Proof-theory has traditionally been developed based on linguistic (symbolic) representations of logical proofs. Recently, however, logical reasoning based on diagrammatic or graphical representations has been investigated by logicians. Euler diagrams were introduced in the eighteenth century. But it is quite recent (more precisely, in the 1990s) that logicians started to study them from a formal logical viewpoint. We propose a novel approach to the formalization of Euler diagrammatic reasoning, in which diagrams are defined not in terms of regions as in (...) the standard approach, but in terms of topological relations between diagrammatic objects. We formalize the unification rule, which plays a central role in Euler diagrammatic reasoning, in a style of natural deduction. We prove the soundness and completeness theorems with respect to a formal set-theoretical semantics. We also investigate structure of diagrammatic proofs and prove a normal form theorem. (shrink)
Proof-theoretical notions and techniques, developed on the basis of sentential/symbolic representations of formal proofs, are applied to Euler diagrams. A translation of an Euler diagrammatic system into a natural deduction system is given, and the soundness and faithfulness of the translation are proved. Some consequences of the translation are discussed in view of the notion of free ride, which is mainly discussed in the literature of cognitive science as an account of inferential efficacy of diagrams. The translation enables us to (...) formalize and analyze free ride in terms of proof theory. The notion of normal form of Euler diagrammatic proofs is investigated, and a normalization theorem is proved. Some consequences of the theorem are further discussed: in particular, an analysis of the structure of normal diagrammatic proofs; a diagrammatic counterpart of the usual subformula property; and a characterization of diagrammatic proofs compared with natural deduction proofs. (shrink)
One of the traditional applications of Euler diagrams is as a representation or counterpart of the usual set-theoretical models of given sentences. However, Euler diagrams have recently been investigated as the counterparts of logical formulas, which constitute formal proofs. Euler diagrams are rigorously defined as syntactic objects, and their inference systems, which are equivalent to some symbolic logical systems, are formalized. Based on this observation, we investigate both counter-model construction and proof-construction in the framework of Euler diagrams. We introduce the (...) notion of “counter-diagrammatic proof”, which shows the invalidity of a given inference, and which is defined as a syntactic manipulation of diagrams of the same sort as inference rules to construct proofs. Thus, in our Euler diagrammatic framework, the completeness theorem can be formalized in terms of the existence of a diagrammatic proof or a counter-diagrammatic proof. (shrink)
We introduce a simple inference system based on two primitive relations between terms, namely, inclusion and exclusion relations. We present a normalization theorem, and then provide a characterization of the structure of normal proofs. Based on this, inferences in a syllogistic fragment of natural language are reconstructed within our system. We also show that our system can be embedded into a fragment of propositional minimal logic.
To investigate the relationship between logical reasoning and majority voting, we introduce logic with groups Lg in the style of Gentzen’s sequent calculus, where every sequent is indexed by a group of individuals. We also introduce the set-theoretical semantics of Lg, where every formula is interpreted as a certain closed set of groups whose members accept that formula. We present the cut-elimination theorem, and the soundness and semantic completeness theorems of Lg. Then, introducing an inference rule representing majority voting to (...) Lg, we introduce logic with majority voting Lv. Formalizing the discursive paradox in judgment aggregation theory, we show that Lv is inconsistent. Based on the premise-based and conclusion-based approaches to avoid the paradox, we introduce logic with majority voting for axioms Lva, where majority voting is applied only to non-logical axioms as premises to construct a proof in Lg, and logic with majority voting for conclusions Lvc, where majority voting is applied only to the conclusion of a proof in Lg. We show that both Lva and Lvc are syntactically complete and consistent, and we construct collective judgments based on the provability in Lva and Lvc, respectively. Then, we discuss how these systems avoid the discursive paradox. (shrink)
Girard introduced phase semantics as a complete set-theoretic semantics of linear logic, and Okada modified phase-semantic completeness proofs to obtain normal-form theorems. On the basis of these works, Okada and Takemura reformulated Girard’s phase semantics so that it became phase semantics for proof-terms, i.e., lambda-terms. They formulated phase semantics for proof-terms of Laird’s dual affine/intuitionistic lambda-calculus and proved the normal-form theorem for Laird’s calculus via a completeness theorem. Their semantics was obtained by an application of computability predicates. In this paper, (...) we first formulate phase semantics for proof-terms of second-order intuitionistic propositional logic by modifying Tait-Girard’s saturated sets method. Next, we prove the completeness theorem with respect to this semantics, which implies a strong normalization theorem. (shrink)
We extend natural deduction for first-order logic (FOL) by introducing diagrams as components of formal proofs. From the viewpoint of FOL, we regard a diagram as a deductively closed conjunction of certain FOL formulas. On the basis of this observation, we first investigate basic heterogeneous logic (HL) wherein heterogeneous inference rules are defined in the styles of conjunction introduction and elimination rules of FOL. By examining what is a detour in our heterogeneous proofs, we discuss that an elimination-introduction pair of (...) rules constitutes a redex in our HL, which is opposite the usual redex in FOL. In terms of the notion of a redex, we prove the normalization theorem for HL, and we give a characterization of the structure of heterogeneous proofs. Every normal proof in our HL consists of applications of introduction rules followed by applications of elimination rules, which is also opposite the usual form of normal proofs in FOL. Thereafter, we extend the basic HL by extending the heterogeneous rule in the style of general elimination rules to include a wider range of heterogeneous systems. (shrink)
This paper presents a polarized phase semantics, with respect to which the linear fragment of second order polarized linear logic of Laurent  is complete. This is done by adding a topological structure to Girard's phase semantics . The topological structure results naturally from the categorical construction developed by Hamano—Scott . The polarity shifting operator ↓ (resp. ↑) is interpreted as an interior (resp. closure) operator in such a manner that positive (resp. negative) formulas correspond to open (resp. closed) facts. (...) By accommodating the exponentials of linear logic, our model is extended to the polarized fragment of the second order linear logic. Strong forms of completeness theorems are given to yield cut-eliminations for the both second order systems. As an application of our semantics, the first order conservativity of linear logic is studied over its polarized fragment of Laurent . Using a counter model construction, the extension of this conservativity is shown to fail into the second order, whose solution is posed as an open problem in . After this negative result, a second order conservativity theorem is proved for an eta expanded fragment of the second order linear logic, which fragment retains a focalized sequent property of . (shrink)