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  1.  91
    The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference.Ruud Koolen, Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):395-411.
    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly include a color attribute when the scene variation is high as compared with when this variation is low (even if this leads to overspecified descriptions). We (...)
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  2.  60
    How Distractor Objects Trigger Referential Overspecification: Testing the Effects of Visual Clutter and Distractor Distance.Ruud Koolen, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):1617-1647.
    In two experiments, we investigate to what extent various visual saliency cues in realistic visual scenes cause speakers to overspecify their definite object descriptions with a redundant color attribute. The results of the first experiment demonstrate that speakers are more likely to redundantly mention color when visual clutter is present in a scene as compared to when this is not the case. In the second experiment, we found that distractor type and distractor color affect redundant color use: Speakers are most (...)
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  3.  15
    Stored object knowledge and the production of referring expressions: the case of color typicality.Hans Westerbeek, Ruud Koolen & Alfons Maes - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  4. Is It That Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?Emiel Krahmer, Ruud Koolen & Mariët Theune - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):837-841.
    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order. The authors argue that there are potentially many different Preference Orders that could be considered, while often no evidence is available to determine which is a good one. (...)
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  5.  6
    On Visually-Grounded Reference Production: Testing the Effects of Perceptual Grouping and 2D/3D Presentation Mode.Ruud Koolen - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  6.  49
    Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions.Ruud Koolen, Emiel Krahmer & Marc Swerts - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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