It is shown that in a linearly ordered MV-algebra A , the implication is unique if and only if the identity function is the unique De Morgan automorphism on A . Modulo categorical equivalence, our uniqueness criterion recalls Ohkuma's rigidness condition for totally ordered abelian groups. We also show that, if A is an Archimedean totally ordered MV-algebra, then each non-trivial De Morgan automorphism of the underlying involutive lattice of A yields a new implication on A , which is not (...) isomorphic to the original implication. (shrink)
Resumen En esta discusión expongo algunas objeciones a las siguientes tesis de Velázquez 2020: 1) que tanto Descartes como Frege sostienen que las entidades aritméticas son irreductibles a procesos empíricos; 2) que, en el caso de Descartes, dichas entidades son “perennes, inherentes a la propia constitución y funcionamiento de la mente” y 3) que Frege impugnó la filosofía matemática de Mill por psicologista. Sostengo que la segunda tesis no es, per se, controversial, pero que sí lo es en el contexto (...) del artículo de Velázquez.In this discussion I present objections to the following theses in Velázquez 2020: 1) that both Descartes and Frege maintain that arithmetic entities are irreducible to empirical processes; 2) that, in the case of Descartes, these entities are “perennial, inherent to the very constitution and functioning of the mind”, and 3) that Frege contested Mill’s mathematical philosophy for being psychologistic. I argue that the second thesis is not, per se, controversial, but that it is controversial in the context of Velázquez’s article. (shrink)
Este texto es el resultado de un ejercicio crítico de lectura, de mi lectura de Derrida como lector de Freud. A partir del análisis que hace Derrida en su ensayo "Freud y la escena de la escritura", discuto la necesidad de radicalizar algunas de las consecuencias que se siguen de la analogía que Freud establece entre el aparato psíquico y cierta máquina de escritura. Uno de los fenómenos que se desprenden de pensar la psique como un texto es que el (...) sujeto habita incesantemente en la tensión de un entre: entre la herencia y lo porvenir. Este entre devela una temporalidad sui géneris donde los tiempos pasado, presente y futuro se mezclan y se funden. This essay is the result of a critical reading exercise, of my reading of Derrida as a reader of Freud. From Derrida's analysis in his text "Freud and the Scene of Writing", I argue the necessity of radicalizing some consequences that emerge from the analogy established by Freud between the psychic apparatus, and a certain writing machine. One of the phenomena that thinking the psyche as a text points to is that the subject relentlessly dwells in the tension of a between: between the inherited and what is to come. This between unveils a sui generis temporality where past, present and future mingle and fuse. (shrink)
RESUMEN Partiendo de algunas experiencias del presente, se retoma la interpretación nietzs cheana del resentimiento para explorar la complejidad y ambivalencia del fenómeno e iluminar cuestiones actuales. Así, se vinculan dos tendencias y sus implicaciones: cómo el resentimiento genera la fijación de una identidad amenazadora que lleva a la estigmatización de un otro, a la vez como una forma de rechazo de la contingencia histórica; y cómo el vínculo del resentimiento con la temporalidad, en particular con un tipo de memoria, (...) produce una incapacidad para asumirla creadoramente. Esta reflexión deja abiertas preguntas sobre cómo los cuerpos afectados por el resen timiento pueden revertirlo y dar lugar a formas más vitales de relación con el mundo. ABSTRACT On the basis of selected experiences from the present, the article revisits the Nietzschean interpretation of resentment in order to explore the complexity and ambivalence of the phenomenon and shed light on current issues. To that effect, it connects two tendencies and their implications: the manner in which resentment generates the fixation of a threatening identity that leads to the stigmatization of an other, which, at the same time, involves a rejection of historical contingency; and the manner in which the link between resentment and temporality, in particular with a type of memory, produces an incapacity to assume it creatively. This reflec tion leaves questions open regarding how bodies affected by resentment can twist it around and give rise to more vital forms of relating to the world. (shrink)
An important historical relation that has hardly been addressed is the influence of Prosper Lucas's Treatise on Natural Inheritance on the development of Charles Darwin's concepts related to inheritance. In this article we trace this historical connection. Darwin read Lucas's Treatise in 1856. His reading coincided with many changes concerning his prior ideas on the transmission and expression of characters. We consider that this reading led him to propose a group of principles regarding prepotency, hereditary diseases, morbid tendencies and atavism; (...) following Lucas, he called these principles: laws of inheritance. (shrink)
This trenchant study analyzes the rise and decline in the quality and format of science in America since World War II. Science-Mart attributes this decline to a powerful neoliberal ideology in the 1980s which saw the fruits of scientific investigation as commodities that could be monetized, rather than as a public good.
Paunang Salita Ang kasalukuyang aklat ay produkto ng masigasig na pagsusumikap ng mga mag-aaral ng BA Kasaysayan sa Politeknikong Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Sta. Mesa sa ilalim ng klase na Historiograpiya ni Dr. Zeus A. Salazar. Tinatangka nitong maitala para sa salinlahi ang mga kaganapan sa kanilang suplemental na klase tuwing Martes sa Bahay Escaler, ang tahanan ng kanilang Guro. -/- Magkagayumpaman, hindi ito talaga maitatangi sa mahabang kasaysayan ng pagtuturo ni Salazar. Ang pagkakatitikan/pagpapakatitikan higit sa lahat ay isa nang signature (...) style sa pagtuturo ni Salazar mula pa noong dekada 1970. Mababanggit din ang kinagawian niyang pagdaragdag ng oras labas sa opisyal na oras ng klase upang magpalalim ng mga paksang inaral sa loob nito, kung hindi man sa mga kapihang matatagpuan sa kaligiran ng U.P. Campus kung saan siya nagturo nang may 40 taon, at sa Bahay Gomburza mismo, ang dating tahanan ni Salazar. (shrink)
This edition is designed to open the enchanting book to all readers of modern Spanish. Raymond Willis has regularized and brought the medieval text as close as possible, without falsification, to modern canons. The text is printed integrally, without annotation. Mr. Willis' English paraphrase, printed on facing pages, is written in syntactical constructions that exactly parallel the Spanish verses, and thus functions as both a glossary and a key to puzzling constructions. Originally published in 1972. The Princeton Legacy Library uses (...) the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905. (shrink)
There is a growing trend across North America of women being criminalized for their pregnancy outcomes. Rather than being a series of aberrations resulting from institutional failures, we argue that this trend is part of a colonial strategy of administrative violence aimed at women of color and Native women across Turtle Island. We consider a range of medical and legal practices constituting gender-based administrative violence, and we argue that they are the result of non-accidental and systematic production of population-level harms (...) that cannot be disentangled from the goals of ongoing settler occupation and dispossession of Indigenous lands. While white feminist narratives of gender-based administrative violence in Latin America function to distance the places where such violence occurs from the ‘liberal democratic’ settler nation-states of the U.S. and Canada, we hold that administrative forms of reproductive violence against Latin American women are structurally connected to efforts in the U.S. and Canada to criminalize women of color and Indigenous women for their reproductive outcomes. The purpose of these systemically produced harms is to sustain cultures of gender-based violence in support of settler colonial configurations of power. (shrink)
A internet revolucionou o mundo da informação e da comunicação ao fornecer matéria-prima para o conhecimento e o acesso a novos vínculos cognitivos. Com isso, configura-se um contexto próprio para a renovação do rol de compromissos educacionais. A partir dessa percepção, este ensaio aborda desafios que ganharam relevância, como é caso do apreço à autoria; da paciência para aprender e do cuidado com a disciplina intelectual; do zelo na escolha; do convívio amigável com as incertezas; e da ousadia na construção (...) de projetos. Vive-se uma oportunidade convidativa à liberação da imaginação em busca de utopias com vistas à reconstrução das práticas educativas. (shrink)
This study examines Wal-Mart representatives' presentation to the community on their site plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Given the ongoing controversy and criticisms from local residents, it is interesting to see Wal-Mart's strategies in attenuating these risks and negative impacts. The discursive practices found here are: formulating prior citizen complaints by a neutral-sounding, legalistic language which works euphemistically or as a gloss. Citizen concerns are fitted into a problem-solution format where the solutions involve engineering technology. The Wal-Mart representatives display (...) their expertise through describing these technological answers. Scientific documents or tests are presented which point to counter-intuitive results. They draw on a discourse of `facts' and `information', but use these to make arguments in support of their proposals. In addition to displaying scientific-technological expertise, they avow openness to dialogue and willingness to work with the town. The Wal-Mart representatives present themselves as both technical experts and trustworthy partners, but they also may be seen as rhetor in using facts, findings, and documents to make an argument for their project. (shrink)
Este artículo nace de la necesidad de vertebrar un discurso alrededor de la función narrativa que nos permite tratar con nuestra vivencia del paso del tiempo cronológico desde su refiguración en un tiempo propio, al que dotamos de sentido. Para articular esta refiguración recurrimos a nuestra identidad narrativa, sea como sujetos o como miembros de colectividades determinadas culturalmente. Paul Ricoeur construye este corolario aporético de Tiempo y narración conjugando el fracaso de la razón especulativa cuando trata con la experiencia temporal (...) y la llaneza con la que cotidianamente empleamos recursos narrativos para tratar con ella. A partir de este corolario hermenéutico reconstruimos el postulado, difusamente incorporado por la politología de las décadas finales del siglo XX, e interpretamos el sentido de la corrosión de las identidades que ocupa a la sociología contemporánea. Lo hacemos convencidos de la rentabilidad teórica del análisis genealógico que vincula el postulado en cuestión con el corolario ricoeuriano. (shrink)
This paper explores the social, legal, and political issues Wal-Mart faces in each of the three North American countries and suggests reasons for the quite significant differences. It also issues a call to Business and Society scholars to add prescriptive work to the already large body of descriptive work that has been collected.
The case focuses on the decision by the Norwegian Ministry of Finance in 2006 to remove Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. from its investment portfolio because of theretailer's "serious and systematic" abuses of human and labor rights. Discussion of the decision-making process that led to the divestiture, and the impact that Wal-Mart has had on various realms – social, economic, industry, and the supply chain, among others – are included in the case.
Biological regulation is what allows an organism to handle the effects of a perturbation, modulating its own constitutive dynamics in response to particular changes in internal and external conditions. With the central focus of analysis on the case of minimal living systems, we argue that regulation consists in a specific form of second-order control, exerted over the core regime of production and maintenance of the components that actually put together the organism. The main argument is that regulation requires a distinctive (...) architecture of functional relationships, and specifically the action of a dedicated subsystem whose activity is dynamically decoupled from that of the constitutive regime. We distinguish between two major ways in which control mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of a biological organisation in response to internal and external perturbations: dynamic stability and regulation. Based on this distinction an explicit definition and a set of organisational requirements for regulation are provided, and thoroughly illustrated through the examples of bacterial chemotaxis and the lac-operon. The analysis enables us to mark out the differences between regulation and closely related concepts such as feedback, robustness and homeostasis. (shrink)
Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (e.g., (...) Lewicki, Hill & Bizot, 1988; Stadler, 1989), or by following the output of a probabilistic set of rules such as instantiated by noisy finite-state grammars (Cleeremans & McClelland, 1991; Jiménez, Mendéz & Cleeremans, 1996). Next, we focus on the processes involved in sequence representation and acquisition. We suggest that the sensitivity to the sequential structure observed in the probabilistic subparadigm can only be a result of the acquisition of a representation of the statistical constraints of the material, and that this sensitivity emerges through the operation of mechanisms that are well instantiated by connectionist models such as the Simple Recurrent Network (Elman, 1990; Cleeremans, 1993b). We present new simulation work meant to explore to what extent the model can also account for specific data obtained in a paradigmatic instance of deterministic, rule-based sequence learning task: Lewicki et al. (1988)'s situation. Finally, we report on the results of an experiment that compares learning on otherwise similar deterministic and probabilistic structures, and we show that learning of both types of structures is equivalent only under conditions that maximally hinder explicit acquisition. Taken together, these simulation and experimental data lend support to the claim that implicit learning in all three sequence learning subparadigms can amount to a form of statistical sequence learning. They also suggest that distinguishing among several theories of sequence representation and acquisition may require us to analize the data in great detail. Hopefully, however, some truth can be found in such details.. (shrink)