Results for 'Ryan Malcolm'

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  1. Measuring Morality in Videogames Research.Malcolm Ryan, Paul Formosa, Stephanie Howarth & Dan Staines - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):55-68.
    There has been a recent surge of research interest in videogames of moral engagement for entertainment, advocacy and education. We have seen a wealth of analysis and several theoretical models proposed, but experimental evaluation has been scarce. One of the difficulties lies in the measurement of moral engagement. How do we meaningfully measure whether players are engaging with and affected by the moral choices in the games they play? In this paper, we survey the various standard psychometric instruments from the (...)
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  2. Making Moral Machines: Why We Need Artificial Moral Agents.Paul Formosa & Malcolm Ryan - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    As robots and Artificial Intelligences become more enmeshed in rich social contexts, it seems inevitable that we will have to make them into moral machines equipped with moral skills. Apart from the technical difficulties of how we could achieve this goal, we can also ask the ethical question of whether we should seek to create such Artificial Moral Agents (AMAs). Recently, several papers have argued that we have strong reasons not to develop AMAs. In response, we develop a comprehensive analysis (...)
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  3. Focus, Sensitivity, Judgement, Action: Four Lenses for Designing Morally Engaging Games.Malcolm Ryan, Dan Staines & Paul Formosa - 2017 - Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association 2 (3):143-173.
    Historically the focus of moral decision-making in games has been narrow, mostly confined to challenges of moral judgement (deciding right and wrong). In this paper, we look to moral psychology to get a broader view of the skills involved in ethical behaviour and how these skills can be employed in games. Following the Four Component Model of Rest and colleagues, we identify four “lenses” – perspectives for considering moral gameplay in terms of focus, sensitivity, judgement and action – and describe (...)
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  4. Four Lenses for Designing Morally Engaging Games.Malcolm Ryan, Dan Staines & Paul Formosa - 2016 - Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG.
    Historically the focus of moral decision-making in games has been narrow, mostly confined to challenges of moral judgement (deciding right and wrong). In this paper, we look to moral psychology to get a broader view of the skills involved in ethical behaviour and how they may be employed in games. Following the Four Component Model of Rest and colleagues, we identify four “lenses” – perspectives for considering moral gameplay in terms of focus, sensitivity, judgement and action – and describe the (...)
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  5. Morality Play: A Model for Developing Games of Moral Expertise.Dan Staines, Paul Formosa & Malcolm Ryan - 2019 - Games and Culture 14 (4):410-429.
    According to cognitive psychologists, moral decision-making is a dual-process phenomenon involving two types of cognitive processes: explicit reasoning and implicit intuition. Moral development involves training and integrating both types of cognitive processes through a mix of instruction, practice, and reflection. Serious games are an ideal platform for this kind of moral training, as they provide safe spaces for exploring difficult moral problems and practicing the skills necessary to resolve them. In this article, we present Morality Play, a model for the (...)
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  6. Playing Around With Morality: Introducing the Special Issue on “Morality Play”.Malcolm Ryan, Paul Formosa & Rowan Tulloch - 2019 - Games and Culture 14 (4):299–305.
    This special issue of Games and Culture focuses on the intersection between video games and ethics. This introduction briefly sets out the key research questions in the research field and identifies trends in the articles included in this special issue.
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  7. Reconsidering Ordinary Language Philosophy: Malcolm’s (Moore’s) Ordinary Language Argument.Sally Parker-Ryan - 2010 - Essays in Philosophy 11 (2):123-149.
    The ‘Ordinary Language’ philosophy of the early 20th century is widely thought to have failed. It is identified with the broader so-called ‘linguistic turn’, a common criticism of which is captured by Devitt and Sterelny (1999), who quip: “When the naturalistic philosopher points his finger at reality, the linguistic philosopher discusses the finger.” (p 280) The implication is that according to ‘linguistic’ philosophy, we are not to study reality or truth or morality etc, but the meaning of the words ‘reality’, (...)
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  8.  44
    M. L. Gill, P. Ryan : Plato: Parmenides. Pp. Viii + 175. Indianapolis, IN and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996. £22.50 . ISBN: 0-87220-329-8. [REVIEW]Malcolm Schofield - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (1):180-181.
  9.  6
    Reconsidering Ordinary Language Philosophy: Malcolm's (Moore's) Ordinary Language Argument.Sally Parker Ryan - 2010 - Essays in Philosophy 11 (2):2.
  10. G. A. J. Rogers and Alan Ryan, Eds., "Perspectives on Thomas Hobbes". [REVIEW]Malcolm Jack - 1991 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 29 (1):113.
     
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  11.  17
    A Randomised Controlled Trial of an Intervention to Improve Compliance with the ARRIVE Guidelines.Ezgi Tanriver-Ayder, Laura J. Gray, Sarah K. McCann, Ian M. Devonshire, Leigh O’Connor, Zeinab Ammar, Sarah Corke, Mahmoud Warda, Evandro Araújo De-Souza, Paolo Roncon, Edward Christopher, Ryan Cheyne, Daniel Baker, Emily Wheater, Marco Cascella, Savannah A. Lynn, Emmanuel Charbonney, Kamil Laban, Cilene Lino de Oliveira, Julija Baginskaite, Joanne Storey, David Ewart Henshall, Ahmed Nazzal, Privjyot Jheeta, Arianna Rinaldi, Teja Gregorc, Anthony Shek, Jennifer Freymann, Natasha A. Karp, Terence J. Quinn, Victor Jones, Kimberley Elaine Wever, Klara Zsofia Gerlei, Mona Hosh, Victoria Hohendorf, Monica Dingwall, Timm Konold, Katrina Blazek, Sarah Antar, Daniel-Cosmin Marcu, Alexandra Bannach-Brown, Paula Grill, Zsanett Bahor, Gillian L. Currie, Fala Cramond, Rosie Moreland, Chris Sena, Jing Liao, Michelle Dohm, Gina Alvino, Alejandra Clark, Gavin Morrison, Catriona MacCallum, Cadi Irvine, Philip Bath, David Howells, Malcolm R. Macleod, Kaitlyn Hair & Emily S. Sena - 2019 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 4 (1).
    BackgroundThe ARRIVE guidelines are widely endorsed but compliance is limited. We sought to determine whether journal-requested completion of an ARRIVE checklist improves full compliance with the guidelines.MethodsIn a randomised controlled trial, manuscripts reporting in vivo animal research submitted to PLOS ONE were randomly allocated to either requested completion of an ARRIVE checklist or current standard practice. Authors, academic editors, and peer reviewers were blinded to group allocation. Trained reviewers performed outcome adjudication in duplicate by assessing manuscripts against an operationalised version (...)
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  12.  24
    Can Changes in Eye Movement Scanning Alter the Age-Related Deficit in Recognition Memory?Jessica P. K. Chan, Daphne Kamino, Malcolm A. Binns & Jennifer D. Ryan - 2011 - Frontiers in Psychology 2.
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  13. Ordinary Language Philosophy.Sally Parker-Ryan - 2012 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    For Ordinary Language philosophy, at issue is the use of the expressions of language, not expressions in and of themselves. So, at issue is not, for example, ordinary versus (say) technical words; nor is it a distinction based on the language used in various areas of discourse, for example academic, technical, scientific, or lay, slang or street discourses – ordinary uses of language occur in all discourses. It is sometimes the case that an expression has distinct uses within distinct discourses, (...)
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  14. Perspectives on Thomas Hobbes.G. A. J. Rogers & Alan Ryan (eds.) - 1988 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the first in a series of occasional volumes of original papers on predefined themes. The Mind Association will nominate an editor or editors for each collection, and may join with other organizations in the promotion of conferences or other scholarly activities in connection with each volume. This collection, published to coincide with the 400th anniversary of Thomas Hobbes's birth, focuses on central themes in his life and work. Including essays by David Gauthier, Noel Malcolm, Arrigo Pacchi, David (...)
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  15.  30
    Malcolm E. Finbow, Michael Harrison and Phillip Jones Reply.Malcolm Finbow, Mike Harrison & Phil Jones - 1995 - Bioessays 17 (8):745-745.
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  16.  53
    Malcolm Muggeridge on the Cloud of Knowing and Humanae Vitae.Malcolm Muggeridge & Ian Hunter - 2009 - The Chesterton Review 35 (1/2):293-294.
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  17. Professor Malcolm on "Scientific Materialism and the Identity Theory" Rejoinder to Mr. Sosa.Norman Malcolm - 1965 - Dialogue 3 (4):424.
  18.  32
    Wittgenstein and Idealism: Norman Malcolm.Norman Malcolm - 1982 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 13:249-267.
    Recently some philosophers have proposed that the later philosophy of Wittgenstein tends towards idealism, or even solipsism. The solipsism is said to be of a peculiar kind. It is characterized as a ‘collective’ or ‘aggregative’ solipsism. The solipsism or idealism is also said to be ‘transcendental’. In the first part of this paper I will be examining a recent essay by Professor Bernard Williams, in which he presents what he takes to be the grounds for such an interpretation of Wittgenstein. (...)
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  19.  5
    The Philosophy of Law of James Wilson. By Malcolm Sharp.Malcolm Sharp - 1938 - Ethics 49 (2):223-225.
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  20.  11
    Psychological Factors of Peace and War. By Malcolm Sharp.Malcolm Sharp - 1951 - Ethics 62 (2):131-134.
  21. A Discussion Between Wittgenstein and Moore on Certainty : From the Notes of Norman Malcolm.Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Norman Malcolm & Gabriel Citron - 2015 - Mind 124 (493):73-84.
    In April 1939, G. E. Moore read a paper to the Cambridge University Moral Science Club entitled ‘Certainty’. In it, amongst other things, Moore made the claims that: the phrase ‘it is certain’ could be used with sense-experience-statements, such as ‘I have a pain’, to make statements such as ‘It is certain that I have a pain’; and that sense-experience-statements can be said to be certain in the same sense as some material-thing-statements can be — namely in the sense that (...)
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  22.  21
    Ockhamism Vs Molinism, Round 2: A Reply to Warfield: T. Ryan Byerly.T. Ryan Byerly - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (4):503-511.
    Ted Warfield has argued that if Ockhamism and Molinism offer different responses to the problems of foreknowledge and prophecy, it is the Molinist who is in trouble. I show here that this is not so – indeed, things may be quite the reverse.
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  23.  17
    Krytyczna Historia Ucieleśniania Jako Paragydmatu Badawczego Nauk o Poznaniu:(Lawrence Shapiro, Embodied Cognitive)/Kevin Ryan.Lawrence Shapiro & Kevin Ryan - 2012 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1):386 - 389.
  24. Michael Ryan's Writings on Medical Ethics.Michael Ryan - 2009 - Springer.
    Michael Ryan (d. 1840) remains one of the most mysterious figures in the history of medical ethics, despite the fact that he was the only British physician during the middle years of the 19th century to write about ethics in a systematic way. Michael Ryan’s Writings on Medical Ethics offers both an annotated reprint of his key ethical writings, and an extensive introductory essay that fills in many previously unknown details of Ryan’s life, analyzes the significance of (...)
     
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  25.  21
    Scientific Discovery Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes.Malcolm R. Forster - 1987
  26.  10
    Paradoxes of Time Travel.Ryan Wasserman - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Ryan Wasserman explores a range of fascinating puzzles raised by the possibility of time travel, with entertaining examples from physics, science fiction, and popular culture, and he draws out their implications for our understanding of time, tense, freedom, fatalism, causation, counterfactuals, laws of nature, persistence, change, and mereology.
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  27.  14
    Immigration and the Constraints of Justice: Between Open Borders and Absolute Sovereignty.Ryan Pevnick - 2011 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores the constraints which justice imposes on immigration policy. Like liberal nationalists, Ryan Pevnick argues that citizens have special claims to the institutions of their states. However, the source of these special claims is located in the citizenry's ownership of state institutions rather than in a shared national identity. Citizens contribute to the construction and maintenance of institutions, and as a result they have special claims to these institutions and a limited right to exclude outsiders. Pevnick shows (...)
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  28. Language and Logos Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy Presented to G.E.L. Owen /Edited by Malcolm Schofield and Martha Craven Nussbaum. --. --. [REVIEW]Malcolm Schofield, Martha Craven Nussbaum & G. E. L. Owen - 1982 - Cambridge University Press, 1982.
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  29. Social Contract Theory for a Diverse World: Beyond Tolerance.Ryan Muldoon - 2016 - Routledge.
    Very diverse societies pose real problems for Rawlsian models of public reason. This is for two reasons: first, public reason is unable accommodate diverse perspectives in determining a regulative ideal. Second, regulative ideals are unable to respond to social change. While models based on public reason focus on the justification of principles, this book suggests that we need to orient our normative theories more toward discovery and experimentation. The book develops a unique approach to social contract theory that focuses on (...)
     
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  30. Ludwig Wittgenstein. A Memoir, Second Edition with Wittgenstein's Letters to Malcolm.N. Malcolm & G. H. von Wright - 1986 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 48 (2):336-337.
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  31.  73
    The Reflexive Thesis: Wrighting Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Malcolm Ashmore - 1989 - University of Chicago Press.
    This unusually innovative book treats reflexivity, not as a philosophical conundrum, but as a practical issue that arises in the course of scholarly research and argument. In order to demonstrate the concrete and consequential nature of reflexivity, Malcolm Ashmore concentrates on an area in which reflexive "problems" are acute: the sociology of scientific knowledge. At the forefront of recent radical changes in our understanding of science, this increasingly influential mode of analysis specializes in rigorous deconstructions of the research practices (...)
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  32. The Evolution of Misbelief.Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):493.
    From an evolutionary standpoint, a default presumption is that true beliefs are adaptive and misbeliefs maladaptive. But if humans are biologically engineered to appraise the world accurately and to form true beliefs, how are we to explain the routine exceptions to this rule? How can we account for mistaken beliefs, bizarre delusions, and instances of self-deception? We explore this question in some detail. We begin by articulating a distinction between two general types of misbelief: those resulting from a breakdown in (...)
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  33.  40
    Memory as Direct Awareness of the Past: Norman Malcolm.Norman Malcolm - 1975 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 9:1-22.
    The philosophy of memory has been largely dominated by what could be called ‘the representative theory of memory’. In trying to give an account of ‘what goes on in one's mind’ when one remembers something, or of what ‘the mental content of remembering’ consists, philosophers have usually insisted that there must be some sort of mental image, picture, or copy of what is remembered. Aristotle said that there must be ‘something like a picture or impression’; William James thought that there (...)
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  34.  43
    Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process. Pat Langley, Herbert A. Simon, Gary L. Bradshaw, Jan M. Zytkow.Malcolm R. Forster - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (2):336-338.
  35. Robustness and Idealization in Models of Cognitive Labor.Ryan Muldoon & Michael Weisberg - 2011 - Synthese 183 (2):161-174.
    Scientific research is almost always conducted by communities of scientists of varying size and complexity. Such communities are effective, in part, because they divide their cognitive labor: not every scientist works on the same project. Philip Kitcher and Michael Strevens have pioneered efforts to understand this division of cognitive labor by proposing models of how scientists make decisions about which project to work on. For such models to be useful, they must be simple enough for us to understand their dynamics, (...)
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  36. Eugene E. Ryan.Eugene Ryan - 2006 - Il Pensiero 26 (1):195-197.
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  37. The Constitution Question.Ryan Wasserman - 2004 - Noûs 38 (4):693 - 710.
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  38.  11
    Patients’ Beliefs About Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression.Ryan E. Lawrence, Catharine R. Kaufmann, Ravi B. DeSilva & Paul S. Appelbaum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (4):210-218.
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  39.  76
    The Ontology of Words: A Structural Approach.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (8):877-911.
    ABSTRACTWords form a fundamental basis for our understanding of linguistic practice. However, the precise ontology of words has eluded many philosophers and linguists. A persistent difficulty for most accounts of words is the type-token distinction [Bromberger, S. 1989. “Types and Tokens in Linguistics.” In Reflections on Chomsky, edited by A. George, 58–90. Basil Blackwell; Kaplan, D. 1990. “Words.” Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume LXIV: 93–119]. In this paper, I present a novel account of words which differs from the atomistic and platonistic (...)
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  40.  55
    Thinking and Experience.Norman Malcolm - 1954 - Philosophical Review 63 (1):93-98.
  41.  32
    Aspects of Hobbes.Noel Malcolm - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    These essays are the fruit of many years' research by one of the world's leading Hobbes scholars. Noel Malcolm offers not only succinct introductions to Hobbes 's life and thought, but also path-breaking studies of many different aspects of his political philosophy, his scientific and religious theories, his relations with his contemporaries, the sources of his ideas, the printing history of his works, and his influence on European thought.
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  42.  16
    The Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature.Malcolm Budd (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The aesthetics of nature has over the last few decades become an intense focus of philosophical reflection, as it has been ever more widely recognised that it is not a mere appendage to the aesthetics of art. Everyone delights in the beauty of flowers, and some are thrilled by the immensity of mountains or of the night sky. But what is involved in serious aesthetic appreciation of the natural world? Malcolm Budd presents four interlinked studies in the aesthetics of (...)
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  43. Disagreement Behind the Veil of Ignorance.Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Mark Colyvan, Carlo Martini, Giacomo Sillari & Jan Sprenger - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):377-394.
    In this paper we argue that there is a kind of moral disagreement that survives the Rawlsian veil of ignorance. While a veil of ignorance eliminates sources of disagreement stemming from self-interest, it does not do anything to eliminate deeper sources of disagreement. These disagreements not only persist, but transform their structure once behind the veil of ignorance. We consider formal frameworks for exploring these differences in structure between interested and disinterested disagreement, and argue that consensus models offer us a (...)
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  44.  15
    Aspects of Hobbes.Noel Malcolm - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Noel Malcolm, one of the world's leading experts on Thomas Hobbes, presents a set of extended essays on a wide variety of aspects of the life and work of this giant of early modern thought. Malcolm offers a succinct introduction to Hobbes's life and thought, as a foundation for his discussion of such topics as his political philosophy, his theory of international relations, the development of his mechanistic world-view, and his subversive Biblical criticism. Several of the essays pay (...)
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  45.  19
    Prevailing Theories of Consciousness Are Challenged by Novel Cross-Modal Associations Acquired Between Subliminal Stimuli.Ryan B. Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley & Zoltan Dienes - 2018 - Cognition 175:169-185.
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  46.  30
    Adam Smith and the Character of Virtue.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    The problem : commerce and corruption -- Smith's defense of commercial society -- What is corruption? : political and psychological perspectives -- Smith on corruption : from the citizen to the human being -- The solution : moral philosophy -- Liberal individualism and virtue ethics -- Social science vs. moral philosophy -- Types of moral philosophy : natural jurisprudence vs. ethics -- Types of ethics : utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics -- Virtue ethics : modern, ancient, and Smithean -- Interlude (...)
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  47.  6
    Our Great Purpose: Adam Smith on Living a Better Life.Ryan Patrick Hanley - 2019 - Princeton University Press.
    Invaluable wisdom on living a good life from the founder of modern economics Adam Smith is best known today as the founder of modern economics, but he was also an uncommonly brilliant philosopher who was especially interested in the perennial question of how to live a good life. Our Great Purpose is a short and illuminating guide to Smith's incomparable wisdom on how to live well, written by one of today's leading Smith scholars. In this inspiring and entertaining book, (...) Patrick Hanley describes Smith's vision of "the excellent and praiseworthy character," and draws on the philosopher's writings to show how each of us can go about developing one. For Smith, an excellent character is distinguished by qualities such as prudence, self-command, justice, and benevolence—virtues that have been extolled since antiquity. Yet Smith wrote not for the ancient polis but for the world of market society—our world—which rewards self-interest more than virtue. Hanley shows how Smith set forth a vision of the worthy life that is uniquely suited to us today. Full of invaluable insights on topics ranging from happiness and moderation to love and friendship, Our Great Purpose enables modern readers to see Smith in an entirely new light—and along the way, learn what it truly means to live a good life. (shrink)
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  48. Back to the Sources Biblical and Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Dermot Ryan.Kevin J. Cathcart, John F. Healey & Dermot Ryan - 1989
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  49.  36
    Artificial Intelligence Ethics Guidelines for Developers and Users: Clarifying Their Content and Normative Implications.Mark Ryan & Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2021 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 19 (1):61-86.
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is clearly illustrate this convergence and the prescriptive recommendations that such documents entail. There is a significant amount of research into the ethical consequences of artificial intelligence. This is reflected by many outputs across academia, policy and the media. Many of these outputs aim to provide guidance to particular stakeholder groups. It has recently been shown that there is a large degree of convergence in terms of the principles upon which these guidance documents are (...)
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  50.  45
    Clash of Definitions: Controversies About Conscience in Medicine.Ryan E. Lawrence & Farr A. Curlin - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):10 – 14.
    What role should the physician's conscience play in the practice of medicine? Much controversy has surrounded the question, yet little attention has been paid to the possibility that disputants are operating with contrasting definitions of the conscience. To illustrate this divergence, we contrast definitions stemming from Abrahamic religions and those stemming from secular moral tradition. Clear differences emerge regarding what the term conscience conveys, how the conscience should be informed, and what the consequences are for violating one's conscience. Importantly, these (...)
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