asexual species, the Knight-Darwin Law states that it is impossible for one organism to asexually produce another, which asexually produces another, and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  3. Measuring the Intelligence of an Idealized Mechanical Knowing Agent.Samuel Alexander - 2020 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 12226.
    We define a notion of the intelligence level of an idealized mechanical knowing agent. This is motivated by efforts within artificial intelligence research to define real-number intelligence levels of compli- cated intelligent systems. Our agents are more idealized, which allows us to define a much simpler measure of intelligence level for them. In short, we define the intelligence level of a mechanical knowing agent to be the supremum of the computable ordinals that have codes the agent knows to be codes (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  4.  69
    Space, Time and Deity: The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow, 1916-1918.Samuel Alexander - 1920 - London, England: Dover Publications.
  5. Intelligence Via Ultrafilters: Structural Properties of Some Intelligence Comparators of Deterministic Legg-Hutter Agents.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 10 (1):24-45.
    Legg and Hutter, as well as subsequent authors, considered intelligent agents through the lens of interaction with reward-giving environments, attempting to assign numeric intelligence measures to such agents, with the guiding principle that a more intelligent agent should gain higher rewards from environments in some aggregate sense. In this paper, we consider a related question: rather than measure numeric intelligence of one Legg- Hutter agent, how can we compare the relative intelligence of two Legg-Hutter agents? We propose an elegant answer (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6. The Archimedean Trap: Why Traditional Reinforcement Learning Will Probably Not Yield AGI.Samuel Allen Alexander - 2020 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 11 (1):70-85.
    After generalizing the Archimedean property of real numbers in such a way as to make it adaptable to non-numeric structures, we demonstrate that the real numbers cannot be used to accurately measure non-Archimedean structures. We argue that, since an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) should have no problem engaging in tasks that inherently involve non-Archimedean rewards, and since traditional reinforcement learning rewards are real numbers, therefore traditional reinforcement learning probably will not lead to AGI. We indicate two possible ways (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7. Short-Circuiting the Definition of Mathematical Knowledge for an Artificial General Intelligence.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
    We propose that, for the purpose of studying theoretical properties of the knowledge of an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (that is, the knowledge of an AGI), a pragmatic way to define such an agent’s knowledge (restricted to the language of Epistemic Arithmetic, or EA) is as follows. We declare an AGI to know an EA-statement φ if and only if that AGI would include φ in the resulting enumeration if that AGI were commanded: “Enumerate all the EA-sentences which you (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8. A Machine That Knows Its Own Code.Samuel A. Alexander - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):567-576.
  9. The Basis of Realism.Samuel Alexander - 1914 - [Oxford University Press].
  10.  26
    Beauty and Other Forms of Value.Samuel Alexander - 1933 - New York: Crowell.
  11.  91
    Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - forthcoming - In AGI-21.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  1
    Spinoza and Time.Samuel Alexander - 1921 - G. Allen & Unwin.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps, and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  13.  15
    Special Supplement: The Birth of Bioethics.Albert R. Jonsen, Shana Alexander, Judith P. Swazey, Warren T. Reich, Robert M. Veatch, Daniel Callahan, Tom L. Beauchamp, Stanley Hauerwas, K. Danner Clouser, David J. Rothman, Daniel M. Fox, Stanley J. Reiser & Arthur L. Caplan - 1993 - Hastings Center Report 23 (6):S1.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  14. An Axiomatic Version of Fitch’s Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Synthese 190 (12):2015-2020.
    A variation of Fitch’s paradox is given, where no special rules of inference are assumed, only axioms. These axioms follow from the familiar assumptions which involve rules of inference. We show (by constructing a model) that by allowing that possibly the knower doesn’t know his own soundness (while still requiring he be sound), Fitch’s paradox is avoided. Provided one is willing to admit that sound knowers may be ignorant of their own soundness, this might offer a way out of the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15. Measuring Intelligence and Growth Rate: Variations on Hibbard's Intelligence Measure.Samuel Alexander & Bill Hibbard - 2021 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 12 (1):1-25.
    In 2011, Hibbard suggested an intelligence measure for agents who compete in an adversarial sequence prediction game. We argue that Hibbard’s idea should actually be considered as two separate ideas: first, that the intelligence of such agents can be measured based on the growth rates of the runtimes of the competitors that they defeat; and second, one specific (somewhat arbitrary) method for measuring said growth rates. Whereas Hibbard’s intelligence measure is based on the latter growth-rate-measuring method, we survey other methods (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  23
    Philosophical and Literary Pieces.Samuel Alexander - 1939 - Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.
  17. A Type of Simulation Which Some Experimental Evidence Suggests We Don't Live In.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (7):56-56.
    Do we live in a computer simulation? I will present an argument that the results of a certain experiment constitute empirical evidence that we do not live in, at least, one type of simulation. The type of simulation ruled out is very specific. Perhaps that is the price one must pay to make any kind of Popperian progress.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch a decomposition result (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  19. A Purely Epistemological Version of Fitch's Paradox.Samuel Alexander - 2012 - The Reasoner 6 (4):59-60.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  69
    Voluntary Simplicity and the Social Reconstruction of Law: Degrowth From the Grassroots Up.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Environmental Values 22 (2):287-308.
    The Voluntary Simplicity Movement can be understood broadly as a diverse social movement made up of people who are resisting high consumption lifestyles and who are seeking, in various ways, a lower consumption but higher quality of life alternative. The central argument of this paper is that the Voluntary Simplicity Movement or something like it will almost certainly need to expand, organise, radicalise and politicise, if anything resembling a degrowth society is to emerge in law through democratic processes. In a (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  21.  18
    Some Explanations.S. Alexander - 1921 - Mind 30 (120):409-428.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  22. Fast-Collapsing Theories.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Studia Logica (1):1-21.
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23. Mathematical Shortcomings in a Simulated Universe.Samuel Alexander - 2018 - The Reasoner 12 (9):71-72.
    I present an argument that for any computer-simulated civilization we design, the mathematical knowledge recorded by that civilization has one of two limitations. It is untrustworthy, or it is weaker than our own mathematical knowledge. This is paradoxical because it seems that nothing prevents us from building in all sorts of advantages for the inhabitants of said simulation.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  61
    Arithmetical Algorithms for Elementary Patterns.Samuel A. Alexander - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (1-2):113-132.
    Elementary patterns of resemblance notate ordinals up to the ordinal of Pi^1_1-CA_0. We provide ordinal multiplication and exponentiation algorithms using these notations.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  25.  70
    Hegel's Conception of Nature.S. Alexander - 1886 - Mind 11 (44):495-523.
  26. Self-Referential Theories.Samuel A. Alexander - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 85 (4):1687-1716.
    We study the structure of families of theories in the language of arithmetic extended to allow these families to refer to one another and to themselves. If a theory contains schemata expressing its own truth and expressing a specific Turing index for itself, and contains some other mild axioms, then that theory is untrue. We exhibit some families of true self-referential theories that barely avoid this forbidden pattern.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Legg-Hutter Universal Intelligence Implies Classical Music is Better Than Pop Music for Intellectual Training.Samuel Alexander - 2019 - The Reasoner 13 (11):71-72.
    In their thought-provoking paper, Legg and Hutter consider a certain abstrac- tion of an intelligent agent, and define a universal intelligence measure, which assigns every such agent a numerical intelligence rating. We will briefly summarize Legg and Hutter’s paper, and then give a tongue-in-cheek argument that if one’s goal is to become more intelligent by cultivating music appreciation, then it is bet- ter to use classical music (such as Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven) than to use more recent pop music. The (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Self-Graphing Equations.Samuel Alexander - manuscript
    Can you find an xy-equation that, when graphed, writes itself on the plane? This idea became internet-famous when a Wikipedia article on Tupper’s self-referential formula went viral in 2012. Under scrutiny, the question has two flaws: it is meaningless (it depends on fonts) and it is trivial. We fix these flaws by formalizing the problem.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. The Method of Metaphysics; and the Categories.S. Alexander - 1912 - Mind 21 (81):1-20.
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  30. Moral Order and Progress an Analysis of Ethical Conceptions.Samuel Alexander - 1889 - K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co..
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  31. Guessing, Mind-Changing, and the Second Ambiguous Class.Samuel Alexander - 2016 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (2):209-220.
    In his dissertation, Wadge defined a notion of guessability on subsets of the Baire space and gave two characterizations of guessable sets. A set is guessable if and only if it is in the second ambiguous class, if and only if it is eventually annihilated by a certain remainder. We simplify this remainder and give a new proof of the latter equivalence. We then introduce a notion of guessing with an ordinal limit on how often one can change one’s mind. (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  39
    I.—Self as Subject and as Person.S. Alexander - 1911 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 11 (1):1-28.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  33. This Sentence Does Not Contain the Symbol X.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - The Reasoner 7 (9):108.
    A suprise may occur if we use a similar strategy to the Liar's paradox to mathematically formalize "This sentence does not contain the symbol X".
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Biologically Unavoidable Sequences.Samuel Alexander - 2013 - Electronic Journal of Combinatorics 20 (1):1-13.
    A biologically unavoidable sequence is an infinite gender sequence which occurs in every gendered, infinite genealogical network satisfying certain tame conditions. We show that every eventually periodic sequence is biologically unavoidable (this generalizes König's Lemma), and we exhibit some biologically avoidable sequences. Finally we give an application of unavoidable sequences to cellular automata.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  37
    I.—Mental Activity in Willing and in Ideas.S. Alexander - 1909 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 9 (1):1-40.
  36. Toward a History of Africa.Hubert Deschamps & S. Alexander - 1962 - Diogenes 10 (37):105-114.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Foundations and Sketch-Plan of a Conational Psychology.S. Alexander - 1912 - Philosophical Review 21:389.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. On Relations; and in Particular the Cognitive Relation.S. Alexander - 1913 - Philosophical Review 22:100.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  39. Ptolemaic and Copernican Views of the Place of Mind in the Universe.Samuel Alexander - 1909 - Hibbert Journal 8:47-66.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40. The Method of Metaphysics and the Categories.S. Alexander - 1912 - Philosophical Review 21:386.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  41.  26
    I.—On Sensations and Images.S. Alexander - 1910 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 10 (1):1-35.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  42. The Meaning of "Motive".J. H. Muirhead, J. S. Mackenzie, S. Alexander & David G. Ritchie - 1894 - International Journal of Ethics 4 (2):229-238.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43.  51
    Philodemus on Poems Books 3–4 - R. Janko Philodemus on Poems Books 3–4 with the Fragments of Aristotle on Poets. With an Unpublished Edition by Cecilia Mangoni. Pp. XVI + 629, Pls. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Cased, £95, Us$175. Isbn: 978-0-19-957207-6. [REVIEW]Sarah Alexander - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):77-79.
  44. A Paradox Related to the Turing Test.Samuel Alexander - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (6):90-90.
  45. Formulas for Computable and Non-Computable Functions.Samuel Alexander - 2006 - Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal 7 (2).
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. The Problem of Deciphering Mayan Writing.Youri V. Knorozov & Sidney Alexander - 1962 - Diogenes 10 (40):122-128.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. A Chinese Conception of the Hero.Donald Holzman & S. Alexander - 1961 - Diogenes 9 (36):33-51.
  48.  97
    Prolegomena for the Establishment of a General Theory of Translation.Edmond Cary & Sidney Alexander - 1962 - Diogenes 10 (40):96-121.
  49.  86
    Religion, Epic, History: Notes on the Underlying Functions of Cults in Benin Civilizations.Claude Tardits & S. Alexander - 1962 - Diogenes 10 (37):16-27.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Individualist Tendencies in Linguistics.Maurice Leroy & Sidney Alexander - 1965 - Diogenes 13 (51):168-185.
1 — 50 / 161