Results for 'Rukgaber Matthew S.'

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  1.  20
    Irrationality and Self-Deception Within Kant’s Grades of Evil.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2015 - Kant-Studien 106 (2):234-258.
    Scholars have failed to adequately distinguish Kant’s grades of evil: frailty (weakness of will), impurity, and depravity. I argue that the only way to distinguish them is, f irstly, to recognize that frailty is explicitly, practically irrational and not caused by any sort of self-deception. Instead, it is caused by the radical evil that Kant finds within the character of all persons. Secondly, impurity can only be understood to be self-deception either about the nature of the act itself, which results (...)
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  2. “The Key to Transcendental Philosophy”: Space, Time and the Body in Kant.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2009 - Kant-Studien 100 (2):166-186.
    The thesis of this essay is that Kant's theory of the “forms of intuition” can be regarded as an account of the structure of our embodied perspective. The ideality and subjectivity of space is concluded to be an account of the perspective relative nature of the figure-ground relationship or how it is that objects emerge for us in empirical experience as being orientated in a spatio-temporal field. Time is regarded similarly as the event-series relationship. The significant role of embodiment in (...)
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  3.  46
    Philosophical Anthropology, Shame, and Disability: In Favor of an Interpersonal Theory of Shame.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (4):743-765.
    This article argues against a leading cognitivist and moral interpretation of shame that is present in the philosophical literature. That standard view holds that shame is the felt-response to a loss of self-esteem, which is the result of negative self-assessment. I hold that shame is a heteronomous and primitive bodily affect that is perceptual rather than judgmental in nature. Shame results from the breakdown and thwarting of our desire for anonymous, unexceptional, and disattentive co-existence with others. I use the sociological (...)
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  4.  17
    Kant's Ontology: Reality and the Formal Structure of the First Person Perspective.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Illinois
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  5.  30
    The Asymmetry of Space: Kant’s Theory of Absolute Space in 1768.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):415-435.
    I propose that we interpret Kant’s argument from incongruent counterparts in the 1768 article ‘Concerning the Ultimate Ground of the Differentiation of Directions in Space’ in light of a theory of dynamic absolute space that he accepted throughout the 1750s and 1760s. This force-based or material conception of space was not an unusual interpretation of the Newtonian notion of absolute space. Nevertheless, commentators have continually argued that Kant’s argument is an utter failure that shifts from the metaphysics of space to (...)
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  6.  15
    Immaterial Spirits and the Reform of First Philosophy: The Compatibility of Kant’s Pre-Critical Metaphysics with the Arguments in Dreams of a Spirit-Seer.Matthew Rukgaber - 2018 - Journal of the History of Ideas 79 (3):363-383.
  7.  36
    Kant’s Criticisms of Ontological and Onto-Theological Arguments for the Existence of God.Matthew Rukgaber - 2014 - Kant Yearbook 6 (1).
    Kant’s objection to the ontological argument in the first Critique is thought to be contained within the claim that ‘existence is not a predicate’. This article maintains that this ‘digression’ on existence is not Kant’s main objection. Instead, Kant argues within the first eight paragraphs of this fourteen paragraph section that there is no meaningful predication – either logical or real – without a synthetic, existential judgment concerning the subject of predication. Thus, the very subject of predication of the proof (...)
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  8.  30
    The Implied Theodicy of Kant’s Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason : Love as a Response to Radical Evil.Matthew Rukgaber - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (2):213-233.
    This article begins with a brief survey of Kant’s pre-Critical and Critical approaches to theodicy. I maintain that his theodical response of moral faith during the Critical period appears to be a dispassionate version of what Leibniz called Fatum Christianum. Moral rationality establishes the existence and goodness of God and translates into an endless and unwavering commitment to following the moral law. I then argue that Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason offers a revision of Kant’s 1791 conception of (...)
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  9.  77
    The "Sovereign Individual" and the "Ascetic Ideal": On a Perennial Misreading of the Second Essay of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality.Matthew Rukgaber - 2012 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 43 (2):213-239.
    The "sovereign individual" (hereafter, the SI) is almost universally held to be part of Nietzsche's positive ethical ideal.1 Focus on this isolated description at the start of the second essay of On the Genealogy of Morality results in a reconstruction of Nietzschean personhood and ethics based on the capacity to make and keep promises. For example, the SI has been used to understand us as "self-conscious beings capable of standing in autonomous ethical relations to ourselves" with a "fundamental duty" to (...)
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  10.  22
    Sexual Meaning and Social Pathology: Merleau-Ponty Contra Sartre.Matthew Rukgaber & Rukgaber Matthew S. - 2020 - Études Phénoménologiques 1 (4):201-224.
    This article explores the importance of Merleau-Ponty’s account of sexuality for his early theories of existence and expression. The holistic, social, and plural nature of expressive human behavior, which is elaborated in The Structure of Behavior, is used to argue against criticisms that his early works remain stuck in naturalism. Upon this theory of expression and through a close reading of 'Le corps comme être sexué' chapter of the Phenomenology of Perception, many classic criticisms of his phenomenology of sexuality are (...)
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  11.  11
    Peace and the Unity of Kant’s Critical Project. [REVIEW]Matthew Rukgaber - 2019 - The Acorn 19 (1):43-47.
    Rossi’s book tackles the challenging task of giving a unified picture of a large swath of Kant’s Critical philosophy by attending to the need for epistemic humility from the first Critique, drawing upon the primacy of practical reason and the importance of freedom in both the first and second Critiques, appealing to the anthropological task that Kant set for himself in the Jaesche Logic and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, exploring the implications of politics and history for the (...)
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  12.  32
    Phenomenological Film Theory and Max Scheler’s Personalist Aesthetics.Matthew Rukgaber - 2016 - Studia Phaenomenologica 16:215-240.
    Max Scheler never published a theory of art, but his aesthetics, like the rest of his thought, occupies an intriguing position that links early phenomenology, Catholic personalist thought, and philosophical anthropology. His metaphysics of the person and theory of value, when combined with his account of the lived-body and of our access to other minds through love, translates into a powerful, humanistic theory of art. This article elaborates what Scheler’s aesthetics would look like had he developed it and applied it (...)
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  13.  30
    Space, Time, and the Origins of Transcendental Idealism: Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy From 1747 to 1770.Matthew Rukgaber - 2020 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book provides an account of the unity of Immanuel Kant’s early metaphysics, including the moment he invents transcendental idealism. Matthew Rukgaber argues that a division between “two worlds”—the world of matter, force, and space on the one hand, and the world of metaphysical substances with inner states and principles preserved by God on the other—is what guides Kant’s thought. Until 1770 Kant consistently held a conception of space as a force-based material product of monads that are only (...)
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  14.  22
    Hegel’s Theory of Terrorism and Derrida’s Notion of Autoimmunity: Religious and Political Violence in the Name of Nothingness.Matthew Rukgaber - 2018 - Hegel Bulletin 39 (2):280-303.
  15.  43
    Guns as Lies.Matthew Rukgaber - 2017 - The Acorn 17 (2):119-141.
    Using Kant’s argument that lies are evil and reprehensible in themselves regardless of the benefits that may result, I show that guns can be understood in similar terms. In a unique reading of Kant’s radical and often ridiculed ideas, I maintain that lies have this status because of the way they pervert our relationship to the truth and thus to morality and reason. Lies turn truth and reason into mere means to be used rather than to be obeyed. Kant believes (...)
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  16. Nietzsche in Hollywood: Images of the Übermensch in Early American Cinema.Matthew Rukgaber - 2022 - Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
    ISBN 978-1-4384-9027-4 Argues that Nietzsche’s idea of the Übermensch was a central concern of filmmakers in the 1920s and 1930s. -/- Nietzsche in Hollywood offers a compelling and startling history of Hollywood film in which the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and his idea of the Übermensch looms large. Though Nietzsche’s philosophy was attacked as egoistic and a sociopathic version of Darwinism in films from the 1910s, it undergoes a series of cinematic and philosophical transformations in the 1920s and 1930s under (...)
     
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  17. Time and Metaphysics: Kant and McTaggart on the Reality of Time.Matthew Rukgaber - 2010 - Kant Yearbook 2 (1):175-194.
    I use Kant's theory of the transcendental ideality of time to answer McTaggart's argument for the unreality of time. McTaggart's argument is that the atemporal C-series (the logical atoms of all moments) must be regarded as the metaphysical foundation of the B-series, the non-dynamic world of objective temporal relations of events being earlier or later than others. That B-series (having a qualitative aspect that is not indifferent to the direction of time) is essentially an ossification of the A-series--the dynamic flow (...)
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  18.  19
    Social Phenomenology, Mass-Society and the Individual in Hegel and Heidegger.Matthew Rukgaber - 2017 - Hegel Bulletin 38 (1):129-149.
    This article argues that Hegel’s dialectic of wealth and power in the stage of social development called ‘culture’ (Bildung) reveals that even in moments of profound social alienation, Spirit (Geist)—the labor of constructing identity and freedom— remains. This stands in sharp contrast to Heidegger’s theory of alienation and Dasein’s ‘publicity’ (Offentlichkeit), which paints modern social existence as a profound threat to the very ‘Being’ and ‘possibilities’ of human life. The supposed threats of inauthenticity and mass existence are, from a Hegelian (...)
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  19.  2
    Matthew Rukgaber, Space, Time, and the Origins of Transcendental Idealism: Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy From 1747 to 1770. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020 Pp. 284. ISBN 9783030607418 (Hbk) €103.99. [REVIEW]Edward Slowik - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (4):657-660.
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  20.  90
    Stanford’s Unconceived Alternatives From the Perspective of Epistemic Obligations.Matthew S. Sample - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):856-866.
    Kyle Stanford’s reformulation of the problem of underdetermination has the potential to highlight the epistemic obligations of scientists. Stanford, however, presents the phenomenon of unconceived alternatives as a problem for realists, despite critics’ insistence that we have contextual explanations for scientists’ failure to conceive of their successors’ theories. I propose that responsibilist epistemology and the concept of “role oughts,” as discussed by Lorraine Code and Richard Feldman, can pacify Stanford’s critics and reveal broader relevance of the “new induction.” The possibility (...)
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  21. Intuitive Non-Naturalism Meets Cosmic Coincidence.Matthew S. Bedke - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (2):188-209.
    Having no recourse to ways of knowing about the natural world, ethical non-naturalists are in need of an epistemology that might apply to a normative breed of facts or properties, and intuitionism seems well suited to fill that bill. Here I argue that the metaphysical inspiration for ethical intuitionism undermines that very epistemology, for this pair of views generates what I call the defeater from cosmic coincidence. Unfortunately, we face not a happy union, but a difficult choice: either ethical intuitionism (...)
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  22. A Dilemma for Non-Naturalists: Irrationality or Immorality?Matthew S. Bedke - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (4):1027-1042.
    Either 1. the non-naturalist is in a state of mind that would treat as relevant information about the existence and patterns of non-natural properties and facts as they make up their mind about normative matters, or 2. the non-naturalist is in a state of mind that would treat as irrelevant information about the existence and patterns of non-natural properties and facts as they make up their mind about normative matters. The first state of mind is morally objectionable, for one should (...)
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  23. Against Normative Naturalism.Matthew S. Bedke - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (1):111 - 129.
    This paper considers normative naturalism, understood as the view that (i) normative sentences are descriptive of the way things are, and (ii) their truth/falsity does not require ontology beyond the ontology of the natural world. Assuming (i) for the sake of argument, I here show that (ii) is false not only as applied to ethics, but more generally as applied to practical and epistemic normativity across the board. The argument is a descendant of Moore's Open Question Argument and Hume's Is-Ought (...)
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  24. Might All Normativity Be Queer?Matthew S. Bedke - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):41-58.
    Here I discuss the conceptual structure and core semantic commitments of reason-involving thought and discourse needed to underwrite the claim that ethical normativity is not uniquely queer. This deflates a primary source of ethical scepticism and it vindicates so-called partner in crime arguments. When it comes to queerness objections, all reason-implicating normative claims?including those concerning Humean reasons to pursue one's ends, and epistemic reasons to form true beliefs?stand or fall together.
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  25. No Coincidence?Matthew S. Bedke - 2014 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 9:102-125.
    This paper critically examines coincidence arguments and evolutionary debunking arguments against non-naturalist realism in metaethics. It advances a version of these arguments that goes roughly like this: Given a non-naturalist, realist metaethic, it would be cosmically coincidental if our first order normative beliefs were true. This coincidence undermines any prima facie justification enjoyed by those beliefs.
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  26. The Iffiest Oughts: A Guise of Reasons Account of End‐Given Conditionals.Matthew S. Bedke - 2009 - Ethics 119 (4):672-698.
    It often seems that what one ought to do depends on what contingent ends one has adopted and the means to pursuing them. Imagine, for example, that you are applying for jobs, and a particularly attractive one comes your way. It offers excellent colleagues in a desirable location, the pay is good, and acquiring a job like this is one of your ends. If practicing your job talk is a means to getting the job, the following seems true: (1) If (...)
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  27.  91
    Naturalism and normative cognition.Matthew S. Bedke - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (1):147-167.
    Normative cognition seems rather important, even ineliminable. Communities that lack normative concepts like SHOULD, IS A REASON TO, JUSTIFIES, etc. seem cognitively handicapped and communicatively muzzled. And yet a popular metaethic, normative naturalism, has a hard time accommodating this felt ineliminability. Here, I press the argument against normative naturalism, consider some replies on behalf of normative naturalists, and suggest that a version of sophisticated subjectivism does the best job preserving the importance and ineliminability of the special, normative way of thinking.
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  28. Ethical Intuitions: What They Are, What They Are Not, and How They Justify.Matthew S. Bedke - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):253-270.
    There are ways that ethical intuitions might be, and the various possibilities have epistemic ramifications. This paper criticizes some extant accounts of what ethical intuitions are and how they justify, and it offers an alternative account. Roughly, an ethical intuition that p is a kind of seeming state constituted by a consideration whether p, attended by positive phenomenological qualities that count as evidence for p, and so a reason to believe that p. They are distinguished from other kinds of seemings, (...)
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  29. Intuitional Epistemology in Ethics.Matthew S. Bedke - 1069-1083 - Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1069-1083.
    Here I examine the major theories of ethical intuitions, focusing on the epistemic status of this class of intuitions. We cover self-evidence theory, seeming-state theory, and some of the recent contributions from experimental philosophy.
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  30.  16
    Ethical Advocacy Across the Autism Spectrum: Beyond Partial Representation.Matthew S. McCoy, Emily Y. Liu, Amy S. F. Lutz & Dominic Sisti - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (4):13-24.
    Recent debates within the autism advocacy community have raised difficult questions about who can credibly act as a representative of a particular population and what responsibilities that...
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  31. Rationalist Restrictions and External Reasons.Matthew S. Bedke - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (1):39 - 57.
    Historically, the most persuasive argument against external reasons proceeds through a rationalist restriction: For all agents A, and all actions Φ, there is a reason for A to Φ only if Φing is rationally accessible from A's actual motivational states. Here I distinguish conceptions of rationality, show which one the internalist must rely on to argue against external reasons, and argue that a rationalist restriction that features that conception of rationality is extremely implausible. Other conceptions of rationality can render the (...)
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  32. Practical Reasons, Practical Rationality, Practical Wisdom.Matthew S. Bedke - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (1):85-111.
    There are a number of proposals as to exactly how reasons, ends and rationality are related. It is often thought that practical reasons can be analyzed in terms of practical rationality, which, in turn, has something to do with the pursuit of ends. I want to argue against the conceptual priority of rationality and the pursuit of ends, and in favor of the conceptual priority of reasons. This case comes in two parts. I first argue for a new conception of (...)
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  33.  81
    Intuitions, Meaning, and Normativity: Why Intuition Theory Supports a Non‐Descriptivist Metaethic.Matthew S. Bedke - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (1):144-177.
    Non-descriptivists in metaethics should say more about intuitions. For one popular theory has it that case-based intuitions are in the business of correctly categorizing or classifying merely by bringing to bear a semantic or conceptual competence. If so, then the fact that all normative predicates have case-based intuitions involving them shows that they too are in the business of categorizing or classifying things. This favors a descriptivist position in metaethics—normative predicates have descriptive content—and disfavors a purely non-descriptivist position, like pure (...)
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  34. Developmental Process Reliabilism: On Justification, Defeat, and Evidence.Matthew S. Bedke - 2010 - Erkenntnis 73 (1):1 - 17.
    Here I present and defend an etiological theory of objective, doxastic justification, and related theories of defeat and evidence. The theory is intended to solve a problem for reliabilist epistemologies— the problem of identifying relevant environments for assessing a process's reliability. It is also intended to go some way to accommodating, neutralizing, or explaining away many internalist-friendly elements in our epistemic thinking.
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  35.  23
    Formulating an Anarchist Sociology: Peter Kropotkin’s Reading of Herbert Spencer.Matthew S. Adams - 2016 - Journal of the History of Ideas 77 (1):49-73.
  36.  38
    Deleuze’s Difference.Matthew S. Linck - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (4):509 – 532.
    This article delineates the core concerns and motivations of the ontological work of Gilles Deleuze, and is intended as a programmatic statement for a general philosophical audience. The article consists of two main parts. In the first, two early writings by Deleuze are analysed in order to clarify his understanding of ontology broadly, and to specify the precise aim of his understanding of being in terms of difference. The second part of the article looks at the work of Heidegger and (...)
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  37. Phenomenal Abilities: Incompatibilism and the Experience of Agency.Oisín Deery, Matthew S. Bedke & Shaun Nichols - 2013 - In David Shoemaker (ed.), Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility. Oxford University Press. pp. 126–50.
    Incompatibilists often claim that we experience our agency as incompatible with determinism, while compatibilists challenge this claim. We report a series of experiments that focus on whether the experience of having an ability to do otherwise is taken to be at odds with determinism. We found that participants in our studies described their experience as incompatibilist whether the decision was (i) present-focused or retrospective, (ii) imagined or actual, (iii) morally salient or morally neutral. The only case in which participants did (...)
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  38.  14
    The Implications of Genetic and Other Biological Explanations for Thinking About Mental Disorders.Matthew S. Lebowitz - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (S1):S82-S87.
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  39.  35
    Preserving Employee Dignity During the Termination Interview: An Empirical Examination.Matthew S. Wood & Steven J. Karau - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (4):519-534.
    Despite the ongoing need for managers to fire employees and the wide prevalence of downsizing and layoffs, little research has examined how the conduct of termination interviews affects employee reactions. The current research was designed to explore reactions to several commonly used termination interview practices. Two scenario-based experiments examined the effectiveness of having a third party (an HR manager or a security guard) present, mentioning the employee's positive characteristics and contributions, and using alone, discrete escort, or public escort modes of (...)
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  40. The Ought‐Is Gap: Trouble For Hybrid Semantics.Matthew S. Bedke - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):657-670.
    When it comes to the meanings of normative expressions, descriptivist theories and expressivist theories have distinct explanatory virtues. Noting this, and with the hope of not compromising on explanatory resources, hybrid semantic theories refuse to choose. Here, I examine how well the strategy works for Moorean open questions and associated is‐ought gaps. Though hybrid theorists typically rely on their expressivist resources for this explanandum, there is a type of open question that unadulterated expressivist theories can handle but hybrid theories cannot (...)
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  41.  31
    An Evaluation of Early and Late Stage Attentional Processing of Positive and Negative Information in Dysphoria.Matthew S. Shane & Jordan B. Peterson - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):789-815.
  42.  32
    Eye Movements During Reading: Some Current Controversies.Matthew S. Starr & Keith Rayner - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (4):156-163.
  43.  6
    A Little Bit of History Repeating: Splitting Up Multiple-Target Visual Searches Decreases Second-Target Miss Errors.Matthew S. Cain, Adam T. Biggs, Elise F. Darling & Stephen R. Mitroff - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 20 (2):112-125.
  44.  31
    National Standards for Public Involvement in Research: Missing the Forest for the Trees.Matthew S. McCoy, Karin Rolanda Jongsma, Phoebe Friesen, Michael Dunn, Carolyn Plunkett Neuhaus, Leah Rand & Mark Sheehan - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):801-804.
    Biomedical research funding bodies across Europe and North America increasingly encourage—and, in some cases, require—investigators to involve members of the public in funded research. Yet there remains a striking lack of clarity about what ‘good’ or ‘successful’ public involvement looks like. In an effort to provide guidance to investigators and research organisations, representatives of several key research funding bodies in the UK recently came together to develop the National Standards for Public Involvement in Research. The Standards have critical implications for (...)
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  45.  8
    Patient and Public Involvement: Two Sides of the Same Coin or Different Coins Altogether?Matthew S. McCoy, Jonathan Warsh, Leah Rand, Michael Parker & Mark Sheehan - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):708-715.
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  46.  9
    Neuropsychological Mechanisms of Interval Timing Behavior.Matthew S. Matell & Warren H. Meck - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (1):94-103.
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  47.  20
    Bridging the Human Rights—Sovereignty Divide: Theoretical Foundations of a Democratic Sovereignty. [REVIEW]Matthew S. Weinert - 2007 - Human Rights Review 8 (2):5-32.
    Human rights and sovereignty are generally construed as disputatious, if not entirely incompatible; the liability of the former constrains the license of the latter. This article challenges the certitude of that notion and argues that democratic, isocratic, and humanistic elements, or what may be thought of as precursors of human rights, are actually embedded in early theories of sovereignty, including what I call Bodin’s hierarchical, Althusius’ confederative, Hobbes’ singular, and Hegel’s progressive/constitutional sovereignty. Despite the differences in governmental structure to which (...)
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  48.  2
    Open Data: Accountability and Transparency.Matthew S. Mayernik - 2017 - Big Data and Society 4 (2).
    The movements by national governments, funding agencies, universities, and research communities toward “open data” face many difficult challenges. In high-level visions of open data, researchers’ data and metadata practices are expected to be robust and structured. The integration of the internet into scientific institutions amplifies these expectations. When examined critically, however, the data and metadata practices of scholarly researchers often appear incomplete or deficient. The concepts of “accountability” and “transparency” provide insight in understanding these perceived gaps. Researchers’ primary accountabilities are (...)
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  49.  34
    Justice in Sophocles' Antigone.Matthew S. Santirocco - 1980 - Philosophy and Literature 4 (2):180-198.
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  50.  9
    Matthew’s Anti-Paulinism: A Neglected Feature of Matthean Studies.David C. Sim - 2002 - Hts Theological Studies 58 (2).
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