Results for 'Ruth M. Lunn'

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  1.  24
    The IARC Monographs: Updated procedures for modern and transparent evidence synthesis in cancer hazard identification.Jonathan M. Samet, Weihsueh A. Chiu, Vincent Cogliano, Jennifer Jinot, David Kriebel, Ruth M. Lunn, Frederick A. Beland, Lisa Bero, Patience Browne, Lin Fritschi, Jun Kanno, Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Qing Lan, Gérard Lasfargues, Frank Le Curieux, Susan Peters, Pamela Shubat, Hideko Sone, Mary C. White, Jon Williamson, Marianna Yakubovskaya, Jack Siemiatycki, Paul A. White, Kathryn Z. Guyton, Mary K. Schubauer-Berigan, Amy L. Hall, Yann Grosse, Véronique Bouvard, Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa, Fatiha El Ghissassi, Béatrice Lauby-Secretan, Bruce Armstrong, Rodolfo Saracci, Jiri Zavadil, Kurt Straif & Christopher P. Wild - unknown
    The Monographs produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) apply rigorous procedures for the scientific review and evaluation of carcinogenic hazards by independent experts. The Preamble to the IARC Monographs, which outlines these procedures, was updated in 2019, following recommendations of a 2018 expert Advisory Group. This article presents the key features of the updated Preamble, a major milestone that will enable IARC to take advantage of recent scientific and procedural advances made during the 12 years since (...)
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  2. The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality.Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2005 - MIT Press.
    A leading scholar in the psychology of thinking and reasoning argues that the counterfactual imagination—the creation of "if only" alternatives to ...
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  3.  35
    Suppressing valid inferences with conditionals.Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1989 - Cognition 31 (1):61-83.
    Three experiments are reported which show that in certain contexts subjects reject instances of the valid modus ponens and modus tollens inference form in conditional arguments. For example, when a conditional premise, such as: If she meets her friend then she will go to a play, is accompanied by a conditional containing an additional requirement: If she has enough money then she will go to a play, subjects reject the inference from the categorical premise: She meets her friend, to the (...)
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  4.  29
    Can valid inferences be suppressed?Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1991 - Cognition 39 (1):71-78.
  5.  52
    Presupposition and the Delimitation of Semantics.Ruth M. Kempson - 1975 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  6.  4
    The influence of reward associations on conflict processing in the Stroop task.Ruth M. Krebs, Carsten N. Boehler & Marty G. Woldorff - 2010 - Cognition 117 (3):341-347.
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  7.  13
    Studies in Cognitive Development: Essays in Honour of Jean Piaget.Ruth M. Beard, David Elkind & John H. Flavell - 1970 - British Journal of Educational Studies 18 (1):93.
  8.  27
    Moral hindsight for good actions and the effects of imagined alternatives to reality.Ruth M. J. Byrne & Shane Timmons - 2018 - Cognition 178 (C):82-91.
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  9.  12
    Reasoning from Suppositions.Ruth M. J. Byrne, Simon J. Handley & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (4):915-944.
    Two experiments investigated inferences based on suppositions. In Experiment 1, the subjects decided whether suppositions about individuals' veracity were consistent with their assertions—for example, whether the supposition “Ann is telling the truth and Beth is telling a lie”, is consistent with the premises: “Ann asserts: I am telling the truth and Beth is telling the truth. Beth asserts: Ann is telling the truth”. It showed that these inferences are more difficult than ones based on factual premises: “Ann asserts: I live (...)
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  10. Semantic Theory.Ruth M. Kempson - 1977 - Cambridge University Press.
    Semantics is a bridge discipline between linguistics and philosophy; but linguistics student are rarely able to reach that bridge, let alone cross it to inspect and assess the activity on the other side. Professor Kempson's textbook seeks particularly to encourage such exchanges. She deals with the standard linguistic topics like componential analysis, semantic universals and the syntax-semantics controversy. But she also provides for students with no training in philosophy or logic an introduction to such central topics in the philosophy of (...)
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  11.  84
    Ambiguity and quantification.Ruth M. Kempson & Annabel Cormack - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (2):259 - 309.
    In the opening sections of this paper, we defined ambiguity in terms of distinct sentences (for a single sentence-string) with, in particular, distinct sets of truth conditions for the corresponding negative sentence-string. Lexical vagueness was defined as equivalent to disjunction, for under conditions of the negation of a sentence-string containing such an expression, all the relevant more specific interpretations of the string had also to be negated. Yet in the case of mixed quantification sentences, the strengthened, more specific, interpretations of (...)
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  12.  15
    Illness.Ruth M. Todd - 2009 - Nursing Philosophy 10 (3):225-226.
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  13.  1
    The influence of reward associations on conflict processing in the Stroop task.Marty G. Woldorff Ruth M. Krebs, Carsten N. Boehler - 2010 - Cognition 117 (3):341.
  14.  5
    Exploring social influences on the joint Simon task: empathy and friendship.Ruth M. Ford & Bradley Aberdein - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  15.  54
    Croisade contre la différence: le règne de la "terreur linquistique".Ruth M. Mésavage & Sylvain Massé - 1990 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 2 (1-2):3-22.
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  16. Dialogue and Illusion in Jacques le fataliste in A la mémoire de JR Loy (1918-1985).Ruth M. Mésavage - 1986 - Diderot Studies 22:79-87.
     
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  17.  41
    Balancing Risks: The Core of Women's Decisions About Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.Ruth M. Farrell, Patricia K. Agatisa, Mary Beth Mercer, Marissa B. Smith & Elliot Philipson - 2015 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):42-53.
  18.  6
    Law and ethics.Ruth M. Todd - 2007 - Nursing Philosophy 8 (4):297–298.
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  19.  17
    Testimony and intellectual virtues in Hume’s epistemology.Ruth M. Espinosa - 2019 - Trans/Form/Ação 42 (4):29-46.
    : In this paper, I consider some issues concerning Hume’s epistemology of testimony. I’ll particularly focus on the accusation of reductivism and individualism brought by scholars against Hume’s view on testimonial evidence, based on the tenth section of his An enquiry concerning human understanding. I first explain the arguments against Hume’s position, and address some replies in the literature in order to offer an alternative interpretation concerning the way such a defense should go. My strategy is closely connected with Hume’s (...)
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  20.  25
    Emerging Ethical Issues in Reproductive Medicine: Are Bioethics Educators Ready?.Ruth M. Farrell, Jonathan S. Metcalfe, Michelle L. McGowan, Kathryn L. Weise, Patricia K. Agatisa & Jessica Berg - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):21-29.
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  21.  43
    Mental Representations: The Interface between Language and Reality.Ruth M. Kempson (ed.) - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    This dynamic collection provides an overview of the relationship between linguistic form and interpretation as exemplified by the most influential of these ...
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  22. Review: Ruth M. J. Byrne: The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality. [REVIEW]Stephen Andrew Butterfill - 2008 - Mind 117 (468):1065-1069.
  23.  95
    Early intervention and the growth of children's fluid intelligence: A cognitive developmental perspective.Ruth M. Ford - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):133-134.
    From the stance of cognitive developmental theories, claims that general g is an entity of the mind are compatible with notions about domain-general development and age-invariant individual differences. Whether executive function is equated with general g or fluid g, research into the mechanisms by which development occurs is essential to elucidate the kinds of environmental inputs that engender effective intervention. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  24. In Practice: True North.Ruth M. Farrell - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
     
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  25.  50
    Quantification and pragmatics.Ruth M. Kempson & Annabel Cormack - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4):607 - 618.
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  26. Montaigne, Des boyteux and the Question of Causality.Ruth M. Calder - 1983 - Bibliothèque d'Humanisme Et Renaissance 45 (3):445-460.
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  27.  35
    General anesthesia: An extreme form of chemical and physical restraint. [REVIEW]Ruth M. Lamdan, Ziauddin Ahmed & Jean Lee - 1998 - HEC Forum 10 (3-4):317-322.
  28.  14
    The Source and Significance of "The Jew and the Pagan".Ruth M. Ames - 1957 - Mediaeval Studies 19 (1):37-47.
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  29.  25
    Education in a destitute time[1]. (A heideggarian approach to the problem of education in the age of modern technology).Ruth M. Jonathan - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):21–33.
  30.  21
    Education, gender and the nature/culture controversy.Ruth M. Jonathan - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 17 (1):5–20.
  31.  31
    Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson‐Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
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  32.  9
    True North.Ruth M. Farrell - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (2):9-10.
  33. Semantics, Pragmatics, and Natural-Language Interpretation.Ruth M. Kempson - 1996 - In Shalom Lappin (ed.), The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. pp. 561--598.
  34.  67
    Philosophy of Linguistics.Ruth M. Kempson, Tim Fernando & Nicholas Asher (eds.) - 2012 - North Holland.
    This groundbreaking collection, the most thorough treatment of the philosophy of linguistics ever published, brings together philosophers, scientists and historians to map out both the foundational assumptions set during the second half of ...
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  35.  12
    An Index of References to Claims in Spinoza’s Ethics.Ruth M. Mattern - 1979 - Philosophy Research Archives 5:259-274.
    This index gives the location of each reference in Spinoza's Ethics to every axiom, definition, corollary, scholium, and proposition in that work.
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  36.  23
    Two concepts of education? A reply to D. J. O'Connor.Ruth M. Jonathan - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 16 (2):147–154.
  37. Dynamics of Hierarchy in African Thought.Ruth M. Lucier - 1989 - Listening 24 (1):29-40.
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  38.  6
    Has mysticism a moral value?Ruth M. Gordon - 1920 - International Journal of Ethics 31 (1):66-83.
  39. Ruth M. Krulfeld and Jeffery L. Macdonald (eds), Power, Ethics, and Human Rights: Anthropological Studies of Refugee Research and Action. [REVIEW]S. Kaiser - 2002 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 5:88-90.
     
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  40.  29
    Science, Stewardship, and Earth: Clarifying Perspectives.Ruth M. Lucier - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:71-75.
    In this paper I discuss two views that focus on the natural environment, namely (1) a western or “W” view (hereafter W) basedloosely on the kind of liberal outlook offered by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice and (2) a primal or “P” view (hereafter, P) stemming from environmental teachings of primal peoples. I suggest that while the W tradition has produced many truly helpful and comfortable amenities, it is nevertheless oriented toward commitments to resource acquisition and “detached” objectivity (...)
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  41.  2
    Has Mysticism a Moral Value?Ruth M. Gordon - 1920 - International Journal of Ethics 31 (1):66-83.
  42.  45
    Conditionals: A theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference.Philip Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):646-678.
    The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental representation of a (...)
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  43.  20
    Thinking About the Opposite of What Is Said: Counterfactual Conditionals and Symbolic or Alternate Simulations of Negation.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2459-2501.
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  44.  5
    “If only” counterfactual thoughts about cooperative and uncooperative decisions in social dilemmas.Stefania Pighin, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Katya Tentori - 2022 - Thinking and Reasoning 28 (2):193-225.
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  45.  66
    Counterfactual thoughts about experienced, observed, and narrated events.Stefania Pighin, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Donatella Ferrante, Michel Gonzalez & Vittorio Girotto - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (2):197 - 211.
    Four studies show that observers and readers imagine different alternatives to reality. When participants read a story about a protagonist who chose the more difficult of two tasks and failed, their counterfactual thoughts focused on the easier, unchosen task. But when they observed the performance of an individual who chose and failed the more difficult task, participants' counterfactual thoughts focused on alternative ways to solve the chosen task, as did the thoughts of individuals who acted out the event. We conclude (...)
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  46.  29
    Counterfactual and semi-factual thoughts in moral judgements about failed attempts to harm.Mary Parkinson & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (4):409-448.
    People judge that an individual who attempts to harm someone but fails should be blamed and punished more when they imagine how things could have turned out worse, compared to when they imagine how things could have turned out the same, or when they think only about what happened. This moral counterfactual amplification effect occurs when people believe the protagonist had no reason for the attempt to harm, and not when the protagonist had a reason, as Experiment 1 shows. It (...)
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  47.  13
    The Suppression of Inferences From Counterfactual Conditionals.Orlando Espino & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (4).
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  48.  3
    Considering Reprogenomics in the Ethical Future of Fetal Therapy Trials.Marsha Michie & Ruth M. Farrell - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (3):71-73.
    Much has changed in maternal-fetal medicine since the early 2000s, when the previous ethical frameworks for fetal therapy trials were established. We applaud Hendriks and colleagues for taking on t...
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  49.  57
    Spontaneous counterfactual thoughts and causal explanations.Alice McEleney & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2006 - Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):235 – 255.
    We report two Experiments to compare counterfactual thoughts about how an outcome could have been different and causal explanations about why the outcome occurred. Experiment 1 showed that people generate counterfactual thoughts more often about controllable than uncontrollable events, whereas they generate causal explanations more often about unexpected than expected events. Counterfactual thoughts focus on specific factors, whereas causal explanations focus on both general and specific factors. Experiment 2 showed that in their spontaneous counterfactual thoughts, people focus on normal events (...)
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  50.  39
    How people think “if only …” about reasons for actions.Clare R. Walsh & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (4):461 – 483.
    When people think about how a situation might have turned out differently, they tend to imagine counterfactual alternatives to their actions. We report the results of three experiments which show that people imagine alternatives to actions differently when they know about a reason for the action. The first experiment ( n = 36) compared reason - action sequences to cause - effect sequences. It showed that people do not imagine alternatives to reasons in the way they imagine alternatives to causes: (...)
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